On-the-set worker behavior. DP Lazlo Kovacs, ASC, animates longstanding, conventionalized “actor-networks” to achieve collective effects (photo © J. Caldwell)

Worker technical icons. Telenium: Big, Fat, Nasty Post House (photo of promo poster © J. Caldwell)

Trade show technical demos (photo © J. Caldwell)

HD speed-dating for industry professionals (photo © J. Caldwell)

Worker shoot-outs and bake-offs (photo © J. Caldwell)

Syndication markets (photo © J. Caldwell)

Behind-the-scenes programming: Gay Hollywood(photos of video frames © J. Caldwell)

“Table-read” and Q&A. Arrested Development’s writers’ room as semi-public theater (photo © J. Caldwell)

Provider model of creative causation

Demand model of creative causation

Interactive model of knowledge growth


We would like to thank all of the contributors for their innovative work and generous commitment to this book. Collaborating with every one of them was a privilege and we are sincerely grateful for all of the effort, energy, and ideas they each brought to this project. Some have contributed even more than their essays. John Caldwell, Horace Newcomb, and Tom Schatz have been brilliant mentors to us over the years, and this book is largely a product of their inspiration and teachings. Particular appreciation goes to Tom for the unwavering support, expert guidance, and friendship that he has provided throughout our careers.

We are grateful to our colleagues in Film and Media Studies at UC-Santa Barbara and the Department of Communication at Georgia State for the encouragement and thoughtful discussions. We are also indebted to numerous graduate students and faculty at UT-Austin, the place where the seeds for this project were first planted.

This book would not have existed without the input of Jayne Fargnoli at Blackwell. We thank her for enthusiastically taking a chance on us and also for her limitless patience and sage counsel. Thanks also to Ken Provencher and Margot Morse for editorial assistance.

Danielle Williams and Shane Toepfer have proven to be invaluable as research assistants. Their attention to detail and willingness to put in the extra hours toward the end helped bring this project to the finish line. Thanks also to Caroline Frick, Jennie Phillips, and Rebecca Epstein for their input from the initial idea to the final drafts.

Finally, special thanks to our families as well as to both Greg Siegel and Cully Hamner for their heroic support throughout this process.

Jennifer Holt and Alisa Perren
March 2008

Notes on Contributors

About the Editors

Jennifer Holt is assistant professor of film and media studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her work has appeared in journals and anthologies including Film Quarterly, Quality Popular Television, and Media Ownership: Research and Regulation. She is currently working on Empires of Entertainment, a manuscript chronicling deregulation and structural transformation in the film and television industries.

Alisa Perren is assistant professor in the Department of Communication at Georgia State University. She is completing a manuscript tracing the evolution of Miramax during the 1990s as it transitioned from independent company to studio subsidiary. She has published articles on the development of niche markets in the New Hollywood as well as on the programming and distribution strategies of contemporary US television networks.

About the Contributors

John Thornton Caldwell is professor and chair of cinema and media studies in the Department of Film, Television, and Digital Media at UCLA. His books include Production Culture: Industrial Reflexivity and Critical Practice in Film and Television(2008); Televisuality: Style, Crisis, and Authority in American Television(1995); Electronic Media and Technoculture(editor, 2000); and New Media(co-editor, 2003). He has also published articles in Cinema Journal, Asian Film, Television & New Media, and Media, Culture & Society. Producer/ director of the award-winning films Rancho California (por favor)(2002) and Freak Street to Goa: Immigrants on the Rajpath(1989), and recipient of grants and awards from the National Endowment for the Arts, the AFI, and regional fellowships, his films and videos have been shown widely at festivals in Sundance, Berlin, Chicago, Los Angeles, Hawaii, Toulouse, and Mexico City, and broadcast on public television in the US and Australia.

Michael Curtin is director of global studies at the University of Wisconsin International Institute and professor of media and cultural studies in the Department of Communication Arts. His books include Redeeming the Wasteland: Television Documentary and Cold War Politics(1995); Playing to the World’s Biggest Audience: The Globalization of Chinese Film and TV(2007); Making and Selling Culture(co-editor, 1996); and The Revolution Wasn’t Televised: Sixties Television and Social Conflict(co-editor, 1997). He is currently working on Media Capital: The Cultural Geography of Globalization(Blackwell) and The American Television Industry(British Film Institute). He is co-editor of the International Screen Industries book series for the British Film Institute.

Mark Deuze holds a joint appointment at Indiana University’s Department of Telecommunications in Bloomington, US, and as professor of journalism and new media at Leiden University, the Netherlands. Publications comprise five books including Media Work(2007); guest-edited special issues of journals on convergence culture (Convergence 2008, International Journal of Cultural Studies2009); and articles in journals such as Information Society, New Media & Society, and Journalism Studies. Weblog: .

Caroline Frick serves as assistant professor in the School of Information and the Department of Radio-TV-Film at the University of Texas at Austin. In addition, she founded and acts as executive director of the Texas Archive of the Moving Image (www. She has worked in film preservation at Warner Bros, the Library of Congress, and the National Archives and Records Administration. She has also programmed films for the American Movie Classics cable channel in New York and currently serves as a director of the board for the Association of Moving Image Archivists. Her book, Saving Cinema, is forthcoming from Oxford University Press.

Nitin Govil teaches comparative media and cultural studies at the University of California, San Diego, where he is assistant professor in the Department of Communication. He is co-author of Global Hollywood(2001) and Global Hollywood 2(2005) and has also published on cultural politics and media technology, media history, globalization and the culture industries, and film piracy across local and global contexts. He is currently completing a co-authored book on the Indian film industries.

Joshua Green is a postdoctoral researcher in the comparative media studies program at MIT, where he is also research manager of the Convergence Culture Consortium. His research looks at changing understandings of what television “is,” the formation of the participatory audience, and television branding in the context of participatory culture. He has published work on participatory culture and the relationship between producers and consumers, television scheduling strategies, the history of Australian television, and the construction of the cultural public sphere. He is co-author (with Jean Burgess) of YouTube: Online Video and the Politics of Participatory Culture(2008). He holds a Ph.D. in media studies from the Queensland University of Technology.

John Hartley is Australian Research Council federation fellow and research director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation at Queensland University of Technology in Australia. He is a distinguished professor of QUT and adjunct professor of the Australian National University. He was foundation dean of the Creative Industries Faculty (QUT), and previously head of the School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University in Wales. He is author of 18 books, translated into a dozen languages, including Television Truths(2008); Creative Industries(2005); A Short History of Cultural Studies(2003); Communication, Cultural and Media Studies: The Key Concepts(2002); The Indigenous Public Sphere(with Alan McKee, 2000); American Cultural Studies(with Roberta Pearson, 2000); Uses of Television(1999); and Popular Reality(1996). He is editor of the International Journal of Cultural Studies.

David Hesmondhalgh is professor of media industries at the Institute of Communications Studies and co-director (with Justin O’Connor) of CuMIRC, the Cultural and Media Industries Research Centre at the University of Leeds. His publications include The Cultural Industries(2nd edn. 2007) and five edited volumes: The Media and Social Theory(with Jason Toynbee, 2008); Media Production(2006); Understanding Media: Inside Celebrity(with Jessica Evans, 2005); Popular Music Studies(with Keith Negus, 2002); and Western Music and its Others(with Georgina Born, 2000). He is currently writing up a two-year research project, “Creative Work in the Cultural Industries,” conducted with Sarah Baker and funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council.

Michele Hilmes is professor of media and cultural studies and director of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She is author or editor of several books on media history, including NBC: America’s Network(2007); Only Connect: A Cultural History of Broadcasting in the United States(2nd edn. 2006); The Television History Book(2003); and Radio Voices: American Broadcasting 1922 to 1952(1997).

Henry Jenkins is the co-director of the MIT comparative media studies program and the Peter de Florez professor of humanities. He is author and/or editor of 12 books on various aspects of media and popular culture, including Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide; Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture; The Wow Climax: Tracing the Emotional Impact of Popular Culture; Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture; Hop on Pop: The Politics and Pleasures of Popular Culture; and From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games. He writes regularly about media and cultural change at his blog:

Victoria E. Johnson is associate professor of film and media studies and visual studies at the University of California, Irvine, where she is also affiliated faculty in African American Studies. Her book, Heartland TV: Prime Time Television and the Struggle for US Identity(2008), examines the imagination of the American Midwest as symbolic heartland in critical moments in prime-time television and US social history. She has published several articles and chapters regarding the politics of place, race, and popular music in anthologies and journals including Film Quarterly and The Velvet Light Trap.

Douglas Kellner is George F. Kneller chair in the philosophy of education at UCLA and is author of many books on social theory, politics, history, and culture, including Camera Politica: The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood Film, co-authored with Michael Ryan; Critical Theory, Marxism, and Modernity; Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond; works in cultural studies such as Media Culture and Media Spectacle; a trilogy of books on postmodern theory with Steve Best; and a trilogy of books on the media and the Bush Administration, encompassing Grand Theft 2000, From 9/11 to Terror War, and Media Spectacle and the Crisis of Democracy. His latest book is Guys and Guns Amok: Domestic Terrorism and School Shootings from the Oklahoma City Bombings to the Virginia Tech Massacre. Website: .

Jordan Levin is co-founder and CEO of Generate, a next-generation studio launched in early 2006 creating targeted content for multi-platform distribution across both traditional and digital media. Formerly CEO of The WB, he was part of the founding executive team responsible for defining series that established the network’s distinctly youthful brand such as Dawson’s Creek, Gilmore Girls, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Felicity, Smallville, and Everwood, for which he also directed an episode. In addition to The WB, he oversaw Kid’s WB! and established The WB’s original movie division by launching the American Girl film franchise. Prior to The WB, he was a member of the creative group that revitalized the Disney brand in network television with properties like Home Improvement, Ellen, and Boy Meets World. He has lent his expertise as a consultant to leading digital companies and currently sits on numerous boards including nonprofit organizations, academic institutions, political advocacy groups, and media companies.

P. David Marshall currently holds a chair in new media and cultural studies at the University of Wollongong. He has also been professor and chair of communication studies at Northeastern University. His books include New Media Cultures(2004); Web Theory(with Robert Burnett, 2003); The Celebrity Culture Reader(2006); Fame Games(with Graeme Turner and Frances Bonner, 2000); and Celebrity and Power(1997). He has published many articles and been regularly interviewed by the media and press on new media, media and popular culture, and the public persona. His current research focuses on the shift from a “representational” media regime to a presentational media regime via new media forms.

John McMurria is currently assistant professor in the Department of Communication at the University of California, San Diego. In addition to his published articles in book anthologies and journals, he is coauthor, with Toby Miller, Nitin Govil, Richard Maxwell, and Ting Wang, of Global Hollywood 2(2005). He is working on a critical cultural policy history of cable television in the US.

Cynthia Meyers is assistant professor of communication at College of Mount Saint Vincent in New York City. Her research areas include the advertising industry, broadcast history, media economics, and new media. She is currently completing a book manuscript about the role of the advertising industry in the development of radio from the 1920s through the 1940s. Her publications include articles in Quarterly Review of Film and Video, the Encyclopedia of Television, and Columbia Journal of American Studies.

Toby Miller is author, co-author, or editor of The Well-Tempered Self: Citizenship, Culture, and the Postmodern Subject(1993); Contemporary Australian Television(1994); The Avengers(1998); Technologies of Truth: Cultural Citizenship and the Popular Media(1998); Popular Culture and Everyday Life(1998); SportCult(1999); A Companion to Film Theory(1999); Film and Theory: An Anthology(2000); Globalization and Sport: Playing the World(2001); Sportsex(2001); Global Hollywood(2001); Cultural Policy(2002); Television Studies(2002); Critical Cultural Policy Studies: A Reader(2003); Television Studies: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies(2003); Spyscreen: Espionage on Film and TV from the 1930s to the 1960s(2003); Política Cultural(2004); Global Hollywood 2(2005); El Nuevo Hollywood: Del Imperialismo Cultural a las Leyes del Marketing(2005); A Companion to Cultural Studies(2006); and Cultural Citizenship: Cosmopolitanism, Consumerism, and Television in a Neoliberal Age(2007). He is editor of Television & New Media and co-editor of Social Identities.

Philip M. Napoli is the director of the Donald McGannon Communication Research Center at Fordham University. He teaches and conducts research in the areas of media institutions and media policy. His books include Audience Economics: Media Institutions and the Audience Marketplace(2003) and Foundations of Communications Policy: Principles and Process in the Regulation of Electronic Media(2001). He has testified before Congress and the Federal Communications Commission on media policy issues, and his work has been supported by organizations such as the Ford Foundation, the Social Science Research Council, the Benton Foundation, and the Center for American Progress.

Horace Newcomb holds the Lambdin Kay chair for the Peabodys and is director of the George Foster Peabody Awards in the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Georgia. He is editor of two editions of the Museum of Broadcast Communications Encyclopedia of Television and seven editions of Television: The Critical View. He is author of TV: The Most Popular Art and coauthor of The Producer’s Medium. He writes and lectures on topics related to television and culture.

Thomas Schatz is professor and Mary Gibbs Jones centennial chair of communication at the University of Texas, where he has been on the faculty in the Radio-Television-Film Department since 1976. He has written four books about Hollywood films, including Hollywood Genres; The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era; and Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. He also edited a recent four-volume collection on Hollywood for Routledge. His writing on film also has appeared in numerous magazines, newspapers, and academic journals, including the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, Premiere, The Nation, Film Comment, Film Quarterly, and Cineaste. He is currently working on a book project with Thom Mount, former president of Universal Pictures, and serving as executive director of the UT Film Institute, a program devoted to training students in narrative and digital filmmaking, and the production of independent feature-length films.

Cristina Venegas is assistant professor in film and media studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The focus of her research is on international media with an emphasis on Latin America, Spanish-language film and television in the US, and digital technologies. She has written about film and political culture, revolutionary imagination in the Americas, telenovelas, contemporary Latin American cinema, and regionalism. Her book, Digital Dilemma, about Cuban digital media since the 1990s, is forthcoming from Rutgers University Press. She has curated numerous film programs on Latin American and indigenous film in the US and Canada, and is co-founder and artistic director of the Latino CineMedia Film Festival in Santa Barbara.