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Contents

Rutter’s Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Companion CD-ROM

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Preface to the Fifth Edition

In most respects, this Fifth Edition follows the tradition laid down by previous editions. However, it is different in several key respects. Most obviously, there has been a major increase in the number of editors. We wished to make the editorial team both international and interdisciplinary because the authorship has been both for quite some time. Most especially, we wanted to expand the range of expertise covered by the editors in order that we could have rigorous detailed peer review of all chapters. In this edition, each and every chapter (including those by editors) has had detailed critique from at least three (usually four or five) editors. As a result, all chapters have been revised to deal with editorial criticisms and suggestions. This means that chapters in this volume were peer reviewed with the same detailed rigor as would be the case for any high-standard scientific journal.

Throughout the various editions of the book, there has been a committed attempt to integrate scientific and clinical perspectives. In this edition, however, we have made a number of substantial changes in order to do this in a much more thorough fashion. The first section of the book, comprising 18 chapters, deals with conceptual approaches. The purpose of these chapters was not to provide an encyclopedic summary of what is known on different areas of science or different methods of interventions but rather to convey a lively picture of the concepts, principles and approaches in each case and to indicate why each was important and relevant for clinical practice. Some of the topics were covered in previous editions but several are new to this edition. Thus, there are chapters on how epidemiological/longitudinal methods may be used both to study causal hypotheses and to plan services. There is a chapter on what clinicians need to know about statistical methods and issues, another chapter deals with the field of health economics and another on what can be learned from structural and functional imaging. Other chapters include development and psychopathology, temperament and personality, basic psychopharmacology, psychological treatments, clinical neu-rophysiology and brain development. The opening chapter in this conceptual section deals with developments in child and adolescent psychiatry over the last 50 years. Previous editions have included chapters on history but this time we thought it appropriate to try to bring things up-to-date. Inevitably, in dealing with very recent history, we are having to discuss developments that are too new to have stood the test of time but we have sought to highlight what seemed to us some of the important landmarks. As before, there are chapters on classification and diagnosis, children’s testimony and legal issues in the care and treatment of children with mental health problems and on culture, ethnicity and psychopathology. With respect to classification, there is a new chapter dealing with the concept of neurodevelopmental disorders that has come into increased prominence in recent times.

There is a short section with four chapters on clinical assessment in which the new approach has been focusing on the particular way in which structured techniques (with respect to interviews, questionnaires and psychometrics) can be applied in the clinical context. As before, there is a chapter on physical examination and medical investigations.

The next section of 11 chapters concerns influences on psychopathology. Most of these have parallels in previous editions but, this time, more attention has been paid to providing an understanding of the ways in which the possible influences might work and on testing for mediating effects. The section also includes a new chapter on psychopathology in refugee and asylum seeking children, as this is a group that has come to increasing attention in recent years.

The aim of all the chapters up to now has been an understanding of mechanisms rather than a detailing of effects in individual disorders, because we thought these were better covered in the separate chapters on clinical syndromes. However, in order to ensure that the chapters on specific disorders did, indeed, provide an up-to-date account of relevant findings, all authors were asked to pay particular attention to evidence on genetic influences, on imaging findings, on developmental features and on treatment methods–because for all of these there have been major advances since the last edition. The coverage of different clinical syndromes is fairly similar to that in previous editions, although it will be obvious that the information provided has moved on in important ways, but there is a new chapter on psychopathy (because its application to childhood seems to be of increasing interest) and on behavioral problems in infancy and in preschool children.

The final section of the book deals with a range of different approaches to treatment. In some respects, there were parallel, comparable chapters in previous editions but there are several innovations. Thus, community-wide and targeted interventions now have separate chapters and more attention is paid to some of the principles in these types of prevention. The chapter on physical and pharmacological treatments is complementary to that on basic psychopharmacology in that it looks at the ways in which clinicians need to think about the use of medication. There is also a new chapter on the organization of mental health services–again, focusing on the principles rather than on the details which vary so greatly across countries.

As with previous volumes, we have made quite a few changes in authorship both to bring in new blood and to include experts who have something special to offer. Well over half the chapters have a new main author and, if co-authors are also considered, the number of new authors is even greater. We are grateful to the good work provided by authors of previous editions but we also welcome the great strengths provided by the new team of authors. We feel ourselves fortunate in having succeeded in obtaining world leaders as the authors for most chapters.

Finally, Michael Rutter would like to express deep thanks to his fellow editors. The editorial team has been a pleasure to work with, has hugely helped with providing a distribution of workload but, even more importantly, has contributed ideas, fresh ways of thinking about things and a much greater breadth and depth of expertise.

The Editors

Acknowledgments

We are most appreciative of all the authors’ high level of expertise and effort and of their constructive responsiveness in dealing with the many editorial suggestions on new material that needed adding, topics that required strengthening, extension of the international coverage that was desirable, clarifications that would help readability and integration across chapters. We have indeed been most fortunate in having such a strong team of leaders of the field. We would also like to take this opportunity of expressing our immense gratitude to Professor Lionel Hersov who first had the idea for this textbook, and who was a tower of strength in preparing the first three editions before he decided to stand down from the fourth. We hope that he will be pleased to see what the book has grown into.

The production of this book has been very much a team effort and the book would not have been possible without the excellent team that we have had. Most of all, special thanks are due to Sandra Woodhouse who exercised overall administrative responsibility for the complex process of working with coordinating editors, in checking chapters prior to submission to the publishers, and in dealing with the copyediting and proofreading. She was adept at spotting when problems were arising and in sorting them out. The editorial team owes much to Jenny Wickham who had the main responsibility of dealing with Michael Rutter’s joint chapters and those for which he was coordinating editor. In this way, she played a key role in the overall cohesive and effective editorial team. We are also most indebted to Rob Blundell of Wiley-Blackwell who oversaw the book from start to finish and who stepped in to undertake detailed checking and rechecking of proofs when that process ran into temporary difficulties. Thanks are also due to John Forder who was an exceptionally astute and thorough proof reader and to Jonathan Burd for his professionalism in preparing the index.

Preface to the First Edition

These are exciting times for anyone working in the field of child psychiatry. A wider understanding of child development now throws a clearer light on deviations from the normal pattern; knowledge of the nature and causes of psychiatric disorders in childhood is steadily increasing; new and effective methods of treatment are evolving; and clinical and education services for children with mental disorders are growing in scope and sophistication. The first academic departments of child psychiatry in the UK are now established to meet the needs for teaching and research and to add to the existing body of knowledge. A serious concern to raise training standards in the specialty has led to recommendations on the range of content of training and a national exercise to visit and appraise all training schemes is under way.

For these reasons the time seemed ripe for a new and different textbook of child psychiatry. Our aim has been to provide an accurate and comprehensive account of the current state of knowledge through the integration of research approaches and findings with the understanding that comes from clinical experience and practice. Each chapter scrutinizes existing information and emphasizes areas of growth and fresh ideas on a particular topic in a rigorous and critical fashion, but also in practical vein to help clinicians meet the needs of individual children and their families.

In planning the book we had to decide how to choose authors of individual chapters. Obviously we wanted colleagues who had made important contributions in their fields of interest and who could write with authority and knowledge. We were fortunate in our choice and we are deeply indebted to all of them. We also decided that it would be appropriate to invite contributions from those who had worked at The Bethlem Royal and The Maudsley Hospital or its closely associated postgraduate medical school, The Institute of Psychiatry. Over the years “The Maudsley” has played a major role in training psychiatrists from all parts of the world and members of its staff have been among the leaders in both research and clinical practice. The fact that we have all worked at the same institution has produced some similarities: a firm acceptance of the value of interdisciplinary collaboration; an intense interest in new ideas and creative thinking; a commitment to the integration of academic and clinical approaches; a concern for empirical findings; and a belief in the benefits that follow from open discussion between people who hold differing views. As all of us work with children we have a common concern with developmental theories and with the process of development. However, as will also be apparent, we do not share any single theoretical viewpoint. A variety of theoretical approaches are represented in the chapters which also reflect a differing emphasis on biological, sociocultural, behavioural and psy-chodynamic aetiologies and formulations.

It is also fitting that this book should be based on The Joint Hospital as it has played such an important part in the development of child psychiatry. Children with psychiatric disorders were first seen at The Bethlehem Royal Hospital as long ago as 1800 and Henry Maudsley was unusual among the psychiatrists of his day in appreciating the importance of psychiatric disorders arising in childhood. In his Physiology and Pathology of Mind, published in 1867, he included a 34-page chapter on “Insanity of early life.” The Maudsley Hospital first opened its doors just over half a century ago, children have always been included among its patients and the Children’s Department became firmly established during those early years. Since then, and especially with the first British academic appointment in child psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry in the 1950s, it has trained many child psychiatrists who now practise in all parts of the globe.

The book is organized into five sections. The first eight chapters review different influences on psychological development in childhood and are followed by three that discuss the foremost developmental theories. A third section describes some of the crucial issues in clinical assessment and the fourth deals systematically with the various clinical syndromes and their treatment. The final section comprises six chapters that bring together knowledge on some of the main therapeutic approaches. We have sought to include most of the topics and issues that are central to modern child psychiatry, but there has been no attempt to cover all known syndromes and symptoms. Instead, the focus has been on concepts and methods with special emphasis on those areas where development of new ideas or knowledge has been greatest.

We hope that the book’s contents will be of interest and use to all those professionally concerned with the care, study and treatment of children with psychiatric disorders. We will be satisfied if, in the words of Sir Aubrey Lewis, it also helps the psychiatrist in training to acquire “reasoning and understanding” and fits him “to combine the scientific and humane temper in his studies as the psychiatrist needs to.”

M. Rutter

L. Hersov

Contributors

Annah N. Abrams MD

Instructor in Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; MGH Child Psychiatry Consultation Liaison Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Susan Bailey MB, ChB, FRCPsych

Professor of Child & Adolescent Forensic Mental Health, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK

Gillian Baird MB, Bchir, FRCPCH

Consultant Paediatrician and Honorary Professor in Paediatric Neurodisability, Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Torsten Baldeweg MD

Reader in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK

Sarah Kate Bearman PhD

Postdoctoral Fellow, Judge Baker Children’s Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Dorothy V. M. Bishop MA, DPhil, FBA, FMedSci

Professor of Developmental Neuropsychology, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

R. James Blair PhD

Chief Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Michael H. Bloch MD

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Stewart Boyd MD

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, UK

David Brent Md, MS Hyg

Academic Chief, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Professor of Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Maggie Bruck PhD

Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, John Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA

Jan K. Buitelaar MD, PhD

Professor of Psychiatry, and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; Head, Department of Psychiatry, UMC St Radboud, and Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Richard J. Butler BSc, MSc, PhD, C.Psychol

Consultant Clinical Psychologist & Senior Associate Lecturer, Department of Clinical Psychology (Child & Adolescent Mental Health Service), Leeds Primary Care NHS Trust, Leeds, UK

Gwen Carr

Deputy Director, Medical Research Council Hearing & Communication Group, University of Manchester; Formerly Deputy CEO, Director UK Services, National Deaf Children’s Society, UK

Avshalom Caspi PhD, F.Med.Sci, FBA

Professor of Personality Development, MRC, Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK and Duke University, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Durham, NC, USA

Stephen J. Ceci PhD

The Helen L. Carr Professor of Developmental Psychology, Department of Human Development, Cornell University, NY, USA

Tony Charman MA, MSc, PhD

Professor of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Behavioural & Brain Sciences Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK

Sonia Chehil MD, FRCPC

Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Nancy J. Cohen PhD, CPsych

Director of Research, Hincks-Dellcrest Center Institute; Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Adjunct Professor, Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto; Adjunct Professor, Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Canada

E. Jane Costello PhD

Professor of Medical Psychology, Center for Developmental Epidemiology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA

Ronald E. Dahl MD

Staunton Professor of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Daniel P. Dickstein MD

Section on Bipolar Spectrum Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Bethesda, MD, USA

Stewart L. Einfeld MD, DCH, FRANZCP, MRACMA

Professor, Brain and Mind Research Institute, and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Ivan Eisler MD, PhD, Cpsychol

Reader in Family Psychology and Family Therapy; Head of Section of Family Therapy, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Eric Emerson BSc MSc PhD

Professor of Disability & Health Research, Institute for Health Research, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK and Visiting Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Christopher G. Fairburn MD, FRCPsych, FMedSd

Wellcome Principal Research Fellow and Professor of Psychiatry, Oxford University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK

Peter Fonagy PhD,FBA

Freud Memorial Professor of Psychoanalysis, University College London; Chief Executive, The Anna Freud Centre, London, UK

Jane Fortin LLB

Professor of Law, Sussex Law School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK

Sarah Fortune PhD

Lecturer in Clinical Psychology, Academic Unit of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

Christopher Frith PhD, FRS

Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at University College London, London, UK

Uta rritn FmedSci, FBA, FRS

Emeritus Professor of Cognitive Development, UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Queen Square, London, UK

Frances Gardner MPhil, DPhil

Professor of Child and Family Psychology, Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, Department of Social Policy & Social Work, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Elena Garralda MD, MPhil, FRCPsych, FRCPCH DPM

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Academic Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Imperial College London, London, UK

Danya Glaser MB, DCH, FRCPsych, Hon FRCPCH

Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK

Simon G. Cowers BSc MBBS FRCPsych MPhil

Professor of Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Liverpool; Hon Consultant Psychiatrist, Cheshire & Merseyside Eating Disorders Service for Adolescents Academic Unit, Chester, UK

Jonathan Green MA, MBBS, FRCPsych, DCH

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Manchester; Hon. Consultant in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Manchester Children’s Hospital Trust, Manchester, UK

Paul GrmgraS MBChB MSc Developmental Paediatrics MRCPCH

Consultant in Paediatric Neurodisability and Honorary Senior Lecturer, Institute of Psychiatry, Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Christina J. Groark PhD

Associate Professor of Education and Co-Director of the University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Brenda Hale DBE, PC, MA (Cantab), LL.D (Hon), DUniv (Hon), FBA

The Rt Hon Baroness Hale of Richmond, House of Lords, London, UK

James Harris MD

Professor of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA

Allison G. Harvey PhD

Associate Professor of Clinical Science, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, USA

Jennifer F. Havens MD

Associate Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the New York University of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

Keith Hawton DSc, DM, FRCPsych

Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Centre for Suicide Research, University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK

Andrew C. Heath MD

Spencer T. Olin Professor of Psychiatry; Director, Missouri Alcoholism Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, USA

Jonathan Hill BA, MBBChir, MRCP, FRCPsych

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Manchester; Honorary Consultant in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals, Manchester, UK

Matthew Hodes BSc, MSc, PhD, FRCPsych

Senior Lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Academic Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK

Chris Hollis PhD MRCPsych

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Developmental Psychiatry Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

Jane Hood BSc, MSc, PGCE, C. Psychol

Consultant Paediatric Neuropsychologist and Educational Psychologist at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK

Patricia Howlin BA, MSc, PhD, FBPS

Professor of Clinical Child Psychology, Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Charles Hulme MA, DPhil, FBPsS

Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of York, York, UK

Jennifer Jenkins PhD

Professor, Human Development and Applied Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Shafali Jeste MD

Harvard Medical School, The Developmental Medicine Center, Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

David P. H. Jones FRCPsych, FRCPCH, DCH

Consultant Child Psychiatrist and Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Rachel G. Klein PhD

Fascitelli Family Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University Child Study Center, New York, NY, USA

J. Zoe Klemfuss BA

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Martin Knapp PhD

Professor of Social Policy and Director of the Personal Social Services Research Unit at the London School of Economics and Political Science; and Professor of Health Economics and Director of the Centre for the Economics of Mental Health at Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Tami Kramer MBBCh, MRCPsych

Senior Clinical Research Fellow and Consultant Child & Adolescent Psychiatrist, Academic Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Imperial College London, London, UK

Sarah Kulkofsky PhD

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Stanley Kutcher MD, FRCPC

Professor of Psychiatry and Sun Life Financial Chair in Adolescent Mental Health; Director, WHO/PAHO Collaborating Center in Mental Health Training and Policy Development, Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada

Judith Lask BA, MSc, ADFT, CQSW

Section of Family Therapy, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Ann Le Couteur BSc Psychology, MBBS, FRC Psych, FRCPCH

Professor of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Newcastle University, Sir James Spence Institute, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

James F. Leckman MD

Neison Harris Professor of Child Psychiatry, Pediatrics, and Psychology, Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, CT, USA

Ellen Leibenluft MD

Chief of the Section on Biopolar Spectrum Disorders, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Bethesda, MD, USA

John E. Lochman PhD

Professor and Saxon Chairholder of Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, The University of Alabama, AL, USA

Michael T. Lynskey MD, PhD

Assistant Professor of Psychiatry Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, USA

Barbara Maughan PhD

Professor of Developmental Epidemiology, MRC, Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Robert B. McCall PhD

Professor of Psychology and Co-Director of the University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Helen McConachie MA, MPhil, PhD

Professor of Child Clinical Psychology, Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Claude Ann Mellins PhD

Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology in Psychiatry and Sociomedical Sciences, Columbia University, NY and Research Scientist, HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, NY, USA

Helen Minnis MD, PhD, MRC Psych

Senior Lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Section of Psychological Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

Terrie E. Moffitt PhD, F.Med.Sd, FBA

Professor of Social Behaviour and Development, MRC Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK and Duke University, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Durham, NC, USA

Lynne Murray PhD

Research Professor in Developmental Psychopathology, School of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading, UK

Charles A. Nelson III PhD

Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Richard David Scott Chair in Pediatric Developmental Medicine Research, Children’s Hospital Boston, MA, USA

Anula Nikapota FRCPsych

Senior Tutor, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK and Emeritus Consultant in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK

Courtenay Frazier Norbury DPhil

RCUK Fellow in Cognitive Science, Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, London, UK

Dustin A. Pardini PhD

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Andrew Pickles PhD

Professor of Epidemiological and Social Statistics, Biostatistics Group, Epidemiology and Health Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

Daniel S. Pine MD

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Paul Ramchandani BM DPhil MRCPsych

Senior Research Fellow and Honorary Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Judith L. Rapoport MD

Chief, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Bethesda, MD, USA

Paula K. Rauch MD

Director, Child Psychiatry Consultation Service; Director, MGH Cancer Center Parenting Program, Massachusetts General Hospital; Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Alan Rushton BA, CQSW, PhD

Reader in Adoption Studies; Programme Leader, MSc in Mental Health Social Work, Section of Social Work and Social Care, Health Services Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK

Michael Rutter CBE, MD, FRCP, FRCPsych, FRS, FMedSci, FBA

Professor of Developmental Psychopathology, Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Seija Sandberg MD, FRCPsych

Consultant and Hon. Senior Lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, London, UK

Stephen Scott FRCP FRCPsych

Professor of Child Health and Behaviour, & Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Anna Seigal BA Hons

Research Assistant, Behavioural and Brain Sciences Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, UK

Michael C. Seto PhD

Law and Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto; Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Philip Shaw MD, PhD

Staff Psychiatrist, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Bethesda, MD, USA

Daniel S. Shaw PhD

Professor of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Rebecca Shiner PhD

Associate Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, USA

Emily Simonoff MD, FRCPsych

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

David H. Skuse MD, FRCP, FRCPsych, FRCPCH

Professor of Behavioural and Brain Sciences, Behavioural and Brain Sciences Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, UK

Patrick Smith PhD

Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Anna T. Smyke PhD

Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Tulane University School of Medicine, Institute of Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA

Margaret J. Snowling PhD, DipClinPsych, FBPsS

Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of York, York, UK

Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke PhD

Professor of Developmental Psychopathology, Developmental Brain and Behaviour Unit, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK and Child Study Center, New York University, New York, USA

Alan Stem MB, BCh, MA, FRCPsych

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Jim Stevenson BA, MSc, PhD, CPsychol, FBPsS

Professor of Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK

James M. Swanson PhD

Professor of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

Charlotte D. Sweeney MA

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Mary Target MSc, PhD

Reader in Psychoanalysis, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London; Professional Director, The Anna Freud Centre, London, UK

Erie laylor MA, MB, FRCP, FRCPsych, FMedSci

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Anita Thapar MBBCH, FRCPsych, PhD

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK

Richard E. Tremblay PhD, FRS Canada

Departments of Pediatrics, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Montreal, Montreal (Quebec), Canada

Jan van der Ende MsC

Research Psychologist, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC – Sophia Children’s Hospital Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Herman van Engeland MD, PhD

Professor and Director of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands

Frank C. Verhulst MD, PhD

Professor and Director of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Essi Viding PhD

Department of Psychology and Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, & Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Frank Vitaro PhD

Professor of Developmental Psychopathology, Department of Psycho-Education, University of Montreal, Montreal (Quebec), Canada

Nora Volkow MD

Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Mary Waldron MD, PhD

Research Instructor in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, USA

V. Robin Weersing PhD

Assistant Professor, Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego State University/University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA

John R. Weisz PhD, ABPP

President and CEO, Judge Baker Children’s Center; Professor of Psychology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Miranda Wolpert MA, PsychD

Director, CAMHS Evidence Based Practice Unit, University College London and Anna Freud Centre, London, UK

Anne Worrall-Davies MB, chB (Hons), MMedSc, MRCPsych, MD

Senior Lecturer and Hon. Consultant in Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

William Yule MA, DipPsychol, PhD, FBPsS, C. Psychol

Emeritus Professor of Applied Child Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK

Charles H. Zeanah MD

Sellars Polchow Professor of Psychiatry, Tulane University School of Medicine, Institute of Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA

Kenneth J. Zucker PhD

Psychologist-in-Chief Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; Head, Gender Identity Service, Child, Youth, and Family Program, Toronto, Canada

I

Conceptual Approaches