Cover Page

Contents

Table of Web Content

Author’s Preface from the First Edition

Preface to the Third Edition

Acknowledgments from the Previous Editions

Sources

The International Phonetic Alphabet

1 Sounds and Languages

1.1 Languages Come and Go

1.2 The Evolving Sounds of Languages

1.3 Language and Speech

1.4 Describing Speech Sounds

1.5 Summary

2 Pitch and Loudness

2.1 Tones

2.2 English Intonation

2.3 The Vocal Folds

2.4 Loudness Differences

2.5 Summary

3 Vowel Contrasts

3.1 Sets of Vowels and Standard Forms of a Language

3.2 English Vowels

3.3 Summary

4 The Sounds of Vowels

4.1 Acoustic Structure of Vowels

4.2 The Acoustic Vowel Space

4.3 Spectrographic Displays

4.4 Summary

5 Charting Vowels

5.1 Formants One and Two

5.2 Accents of English

5.3 Formant Three

5.4 Summary

6 The Sounds of Consonants

6.1 Consonant Contrasts

6.2 Stop Consonants

6.3 Approximants

6.4 Nasals

6.5 Fricatives

6.6 Summary

7 Acoustic Components of Speech

7.1 The Principal Acoustic Components

7.2 Synthesizing Speech

7.3 Summary

8 Talking Computers

8.1 Words in Context

8.2 Our Implicit Knowledge

8.3 Synthesizing Sounds from a Phonetic Transcription

8.4 Applications

8.5 Summary

9 Listening Computers

9.1 Patterns of Sound

9.2 The Basis of Computer Speech Recognition

9.3 Special Context Speech Recognizers

9.4 Recognizing Running Speech

9.5 Different Accents and Different Voices

9.6 More for the Computationally Curious

9.7 Summary

10 How We Listen to Speech

10.1 Confusable Sounds

10.2 Sound Prototypes

10.3 Tackling the Problem

10.4 Finding Words

10.5 Social Interactions

10.6 Summary

10.7 Further Reading and Sources

11 Making English Consonants

11.1 Acoustics and Articulation

11.2 The Vocal Organs

11.3 Places and Manners of Articulation

11.4 Describing Consonants

11.5 Summary

12 Making English Vowels

12.1 Movements of the Tongue and Lips for Vowels

12.2 Muscles Controlling the Tongue and Lips

12.3 Traditional Descriptions of Vowels

12.4 Summary

13 Actions of the Larynx

13.1 The Larynx

13.2 Voiced and Voiceless Sounds

13.3 Voicing and Aspiration

13.4 Glottal Stops

13.5 Breathy Voice

13.6 Creaky Voice

13.7 Further Differences in Vocal Fold Vibrations

13.8 Ejectives

13.9 Implosives

13.10 Recording Data from the Larynx

13.11 Summary

14 Consonants Around the World

14.1 Phonetic Fieldwork

14.2 Well-Known Consonants

14.3 More Places of Articulation

14.4 More Manners of Articulation

14.5 Clicks

14.6 Summary

15 Vowels Around the World

15.1 Types of Vowels

15.2 Lip Rounding

15.3 Nasalized Vowels

15.4 Voice Quality

15.5 Summary

16 Putting Vowels and Consonants Together

16.1 The Speed of Speech

16.2 Slips of the Tongue

16.3 The Alphabet

16.4 The International Phonetic Alphabet

16.5 Contrasting Sounds

16.6 Features that Matter within a Language

16.7 Summary

Glossary

Further Reading

Index

This book is for Jenny Ladefoged, although a major portion of it already
belongs to her. Many of the sentences are hers,
and she compiled almost all the sound files.

It also honors the memory of Eliot Disner.

Image

Table of Web Content

The following recordings, color figures, and videos are on the Vowels and Consonants website, www.wiley.com/go/ladefoged. Headphone prompts image in the margin indicate where sound files are available to support the text. A list of the materials and their descriptions is provided below. You will find SciconWeb, a new browser, available on the website. This will not only play each recording when you open it, leaving the text visible during the audio portion, but also bring up a menu that allows you to make spectrograms and a pitch track of the sound that has been played, as well as other helpful options.

Users are reminded that all this material is copyright. Instructions whereby institutions can obtain similar material are available at:

www.linguistics.ucla.edu/faciliti/sales/software.htm.

Recording 1.1

Sounds illustrating the IPA symbols

Recording 2.1

The tones of Standard Chinese (table 2.1)

Recording 2.2

The tones of Cantonese (table 2.2)

Recording 2.3

I’m going away said as a normal unemphatic statement

Recording 2.4

Where are you going? said as a normal unemphatic question

Recording 2.5

Are you going home? said as a regular question

Recording 2.6

Where are you going? said with a rising pitch

Recording 2.7

Are you going away? said with some alarm

Recording 2.8

When danger threatens your children, call the police

Recording 2.9

When danger threatens, your children call the police

Recording 2.10

Jenny gave Peter instructions to follow

Recording 2.11

Jenny gave Peter instructions to follow

Recording 2.12

An utterance in which there are no words, but in which the speaker sounds contented

Recording 2.13

An utterance in which there are no words, but in which the speaker sounds upset or angry

Also in chapter 2:

Video of the vibrating vocal folds

Photographs of the vocal folds producing a sound at three different pitches

Recording 3.1

Spanish vowels

Recording 3.2

Hawaiian vowels

Recording 3.3

Swahili vowels

Recording 3.4

Japanese vowels

Recording 3.5

General American vowels

Recording 3.6

BBC English vowels

Recording 4.1

Whispered heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed

Recording 4.2

The words had, head, hid, heed spoken in a creaky voice

[There are no recordings for chapter 5.]

Recording 6.1

English consonants

Recording 7.1

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (synthesized)

Recording 7.2

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (F1)

Recording 7.3

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (F2)

Recording 7.4

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (F3)

Recording 7.5

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (F1, F2, F3)

Recording 7.6

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (F1, F2, F3 plus fixed resonances)

Recording 7.7

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (fricative and burst noises)

Recording 7.8

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (F1, F2, F3 plus fixed resonances plus fricative noises)

Recording 7.9

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (fully synthesized)

Recording 8.1

The words leaf and feel, recorded forwards and backwards

Recording 8.2

High-quality speech synthesis: AT&T “Mike”

Recording 8.3

High-quality speech synthesis: AT&T “Crystal”

Recording 8.4

High-quality speech synthesis: Nuance “Tom”

Recording 8.5

High-quality speech synthesis: Nuance “Samantha”

Recording 8.5a

A single synthesized phrase

Recording 8.6

High-quality speech synthesis: Cereproc “William”

Recording 8.7

High-quality speech synthesis: Cereproc “Heather”

Also in chapter 8:

Links to the demos of some commercial text-to-speech systems

[There are no recordings for chapter 9.]

Recording 10.1

A continuum going from bad to bat

Recording 10.2

A randomly ordered set of words in the bad–bet continuum

Recording 10.3

Another randomly ordered set of words in the bad–bet continuum

Recording 10.4

A set of pairs of adjacent words in the bad–bet continuum

Recording 10.5

Another set of pairs of adjacent words in the bad–bet continuum

Recording 10.6

A continuum going from slash to splash

Recording 10.7

A recording of There was once a young rat named Arthur, who could never take the trouble to make up his mind with the word dot superimposed on it

Recording 10.8

A recording of They thought it was Jane who could be brave and in the team with s superimposed on it

Recording 10.9

Two complex sounds, each made up of two components, a buzzing noise and a hissing noise, in the midst of a sequence of other sounds

[There are no recordings for chapters 11 and 12.]

In chapter 12:

Videos of the articulations of vowels: tongue, jaw, and larynx

Recording 13.1

Burmese nasals

Recording 13.2

A comparison of English b, p and Spanish b, p

Recording 13.3

Thai stops

Recording 13.4

Hawaiian consonants

Recording 13.5

Hindi stops

Recording 13.6

Breathy-voiced vowels in Gujarati

Recording 13.7

San Juan Cajones Zapotec vowels

Recording 13.8

Voice qualities and tones in Mpi

Recording 13.9

Quechua stops

Recording 13.10

Sindhi stops

Recording 13.11

Owerri Igbo stops

Also in chapter 13:

Photographs of the vocal folds producing breathy voice and creaky voice

Recording 14.1

Ewe fricatives

Recording 14.2

Wubuy dental and alveolar stops

Recording 14.3

Hungarian palatals

Recording 14.4

Malayalam nasals

Recording 14.5

Aleut stops

Recording 14.6

Kele and Titan bilabial and alveolar trills

Recording 14.7

Southern Swedish uvular trills

Recording 14.8

Polish sibilants

Recording 14.9

Toda sibilants

Recording 14.10

Melpa laterals

Recording 14.11

Zulu laterals

Recording 14.12

Nama clicks

Also in chapter 14:

X-ray of a click

Recording 15.1

Some of the French vowels

Recording 15.2

Swedish vowels

Recording 15.3

German vowels

Recording 15.4

Scottish Gaelic long vowels

Recording 15.5

French oral and nasal vowels

Recording 15.6

!Xóõ vowels

Also in chapter 15:

Video of nasalized vowels

Recording 16.1

She sells seashells on the seashore and the seashells that she sells are seashells I’m sure

Recording 16.2

Oro Win labial trills

Author’s Preface from the First Edition

This book is about the sounds of languages. There are thousands of distinct languages in the world, many of them with sounds that are wildly different from any that you will hear in an English sentence. People trill their lips and click their tongues when talking, sometimes in ways that are surprising to those of us who speak English. Of course, some of the things that we do, such as hearing a difference between fin and thin, or producing the vowel that most Americans have in bird, are fairly amazing to speakers of other languages, as we will see.

There are about 200 different vowels in the world’s languages and more than 600 different consonants. There is no way that I can discuss all these sounds in an introductory book. I’ve just tried to give you some idea of what happens when people talk, explaining most of the well-known sounds, and giving you a glimpse of some of the more obscure sounds. If you want a fuller, more systematic, account of phonetics, there are many textbooks available, including one of my own.

Many of the sounds discussed are reproduced on the Vowels and Consonants website, www.wiley.com/go/ladefoged. If possible, you should listen to the sounds while you read. I hope you will be entertained by what you hear and read here, and will look at the suggestions for further reading at the end of the book. I’ve been thrilled by a lifetime chasing ideas in phonetics. Who knows, perhaps you, too, will go on to become a phonetician. Enjoy.

P.L.

Preface to the Third Edition

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Work on this third edition of Vowels and Consonants began shortly after the death of Peter Ladefoged. His eightieth birthday party had been celebrated just months earlier, at a meeting of the Acoustical Society of America to which his students, colleagues and admirers had flocked from all over the US and around the world. His last days had been spent in fine health and spirits, engaged in his favorite pursuit, fieldwork, this time among the Toda people of Southern India. With his data gathered, he boarded a plane bound for home, and, en route, fell ill. His life of distinguished teaching, of scholarship and linguistic inquiry, and of great conviviality ended at Heathrow, just 15 miles from his birthplace. But in between those endpoints, he had spent a career teaching in the United States and doing fieldwork here and in Nigeria, Namibia, Sudan, Kenya, Botswana, Ghana, Congo, Uganda, Tanzania, Sierra Leone, Senegal, South Africa, Yemen, India, Nepal, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, China, Korea, Brazil, Mexico, and Scotland, to international acclaim.

A third edition of Vowels and Consonants was prompted by the need for regular updates to any chapters on speech technology and perception that appear in a twenty-first-century textbook, and informed by margin notes left by Professor Ladefoged in his desk copy.

The CD that had accompanied the previous editions has been replaced with a more readily accessible web-based collection of language files. These may be accessed on the Vowels and Consonants website, www.wiley.com/go/ladefoged.

The greatest help in producing this edition of Vowels and Consonants was provided by Jenny Ladefoged, to whom this book was, and shall always be, dedicated. Other commentators who gave generously of their time and expertise this time around were (in alphabetical order): Elaine Andersen, Sharon Ash, Roy Becker, Catherine Best, Tim Bunnell, Dani Byrd, Christina Esposito, Sean Fulop, Louis Goldstein, Mark Hasegawa-Johnson, Sarah Hawkins, Bruce Hayes, Caroline Henton, Fang-Ying Hsieh, Keith Johnson, Sun-Ah Jun, Patricia Keating, Jody Kreiman, Mona Lindau, Ian Maddieson, Bathsheba Malsheen, Maricruz Martinez, Shri Narayanan, Ann Syrdal, Henry Tehrani, Laura Tejada, and Eric Zee. Any faults in the book must be attributed to the second author. The editors of this book, Julia Kirk and Danielle Descoteaux, provided thoughtful guidance. And the faculty and students of the USC Department of Linguistics – where Peter Ladefoged spent the final years of his academic career and Sandra Disner currently teaches general and forensic linguistics – provided inspiration, valuable insights and camaraderie to both authors.

Acknowledgments from the Previous Editions

Many people have contributed wonderful ideas and comments for this book. Foremost among them is my colleague Pat Keating, who offered nuggets of teaching wisdom that I have incorporated, and suggested corrections for numerous errors (but don’t blame her for those I have added since she read the draft version). Other helpful commentators include (in alphabetical order): Vicki Fromkin, Yoshinari Fujino, Tony Harper and his colleagues and students at New Trier High School, Bjorn Jernudd, Sun-Ah Jun, Olle Kjellin, Jody Kreiman, Peggy MacEachern, Yoshiro Masuya, Pam Munro, Peter Roach, Janet Stack, and Jie Zhang. I am indebted to Caroline Henton for comments on speech synthesis and speech recognition, and to Mark Hasegawa-Johnson for making me restructure the speech recognition chapter. Victoria Anderson let me use her palatography pictures, Didier Demolin gave me the MRI pictures, and Bruce Gerratt took the photographs of the larynx; many thanks to all of them. I am also very grateful to the many people from all over the world who kindly made recordings for me. Special thanks to Jean Acevedo, who encouraged me to write a book of this kind.

For the second edition, additional thanks are due to the numerous students and instructors who commented on the first edition, notably Coleen Anderson, Karen Chung, Susan Guion, and Jennifer Smith. The chapter on speech perception benefited from comments by Sarah Hawkins. Eric Zee helped with Chinese material. Siri Tuttle kindly allowed me to use her anatomical sketches. The CD accompanying the second edition was considerably improved by the weekly luncheon meetings in the UCLA Phonetics Lab, in which the faculty and graduate students went through the recordings and transcriptions of many languages and made numerous critical comments and suggestions. (Some of these suggestions have not been implemented due to my inability to obtain the relevant data, and all faults remain mine.) I am also grateful to Pat Keating and other members of the UCLA Phonetics Lab for allowing me to include on the CD many more items from the UCLA Phonetic Data archive.

Sources

Data on the numbers of languages and speakers in the world come mainly from Ethnologue (SIL International www.ethnologue.com).

The sources for the speech perception experiments in Chapter 10 are listed at the end of that chapter.

The data on the vowels of different dialects are from the following sources:

General American English: Peterson, G. E., and Barney, H. L. (1952). Control methods used in a study of the vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 24: 175–184.

Californian English: Hagiwara, R. E. (1995). Acoustic realizations of American English /r/ as produced by women and men. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 90: 1–187.

Northern Cities (US): Hillenbrand, J., Getty, L. A., Clark, M. J., and Wheeler, K. (1995). Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(5): 3099–3111.

BBC English: Deterding, D. (1997). The formants of monophthong vowels in standard Southern British English pronunciation. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 27: 47–55.

The mean tongue positions in chapter 12 are based on data and factor analyses reported in Harshman, R. A., Ladefoged, P., and Goldstein, L. M. (1977). Factor analysis of tongue shapes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 62: 693–707.

The IPA chart on the following page has been reproduced with permission from the International Phonetic Association, www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/. Inquiries concerning membership in the Association should be addressed to the Secretary, Dr. Katerina Nicolaidis, Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece, email: knicol@enl.auth.gr.

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1

Sounds and Languages

1.1 Languages Come and Go

Once upon a time, the most important animal sounds were those made by predators and prey, or by sexual partners. As mammals evolved and signaling systems became more elaborate, new possibilities emerged. Nowadays undoubtedly the most important sounds for us are those of language. Nobody knows how vocal cries about enemies, food, and sex turned into language. But we can say something about the way the sounds of languages evolved, and why some sounds occur more frequently than others in the world’s languages.

Although we know almost nothing about the origins of language, we can still consider the evolution of languages from a Darwinian point of view. Remember that Darwin himself did not know anything about the origin of life. He was not concerned with how life began but with the origin of the various species he could observe. In the same spirit, we will not consider the origin of language; but we will note the various sounds of languages, and discuss how they got to be the way they are. We will think of each language as a system of sounds subject to various evolutionary forces.

We will begin by considering why people speak different languages. There are many legends about this. Some say it was because God was displeased when the people of Babel tried to build a tower up to heaven. He smote them so that they could not understand each other. Others say that the Hindu God Shiva danced, and split the peoples of the world into small groups. Most linguists think that languages just grew apart as small bands of people moved to different places. We know very little about the first humans who used language. We do not even know if there was one origin of language, or whether people started talking in different parts of the world at about the same time. The most likely possibility is that speech developed in one place, and then, like any wonderful cultural development, it spread out as the advantages of talking became obvious.

People speak different languages because languages change, often quite rapidly. Elderly people cannot readily understand what their grandchildren are saying, and the same is true in reverse. My granddaughter does not know what I’m talking about when I mention a jalopy (old car) or a davenport (couch). New words are always needed for new things like email, texting, and television, which my grandfather did not know. Any change in living conditions will bring changes to the language. Time itself is often sufficient to bring about changes. When people are isolated from their neighbors, living in places where travel is difficult, they develop new ways of speaking. Even when travel was comparatively simple, as it is along rivers in many tropical areas, prehistoric groups became independent. If the land provided sufficient food, they had no need to trade or interact with their neighbors. When a small group lives by itself it develops its own way of speaking after only a generation or so, producing a new dialect that its neighbors will understand only with difficulty. In a few hundred years the group will have a new language which is different from that of their ancestors and of everybody else around them.

Languages come and go. The language you are reading now, English, did not exist 1,500 years ago. The people in England spoke a Celtic language at that time. Then the Angles and Saxons and other tribes invaded, bringing with them their own Low German dialects, which gradually evolved into English. English may last another 1,500 years, but, like Latin, it may disappear as a spoken language more quickly.

Historical forces have produced about 7,000 languages in the world today, but in 100 years or so there may be less than half that number. It is worth examining why languages are disappearing and considering whether it is a good or bad thing. At the moment nearly half the people in the world (actually 44 percent) speak one of the 10 major languages: Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, Spanish, English, Arabic, Hindi, Bengali, Portuguese, Russian, Japanese, and German. The first three of these languages are each spoken by more than a quarter of a billion people. (See “Acknowledgments” at the beginning of the book for the basis of numbers such as these.) But most of the world’s languages are spoken by comparatively few people. Fifty-one percent of all languages are spoken by fewer than 10,000 people, the number in a small town in industrial countries. Nearly a quarter of all languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers, about the number of people in a village. It’s only due to accidents of history that Chinese, Spanish, and English are so widely spoken. If other circumstances had prevailed, the Eskimo might have become a dominant power, and we might all be speaking a language with only three vowels.

More than half the 7,000 languages are spoken by small tribes in three tropical areas, one in the rain forests of South America, another in the equatorial regions of Africa, and the third centered on Papua New Guinea. In these areas there is ample rainfall and the people have been relatively self-sufficient for thousands of years. As a result, many of them have lived in small groups for untold generations. Until recently they had no great need to talk to people outside their group. They had the resources to live and talk in their own way. Quite often they developed new sounds, constrained only by the general pressures that affect all human speech.

Now that governments, schools, radio, and even television are spreading into remote regions on every continent, the smaller tribes may want to learn more of the language of their dominant neighbors. Most of the world’s population is at least partially bilingual, and a high proportion speaks three or more languages. With the advent of more trade and businesses the smaller groups are becoming part of larger communities and their languages are becoming endangered. Generally a language dies because mothers do not speak it to their children and the language of the home changes. Parents learn a new language that their children are learning in school. Soon the children no longer speak their parents’ first language and their mother tongue is lost.

When a language disappears much of the culture often disappears with it. In the face of socioeconomic changes, small groups are forced into a choice that can seldom be fully satisfactory. They have to choose whether to keep at least partially to themselves, maintaining their traditional lifestyle, or to gain the benefits of belonging to a larger group by joining the world around them. They may (and it’s a big may) gain access to schools, health care, and a higher standard of living. But they may lose many aspects of life that they hold dear. However, outsiders should note that the choice between remaining apart and assimilating can be made only by the members of the group themselves. No one except the speakers should decry the loss of a particular language. Others who do so are being paternalistic and assuming they know what is best for other people. Some groups may be better off if they retain their language and culture, which would require some degree of separateness. Others might find it preferable to change, and allow the loss of their mother tongue. As a linguist I am sad that many languages are disappearing so that I will no longer be able to study their wonders. But it is not up to me to decide whether efforts should be made to keep a particular language alive. The speakers may find the costs too great, and the benefits small in comparison with becoming potentially equal members of a larger group.

Studying endangered languages (as I have done for more than 10 years) may reveal previously unreported sounds. It’s not that endangered languages are more likely to have unusual sounds. These languages are not endangered because of their sound systems, but because of socioeconomic changes. Many well-known languages have unusual sounds, but that does not make them likely to become endangered. American English has a rare vowel, the one in words such as her, sir, fur. This r-colored sound occurs as a vowel in less than 1 percent of the world’s languages, but it won’t cause the death of American English. Some endangered languages have complex sets of sounds and others do not. But they are all a joy to phoneticians because there is always the chance that some of their unstudied sounds are unusual. By investigating little-known languages we get a further glimpse into the range of human phonetic capabilities, and the constraints on possible speech sounds.

1.2 The Evolving Sounds of Languages

The sounds of languages are constrained, first by what we can do with our tongues, lips, and other vocal organs, and second by our limited ability to hear small differences in sounds. These and other constraints have resulted in all languages evolving along similar lines. No language has sounds that are too difficult for native speakers to produce within the stream of speech (although, as we will see, some languages have sounds that would twist English-speaking tongues in knots). Every language has sounds that are sufficiently different from one another to be readily distinguishable by native speakers (although, again, some distinctions may seem too subtle for ears that are unfamiliar with them). These two factors, articulatory ease and auditory distinctiveness, are the principal constraints on how the sounds of languages develop.

There are additional factors that shape the development of languages, notably, from our point of view, how our brains organize and remember sounds. If a language had only one or two vowels and a couple of consonants it could still allow words of half a dozen syllables, and make a vast number of words by combining these syllables in different orders. But many of the words would be very long and difficult to remember. If words are to be kept short and distinct so that they can be easily distinguished and remembered, then the language must have a sufficient number of vowels and consonants to make more than a handful of syllables.

It would be an added burden if we had to make a large number of sounds that were all completely different from one another. It puts less strain on our ability to produce speech if the sounds of our languages can be organized in groups that are articulated in much the same way. We can think of the movements of our tongues and lips as gestures, much like the gestures we make with our hands. When we talk we use specific gestures – controlled movements – to make each sound. We would like to use the same gestures over and over again. This is a principle that we will call gestural economy. Typically, if a language has one sound made by a gesture involving the two lips such as p as in pie, then it is likely to have others such as b and m, as in by and my made with similar lip gestures. If you say pie, by, my, you will find that your lips come together at the beginning of each of them. If a language has pie, by, my, and also a sound made with a gesture of the tongue tip such as t in tie, then it is also likely to have other sounds made with the tongue tip, such as d and n in die and nigh. You can feel that your tongue makes a similar gesture in each of the words tie, die, nigh. The sounds that evolve in a language form a pattern; and there is a strong pressure to fill gaps in the pattern.

Societies weight the importance of the various constraints – articulatory ease, auditory distinctiveness, and gestural economy – in different ways, producing mutually unintelligible languages. But despite the variations that occur, the sounds that all languages use have many features in common. For example, every language uses both vowels and consonants to produce a variety of words. All languages use outgoing lung air in all words (though some may use ingoing air in parts of a word). And all languages use variations in the pitch of the voice in a meaningful way.

1.3 Language and Speech

The main point of a language is to convey information. Nowadays a language can take various forms. It can be spoken or written, or signed for those who cannot hear, represented in Braille for the blind, or sent in Morse code or semaphore or many other forms when necessity arises. Speech is the most common way of using language. But speech is not the same as language. Think of what else you learn just by listening to someone talking. There are all sorts of non-linguistic notions conveyed by speech. You need only a few seconds to know something about a person talking to you, without considering the words they use or their meaning. You can tell whether they come from the same part of the country as you. You know the social group they belong to, and you may or may not approve of them. Someone talking with a so-called Harvard accent may sound pretentious. In Britain the differences between accents may be even more noteworthy. As Bernard Shaw puts it in the Preface to Pygmalion: “It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without making some other Englishman despise him.” The accent someone uses conveys information about what sort of person they are, but this is different from the kind of information conveyed by the words of the language itself.

Another aspect of speech that is not part of language is the way speech conveys information about the speaker’s attitude to life, the subject under discussion, and the person being spoken to. We all know people who have a bright, happy way of talking that reflects their personalities – perhaps someone like Aunt Jane, who was always cheerful, even when she was dying of cancer. Of course, people who sound happy may be just putting on a brave front. But, true or false, their speech conveys information that is not necessarily conveyed by their words. Whenever someone talks, you get an impression of their mood. You know whether they are happy, or sad, or angry. You can also assess how they feel about whatever you are discussing. They may sound interested or indifferent when they reply to your comments. In addition you can tell from their tone of voice what they think about you. They may be condescending, or adoring, or just plain friendly. All these attitudinal aspects of speech are wrapped up together in information conveyed by speech. You may be wrong in whatever inferences you make, but, true or false, whenever someone talks, their speech is conveying information of this sort.

The final kind of non-linguistic information conveyed by speech is the identity of the speaker. You can often tell the identity of the person who is speaking without looking at them. Again, you may be wrong, but when someone telephones and simply says ‘Hi’, you may be able to say whether it is a member of your family or a friend you know. You can get this kind of information from the aspects of speech we have just been discussing, the regional accent and the attitude that the speaker has. But there is often something more. You can tell which person it is from that region, and you can say who they are, whatever their current emotions. I know my wife’s voice on the phone, even when I am expecting a call from one of her relatives, and irrespective of whether she is cross because she has just had her purse stolen, or delighted because she has won the lottery. She still sounds like Jenny. (To be truthful, I have never had the opportunity to test the last part of this observation; I don’t really know whether I could identify her voice when she has won the lottery.)

Courts of law have traditionally granted considerable leeway to earwitnesses, even more so than to eyewitnesses. But experience suggests that we may not be quite as skilled at earwitness identification as we think we are. Have you never been stumped when someone telephones and simply says “Hi”? A typical reaction might be to keep the conversation going, guardedly, in hopes that the caller might mention a shared experience that hints at his or her identity, or that enough of the caller’s individual linguistic characteristics will eventually emerge from the speech stream to permit an identification.

1.4 Describing Speech Sounds

In this book we will refer to the sounds of languages in three different ways. We will describe the sound waves in acoustic terms; we will note the gestures of the vocal organs used to produce them (the articulations); and we will label them using the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (the IPA). We will discuss the latter two possibilities, the articulations and symbols, later, although we can note here that sounds illustrating all the IPA symbols are on the website in Recording 1.1. When you listen to the sounds illustrating the IPA symbols, remember that they are the typical sounds represented by these symbols in many different languages. They may not be equivalent to any of the sounds of your accent of English or any other particular language.

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Phonetic symbols should not be confused with letters of the alphabet used in spelling words. I always put phonetic symbols in bold, thus: a, e, i, o, u. Whenever I am referring to letters I put them in quotes: ‘a, e, i, o, u’. Another convention adopted in this book is to put the written form of the word under discussion in italics. I might, for example, refer to the consonant p as in pie. Finally, the English translation of a foreign word is also put in quotes, to distinguish it from the foreign word itself. Thus, padre ‘father’.

Figure 1.1 Part of the sound wave of the vowel ɑ as in father. The arrows indicate a section that is repeated every one-hundredth of a second.

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We will begin our description of the sounds of languages by considering the sound waves that are produced when we talk. This is a very useful way of quantitatively describing speech. One of my favorite quotations is the statement by the nineteenth-century physicist, Lord Kelvin:

I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the state of Science, whatever the matter may be.

For many years we have been gathering information about the acoustics of speech, based on the precise measurement of sound waves. This constitutes far and away the greatest amount of data on the languages of the world available today. There is also, to be sure, a great deal of ongoing research into the articulation of speech – precise measurements of the positions of the tongue, lips, and other articulators by means of magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and other biomedical imaging techniques. But while these data would satisfy Lord Kelvin, the range of languages for which there is a substantial body of such data is still very limited, compared to audio recordings that allow us to measure the sound waves scientifically.

Whenever you speak you create a disturbance in the air around you, a sound wave, which is a small but rapid variation in air pressure spreading through the air. Figure 1.1 shows part of the sound wave of the vowel ɑ as in father. During this sound the air pressure at the speaker’s lips goes up and down, and a wave with corresponding fluctuations is generated. When this sound wave reaches a listener’s ear it causes small movements of the eardrum, which are sensed by the brain and interpreted as the sound ɑ as in father, spoken with a particular pitch and loudness.

We can start thinking about the sound waves that form the acoustic structure of speech by considering the ways in which sounds can differ. Speech sounds such as vowels can differ in pitch, loudness, and quality. You can say the vowel ɑ as in father on any pitch within the range of your voice. You can also say it softly or loudly without altering the pitch. And you can say many different vowels, without altering either the pitch or the loudness.

Figure 1.2 Part of the sound wave of the vowel ɑ as in father said on a pitch corresponding to a frequency of 200 Hz, making it an octave higher than the sound in Figure 1.1.

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Figure 1.3 Part of the sound wave of the vowel ɑ as in father produced with approximately half the loudness of the sound in Figure 1.1.

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The pitch of a sound depends on the rate of repetition of the sound wave. A short section of the sound wave of the vowel ɑ as in father in Figure 1.1 repeats itself every one-hundredth of a second. The frequency of repetition is 100 times a second, or, in acoustic terms, 100 Hz. (Hz is the abbreviation for hertz.) This particular frequency corresponds to a fairly low pitch in a male voice. Figure 1.2 shows the same vowel with the higher frequency of 200 Hz, which means that it had a higher pitch. This vowel was said on a pitch an octave above the sound in Figure 1.1. It is in the higher part of the male voice range.

The loudness of a sound depends on the size of the variations in air pressure. Figure 1.3 shows the sound wave of another utterance of the vowel ɑ as in father. On this occasion the sound wave has an amplitude (the size of the pressure variation) which is about half the amplitude of the vowel in Figure 1.1. You can see that the peaks of air pressure in Figure 1.3 are about half the size of those in Figures 1.1 and 1.2. The only difference between Figures 1.1 and 1.3 is in the amplitude (the size) of the wave. In all other respects the waves have exactly the same shape. Differences in amplitude are measured in decibels (abbreviated dB). The difference in amplitude between the sounds in Figures 1.1 and 1.3 is 6 dB, but, because of the complex way in which dB differences are calculated, there is no easy way of putting an amplitude scale on these figures. The wave in Figure 1.1 sounds a little more than twice as loud as the one in Figure 1.3.

Figure 1.4 Part of the sound wave of the vowel i as in see said on the same pitch and with approximately the same loudness as the sound in Figure 1.1.

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The third way in which sounds can differ is in quality, sometimes called timbre. The vowel in see differs in quality from the first vowel in father, irrespective of whether it also differs in pitch or loudness. The symbol for the quality of the vowel in see is i, corresponding to the letter ‘i’ in French, Italian, or Spanish si. (In English we rarely use ‘i’ for this sound, but we do in police.) As we have seen, the symbol for the quality of the first vowel in father is ɑ, a script letter ‘a’.

Differences in vowel quality have more complex acoustic correlates, loosely summed up as differences in the shape of the sound wave (as opposed to its repetition rate and size). Figure 1.4 shows the sound wave of the vowel i in see. This wave, like the waves in Figures 1.1 and 1.3, has a frequency of 100 Hz, in that the wave repeats every hundredth of a second. It also has a slightly smaller amplitude than the ɑ in Figure 1.1. The vowel i (remember, this is the internationally agreed-upon symbol for the vowel in see, not the sound of the word I) is usually less loud – has less amplitude – than the vowel ɑ because the mouth is less open for i than for ɑ. In general, the wider you open your mouth, the louder the sound.

The shape of a sound wave is sometimes called the waveform. The waveforms in Figures 1.1 and 1.4 repeat every one-hundredth of a second, so that both sounds have the same pitch. The waveform in Figure 1.4 has a greater number of small variations than that in Figure 1.1. It is the waveform of a sound with a different quality. We will discuss differences in quality in Chapter 4. In the next chapter we will consider how differences in pitch are used in the world’s languages. Then in Chapter 3 we will set the scene for discussing how vowels differ in their acoustic quality.

1.5 Summary

The 7,000 languages in the world today are mainly languages with a small number of speakers. Many of these languages will not be spoken in the near future, usually because they are no longer spoken in the home. The principal constraints on the evolution of the sounds of the world’s languages are ease of articulation, auditory distinctiveness, and gestural economy. The differences between speech and language are in the kinds of information that are conveyed; speech conveys more information about the speaker’s background, attitude, and personal identity. The most scientific way of describing speech is in acoustic terms. The main acoustic distinctions among sounds are those corresponding to differences in pitch, loudness, and quality.