Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World

Title Page


List of Illustrations

Notes on Contributors

Preface and Acknowledgments




Part I: Women Outside Athens and Rome

Case Study I: The Mother Goddess in Prehistory: Debates and Perspectives

Chapter 1: Women in Ancient Mesopotamia

1 Evidence from Elite Tombs

2 Case Studies

3 Summary and Conclusion

Chapter 2: Hidden Voices: Unveiling Women in Ancient Egypt

1 Textual Evidence

2 Representational Evidence

3 Three-Dimensional Finds

4 Architecture and Space

Chapter 3: Looking for Minoan and Mycenaean Women: Paths of Feminist Scholarship Towards the Aegean Bronze Age

1 Ladies, Queens, Leaders: “Gendering Authority”

2 Women, Religion, Power: Ritual Experts and Cultural Facilitators

3 Crafters, Nourishers, and Providers

4 Bodies and Personae: Archaeologies of Corporeality and Identity

5 Growing to Be a Woman: Coming of Age, Fertility, Motherhood

6 The Construction of Identities: Ritualization and Performance

Chapter 4: Women in Homer

1 Homeric Women and Historical Realities

2 Epics as Sources for a History of Cultural Conceptions

3 Female Agency and Male Anxiety

4 Women and Other Females

5 Women's Glory

6 Homeric Complexity and Plurality of Readings

Chapter 5: Etruscan Women: Towards a Reappraisal

1 Current Approaches

2 Evaluating the Evidence: Textual Sources

3 Evaluating the Evidence: Archaeological Sources

4 Conclusion

Part II: The Archaic and Classical Periods

Case Study II: Sex and the Single Girl: The Cologne Fragment of Archilochus

Chapter 6: Woman, City, State: Theories, Ideologies, and Concepts in the Archaic and Classical Periods

1 The Pre-State Beginnings in Archaic Culture

2 The Classical Period: Polis and Early Urbs

3 After the Classical Period and Middle Republic

Chapter 7: Women and Law

1 Public Life and Politics

2 Fathers, Guardians, and Marriage

3 Property

4 Adultery and Divorce

5 Law-making

6 Legal Process: Women in Court

7 Advocacy

8 Women on Trial

9 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Women and Medicine

1 Women as Objects of Theory

2 The Role of Women in Reproduction

3 Women as Objects of Practice

4 Women as Healers

Chapter 9: Reading the Bones: Interpreting the Skeletal Evidence for Women's Lives in Ancient Greece

1 A Brief History of Skeleton Study

2 How Do We Study Skeletons and What Can They Tell Us?

3 Conclusions

Chapter 10: Approaches to Reading Attic Vases

1 Introduction, or Reading as Metaphor

2 Image as Metaphor, or the Taming of the Bride

3 What Kind of Women?

4 Trading in Sex?

5 Looking Forward


Chapter 11: Spartan Girls and the Athenian Gaze

1 Spartan Girl Athletes

2 Spartan Female Horsemanship

3 Female Spartan Symposiasts

4 Homoerotic Relationships

5 Spartan School Girls

6 Conclusions

Chapter 12: Interpreting Women in Archaic and Classical Greek Sculpture

1 Interpretive Frameworks

2 Greek

3 Archaic and Classical

4 Sculpture

5 Women

6 Conclusion

Chapter 13: Dress and Adornment in Archaic and Classical Greece

1 Approaches to the Study of Ancient Greek Dress

2 The Evidence for Ancient Greek Dress

3 Types of Garments

4 Accessories

5 Body Modification

6 Dress and the Female Lifecycle

7 Undress

Chapter 14: Women and Religion in Greece

1 The Thesmophoria

2 The Brauronia

3 Other Festivals

Chapter 15: Women and Roman Religion

1 Female Priesthoods

2 Gendered Deities and Domestic Cult

3 Women and the Imperial Cult

4 What's Next for the Study of Women in Roman Religion?

Chapter 16: Women in Magna Graecia

1 Who Are the Women of Magna Graecia—Are They Greek or Indigenous?

2 Case Study: Pithekoussai

3 Case Study: Pantanello

4 Cemetery Demographics

5 Domestic Architecture

6 Conclusions

PART III: Women in a Cosmopolitan World: The Hellenistic and Late Republican Periods

Case Study III: Hellenistic Tanagra Figurines

Case Study IV: Domestic Female Slaves in Roman Comedy

Chapter 17: Female Patronage in the Greek Hellenistic and Roman Republican Periods

1 Donating Money and Public/Civic Buildings

2 Acting Personally: Making Oneself Seen and Heard

3 Conclusion

Chapter 18: Women on Hellenistic Grave Stelai: Reading Images and Texts

1 Painted Stelai from Demetrias

2 The Delos Stelai

Chapter 19: Female Portraiture in the Hellenistic Period

1 Finding the Female Portrait in Greek Art

2 Case Studies

3 The Female Portrait Statue in the Hellenistic Period: A Brief History

Chapter 20: Women and Family in Menander

1 Theatrical Space

2 Menander and Tragedy

3 Husband and Wife

4 Fathers and Daughters

5 Mothers and Daughters

6 Conclusion

Chapter 21: Gender and Space, “Public” and “Private”

1 Introduction: The Case of the Fountain House

2 Concerns and Strategies of Gender Differentiation

3 Gender and Domestic Space

4 Gender and Civic Space

5 Conclusion

Chapter 22: Oikos Keeping: Women and Monarchy in the Macedonian Tradition

1 Sources and Methodology

2 Royal Women in Archaic and Early Classical Macedonia

3 Eurydice, Wife of Amyntas III and Mother of Philip II

4 Olympias

5 Phila, Daughter of Antipater, Wife of Demetrius Poliorcetes

6 Women in the Hellenistic Dynasties

Chapter 23: The Women of Ptolemaic Egypt: The View from Papyrology

1 Queens

2 Upper-Class Women

3 Priestesses

4 Goddesses

5 Case Study: Demeter

6 Wives

7 Women and Property

8 Women and Literacy

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 24: Jewish Women: Texts and Contexts

1 Background: The Nature of the Sources

2 Changing Ideals of Femininity

3 Childhood and Education

4 Religious Practices and Identity

5 Women in Community Life

6 Marriage and Divorce

7 Conclusions

Chapter 25: Women, Education, and Philosophy

1 Introduction: Issues and Evidence

2 Some Women Philosophers

3 Philosophical Issues Concerning Women

4 Education

Chapter 26: Perceptions of Women's Power in the Late Republic: Terentia, Fulvia, and the Generation of 63 BCE

1 Women's Indirect Influence in Roman Politics: The Case of Terentia

2 Fulvia: Clodius' Wife in her Generation, and the Next

3 Military Wives in the Republic

4 Servilia: Legitimate Materna Auctoritas

5 Untethered Women

6 The Nobility of Women: A Major Development of Fulvia's Generation

7 Roman Male Discourse about Female Power

Suggestions for Further Reading

Part IV: The Beginnings of Empire

Case Study V: Vergil's Dido

Chapter 27: Women in Augustan Rome

1 The Changing Social and Cultural Landscape for Women: 27 BCE–14 CE

2 Literary Reflections of Women's Changing Circumstances

3 Literary Women: Their Relationship to Augustan Social and Cultural Realities

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 28: Women in Augustan Literature

1 Satire and Lyric

2 Elegy and Epic

3 History and Oratory

4 Conclusion

Further Reading

Chapter 29: Women on the Bay of Naples

1 Eumachia's Building

2 The Properties of Julia Felix

3 Final Resting Places

4 Conclusions

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 30: Early Imperial Female Portraiture

1 The Historiography of Julio-Claudian Portraiture

2 The Hellenistic and Republican Inheritance

3 Livia (59 BCE–29 CE)

4 Antonia Minor (36 BCE–37 CE)

5 Agrippina the Younger (16–59 CE)

6 Reconciling the Visual and the Literary

Recommended Further Reading


Chapter 31: Portraits, Prestige, Piety: Images of Women in Roman Egypt

1 Introduction

2 Portraits

3 Prestige

4 Piety

5 Conclusion

Recommended Further Reading

Part V: From Empire to Christianity

Case Study VI: Female Portraiture in Palmyra

Chapter 32: Women in Imperial Roman Literature

1 Granny with a Heart of Gold: Pliny's Ummidia Quadratilla

2 Embarrassing the Men: Tacitus' Epicharis

3 Conclusion

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 33: Female Portraiture and Female Patronage in the High Imperial Period

1 Female Portraiture

2 Female Patronage

3 Conclusion

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 34: Women in Roman Britain

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 35: Public Roles for Women in the Cities of the Latin West

1 Women of Wealth

2 Public Honor

3 Public Roles for Women: A By-Product of Romanization?

4 Epilogue

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 36: Rari exempli femina: Female Virtues on Roman Funerary Inscriptions

1 Introduction

2 Female Virtues in Latin Literature

3 Female Virtues in Latin Funerary Inscriptions

4 How to Make a Difference: Accumulation and Unusual Formulations

5 The Laudatio Turiae

6 Desiderata

7 Conclusion

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 37: Women in Late Antique Egypt

1 Defining the Period

2 The Sources

3 The Socio-Economic Spectrum: Women of Means and Slaves

4 Monastic Women

5 The Litigants: Pity the Widow and Orphan

6 Conclusion: Women In Situ

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 38: Representations of Women in Late Antiquity and Early Byzantium

Recommended Further Reading

Chapter 39: Becoming Christian

1 Introduction: “Becoming Christian”

2 Vignettes

3 Social History

4 The Countercase of Severus of Minorca

5 Conclusions

Recommended Further Reading

Women in Late Antiquity (Apart from Egypt): A Bibliography


Index of Women

Subject Index


Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World

This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical literature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers.



A Companion to the Roman Army

Edited by Paul Erdkamp

A Companion to the Roman Republic

Edited by Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx

A Companion to the Roman Empire

Edited by David S. Potter

A Companion to the Classical Greek World

Edited by Konrad H. Kinzl

A Companion to the Ancient Near East

Edited by Daniel C. Snell

A Companion to the Hellenistic World

Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Late Antiquity

Edited by Philip Rousseau

A Companion to Ancient History

Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Archaic Greece

Edited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van Wees

A Companion to Julius Caesar

Edited by Miriam Griffin

A Companion to Byzantium

Edited by Liz James

A Companion to Ancient Egypt

Edited by Alan B. Lloyd

A Companion to Ancient Macedonia

Edited by Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington

A Companion to the Punic Wars

Edited by Dexter Hoyos

A Companion to Women in the Ancient World

Edited by Sharon L. James and Sheila Dillon



A Companion to Classical Receptions

Edited by Lorna Hardwick and Christopher Stray

A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography

Edited by John Marincola

A Companion to Catullus

Edited by Marilyn B. Skinner

A Companion to Roman Religion

Edited by Jörg Rüpke

A Companion to Greek Religion

Edited by Daniel Ogden

A Companion to the Classical Tradition

Edited by Craig W. Kallendorf

A Companion to Roman Rhetoric

Edited by William Dominik and Jon Hall

A Companion to Greek Rhetoric

Edited by Ian Worthington

A Companion to Ancient Epic

Edited by John Miles Foley

A Companion to Greek Tragedy

Edited by Justina Gregory

A Companion to Latin Literature

Edited by Stephen Harrison

A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought

Edited by Ryan K. Balot

A Companion to Ovid

Edited by Peter E. Knox

A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language

Edited by Egbert Bakker

A Companion to Hellenistic Literature

Edited by Martine Cuypers and James J. Clauss

A Companion to Vergil's Aeneid and its Tradition

Edited by Joseph Farrell and Michael C. J. Putnam

A Companion to Horace

Edited by Gregson Davis

A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman


Edited by Beryl Rawson

A Companion to Greek Mythology

Edited by Ken Dowden and Niall Livingstone

A Companion to the Latin Language

Edited by James Clackson

A Companion to Tacitus

Edited by Victoria Emma Pagán

Title Page

List of Illustrations


1.    Place names mentioned in Part I: Women Outside Athens and Rome

2.    Place names mentioned in Part II: The Archaic and Classical Periods

3.    Place names mentioned in Part III: Women in a Cosmopolitan World:
The Hellenistic and Late Republican Periods

4.    Place names mentioned in Part IV: The Beginnings of Empire and Part V:
From Empire to Christianity


2.2    Menna supervises agricultural work. Mural painting from the vestibule of the Tomb of Menna in Thebes, Egypt. Photo: © DeA Picture Library/Art Resource, NY.

2.3    Wooden female figure, probably Middle Kingdom. Photo: Courtesy of Egypt Centre, Swansea University, Wales.

2.4    Elevated platform in a house in New Kingdom Deir el-Medina. Photo: Courtesy of Kenneth Griffin.

2.5    After Auguste Mariette (1869–1880). Abydos: Description des fouilles exécutées sur l'emplacement de cette ville. Ouvrage publié sous les auspices S.A. Ismail-Pacha (Paris) v. 2, pl. 60.

3.1    “Dancer” fresco from the “Queen's Megaron,” Knossos palace. Late Minoan II—Mycenean, fifteenth century BCE. Crete, Herakleion Archaeological Museum. Photo: Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY.

3.2    ”Lady of Phylakopi,” terracotta figurine from Melos. Mycenean, fourteenth century BCE. Melos, Archaeological Museum of Plaka. Photo: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.

3.3    Anthropomorphic terracotta vase (“Goddess rhyton”) from Mochlos. Early Minoan III, late third millennium BCE. Crete, Herakleion Archaeological Museum. Photo: Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY.

3.4    Ivory female triad from Mycenae. Minoan craftsmanship; Late Minoan I, sixteenth century BCE. Athens, National Archaeological Museum. Photo: Vanni/Art Resource, NY.

3.5    Young girl (priestess?) with ritual vessel. Wall painting from the West House at Akrotiri, Thera, Late Cycladic I, seventeenth century BCE. Athens, National Archaeological Museum. Photo: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.

5.1    “The Judgement of Paris.” Line drawing of an Etruscan mirror (in Figure 5.2). Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK. Drawing: Courtesy of the Syndics of the Fitzwilliam Museum.

5.2    “The Judgement of Paris.” Etruscan mirror (fourth century BCE). Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK. Photo: Courtesy of the Syndics of the Fitzwilliam Museum.

9.1    Os coxa (hip bone) of an adult female, twenty-five to thirty-five years old, showing the auricular surface and pubic symphysis, features used in determining the age of adults. M. H. Wiener Laboratory modern collection, American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Photo: author.

9.2    Maxilla of an adult female, forty-five to fifty-five years old. Arrows indicate linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH). Athenian agora, early Iron Age. Photo: author.

9.3    Mandible and maxilla of an adult female, thirty to forty years old. Arrow indicates a groove on the maxillary central incisor probably caused by using the teeth in hand spinning. Liatovouni, Epirus, early Iron Age. Photo: author.

9.4    Sacroiliac joint (top) and thoracic vertebra (bottom) of an adult female, thirty-five to fifty years old. Arrows indicate lesions probably resulting from brucellosis infection. Liatovouni, Epirus, early Iron Age. Photo: author.

9.5    Superior surface of the eye orbits of a child, eight to ten years old. Arrows indicate areas of Cribra Orbitalia (CO). Athenian agora, second century BCE. Photo: author.

10.1    Red-figure epinetron, Eretria Painter. Athens, National Archaeological Museum 1629; ARV2 1250.34, 1688; Paralipomena 469; Beazley Addenda2 354. Photo: Eva-Maria Czakó, DAI-ATH-NM 5126.

11.1    Attic red-figure kylix near the Jena Painter, c. 400  BCE. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 1900.354. Photograph © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

11.2    Attic red-figure kylix attributed to the Aberdeen Painter, c. 450–430  BCE. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 03.820. Photograph © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

11.4    Laconian bronze mirror handle of a caryatid mirror, c. 530  BCE. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, inv. no. 74.51.5680. Cesnola Collection. Photo: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY.

11.5    Tondo of an Attic red-figure kylix attributed to the Painter of Bologna 417, c. 460  BCE. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art Rogers Fund 1906.1021.67. Photo: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY.

12.4    Roman copy of the Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles. Original c.350–340  BCE; this version comes from the Villa of the Quintilii in Rome. Munich, Glyptothek, Staatliche Antikensammlung, inv. no. 258. Photo: Vanni/Art Resource, NY.

13.1    Diagram of the main types of Greek garments: (a) peplos, (b) chiton, (c) chiton with himation. Drawing by Glynnis Fawkes.

13.2    Statue that stood atop the grave of Phrasikleia; Parian marble statue made by Aristion of Chios, c. 550–540  BCE. Found at Merenda (ancient Myrrhinous), Attica. Photo: Vanni/Art Resource, NY.

13.3    Marble votive relief to Artemis, found at Echinos in Thessaly, c. 300  BCE. Lamia Archaeological Museum, inv. AE 1041. Drawing by Glynnis Fawkes.

13.4    Lapith woman and centaur, west pediment, temple of Zeus at Olympia. Photo: D-DAI-ATH Olympia 3362, Hermann Wagner.

16.1    Limestone statue of a kourotrophos from the North Necropolis of Megara Hyblaea, mid-sixth century BCE. Syracuse, Museo Regionale Paolo Orsi. Photo: © Scala/Art Resource, NY.

16.3    Italian fibulae types from Syracuse. Nos 1–3: Navicella fibulae; No. 4: Leech fibula; No. 5–6: Bone-and-amber fibulae. Similar types occur at Pithekoussai and other Greek sites in Italy and Sicily. Drawing by H. Buglass after Orsi (1895).

CSIII.1  Three terracotta “Tanagra” figurines. Paris, Musée de Louvre. Photo: Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.

18.1    Stele for Hediste. Volos, Athanasakeion Archaeological Museum inv. no. λ1. Date: 200–150  BCE. Photo: author.

18.2    Stele for Archidike. Volos, Athanasakeion Archaeological Museum inv. no. λ20. Date: 225–200  BCE. Photo: author.

18.3    Stele for Aline. Mykonos Archaeological Museum. Date: end of second century BCE. Photo: EFA/Emile Sérafis.

18.4    Stele for Isias. Mykonos Archaeological Museum. Date: second half of second century BCE. Photo: EFA/Emile Sérafis.

19.1    Portrait statue of Aristonoe from Rhamnous. Athens, National Museum inv. 232. Statue H. 1.62 meters. Photo: Meletzis, DAI Athens neg. NM 5211.

19.2    Statues of Kleopatra and Dioscurides, from the House of Kleopatra and Dioscurides on Delos. Delos Museum inv. A7763, A 7799, A 7997a. Statue H. 1.48 meters. Photo: G. Hellner, DAI Athens neg. 1970/886.

19.3    Cast of the portrait statue of Nikeso from Priene on its base. Statue H. 1.73 meters. Photo: Akademisches Kunstmuseum Bonn.

19.4    Statue of Flavia Vibia Sabina, from in front of the Arch of Caracalla, Thasos. Istanbul Archaeological Museum inv. 375. Statue H. 2.11 meters. Photo: W. Schiele, DAI Istanbul neg. 78/291.

21.1    Black-figured hydria of the Priam Painter, last quarter of the sixth century BCE. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts inv. 61.195. Photo: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

21.2    Plan of House Avii4 at Olynthos. Drawing: M. Trümper after Robinson and Graham (1938: figure 99).

21.3    Plan of the Roman Forum in the Augustan period. Drawing: M. Trümper after Favro (1996), figure 8.

21.4    Plan of the Greek bath with separate bathing rooms at Krokodilopolis; plan of the Republican bath at Pompeii, with separate bathing sections. Drawing: M. Trümper after El-Khachab (1978) and Maiuri (1950: figure 1).

29.1    Plan of the Building of Eumachia. Drawing: after Dobbins AJA 98: 2008, figure 16.

29.2    Statue of Eumachia. Naples, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, inv. no. 6232. Photo: Anger/DAI-Rom 1989.0113.

29.3    Properties of Julia Felix, view of the garden. Photo: Christopher Parslow.

29.4    Inscription from the schola tomb of Aesquillia Polla, Porta di Nola Necropolis, Pompeii. Photo: Eisner/DAI-Rome 1963.1280.

30.1    Livia, composite of head in Oxford (Ashmolean AN 1941.808) and body in Narona. Photo: Hrvoje Manenica, Director of the Archaeological Museum Narona.

30.2    Silver bust of Livia from Herculaneum. Herculaneum deposit inv. 4205/79502. Photo: Soprintendente Archeologo Pompei.

30.3    Relief from the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias depicting Nero and Agrippina. Photo: New York University Excavations at Aphrodisias.

30.4    Statue of Agrippina in Egyptian greywacke, body from Centrale Montemartini (inv. MC 1882/S) and head from the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Rome, Musei Capitolini, Centrale Montemartini. Photo: Archivio Fotografico dei Musei Capitolini.

31.1    Painted linen shroud for a woman, c. 100–125  CE, L 140.0 centimeters. Provenance unknown. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 26.5. Photo: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY.

31.2    Portrait detail of the shroud in Figure 31.1 c. 100–125  CE. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of George D. Pratt, 1926 (26.5). Image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

31.3    Mask in place on the mummy of a woman named Artemidora, made of linen cartonnage with added plaster, painted and gilded, and inlaid with glass and stone. From Meir, late first century or early second century CE. L. 78.0 centimeters. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 11.155.5. Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1911. Photo: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY.

31.4    Limestone funerary relief of a woman, c. 160  CE. Provenance unknown, possibly Oxyrhynchus. H. 68.0 centimeters. Harvard University Art Museums 1977.197. Photo: © The President and Fellows, Harvard College, Harvard University Art Museums.

31.5    Limestone funerary relief of a woman holding a pyxis, with traces of paint, late second or early third century CE. H. 142.5 centimeters. From Oxyrhynchus. Hannover, Museum August Kestner 1965.29. Photo: Courtesy of the Museum August Kestner.

31.6    Limestone funerary relief of a woman in the dress of an Isis cult initiate or priestess, late second or early third century CE. H. 115.0 centimeters. From Oxyrhynchus. Brussels, Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire/Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis inv. E.8239. Photo: Courtesy of the Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire/Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis.

CS VI.1  Unknown, Syrian, Roman: Funeral relief of No'om (?) wife of Haira, son of Maliku, c. 150  CE, sandstone, 19 3/4; × 15 img × 7 img inches (50.2 × 39.7 × 18.7 centimeters). Ackland Art Museum, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The William A. Whitaker Foundation Art Fund. 79.29.1.

CS VI.2  Palmyrene portrait bust. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, inv. GR.9.1888. Photo: courtesy Fitzwilliam Museum.

33.1    Statue of a Woman. Roman, second century CE. Marble. H 69 ¼ inches (175.9 cm). Dallas Museum of Art, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Cecil H. Green. Photo: Courtesy Dallas Museum of Art.

33.2    Marciana, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 1916.286. Photo: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

33.3    Portrait of woman with hairstyle similar to Matidia. Madrid, Museo del Prado inv. 356-E. Photo: DAI Madrid, neg. no. D-DAI-MAD-WIT-R-081-87-06, P. Witte.

33.4    Idealized portrait of Matidia. Luni marble. Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori, Musei Capitolini. Photo: Vanni/Art Resource, NY.

34.1    Tombstone of Regina from South Shields (RIB 1065). Photo: courtesy CIAS, Newcastle University.

34.2    The Aemilia finger ring, from Corbridge, is decorated with the letters “Aemilia Zeses” (Amelia may you live) in the opus interrasile technique (RIB 2422.1). Photo: courtesy CIAS, Newcastle University.

34.3    Tombstone for Aurelia Aia, daughter of Titus and wife of Aurelius Marcus, a soldier in the century of Obsequens (RIB 1828). Photo: courtesy CIAS, Newcastle University.

35.1    Busts of Cassia Victoria and her husband, L. Laecanius Primitivus, on the tympanum of the sacellum of the Augustales at Misenum. Photo: courtesy of Paola Miniero, after figure 4a, The Sacellum of the Augustales at Miseno (Electa Napoli, 2000).

35.2    Portrait statue of Minia Procula from Bulla Regia, now in the Bardo Museum in Tunis. Photo: courtesy Joop Derksen.

35.3    Graph of inscriptions of civic benefactresses (total=354).

35.4    Graph of inscriptions of priestesses of the imperial cult (total=281).

38.1    Marble head of a female figure, c. 375–400  CE. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fletcher Fund 47.100.51. Photo: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY.

38.2    Enthroned empress Ariadne (?), d. 515  CE, ivory. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Photo: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.

38.4    Aphrodite receiving the golden apple from Paris, ivory pyxis. Baltimore, The Walters Art Museum, inv. no. 71–64. Photo: Walters Art Museum.

38.5    Ivory plaque of Adam and Eve at the forge, Byzantine eleventh–twelfth century CE. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917; inv. no. 17.190.139. Photo: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY.

Notes on Contributors

Lindsay Allason-Jones was Director of the Centre for Interdisciplinary Artefact Studies and Reader in Roman Material Culture at Newcastle University until she retired in 2011. She was previously Director of Archaeological Museums for the University. An acknowledged authority on Hadrian’s Wall, Roman Britain, and Roman and Medieval Sudan, she is the author of thirteen books, including Women in Roman Britain (2005) and Daily Life in Roman Britain (2008). She is Trustee of many of the Hadrian’s Wall museums as well as the Hadrian’s Art Trust.

Rhiannon Ash is Fellow and Tutor in Classical Literature at Merton College, Oxford University. She has broad interests in Latin Literature of the Roman Empire, but her particular research is in the sphere of Roman historiography, above all Tacitus. She has published various books and articles on Virgil, Plutarch, Pliny the Elder, Pliny the Younger, and Tacitus, including a commentary on Tacitus’ Histories 2 (2007). Her next project is a commentary on Tacitus’ Annals 15.

Elizabeth Bartman is an independent scholar specializing in ancient Roman art and past President of the Archaeological Institute of America. She has written numerous articles and reviews as well as the books Ancient Sculptural Copies in Miniature (Brill 1992); Portraits of Livia: Imaging the Imperial Female in Augustan Rome (Cambridge 1999); and The Ince Blundell Collection of Classical Sculpture: The Ideal Sculpture (forthcoming). This latest project has opened up a range of interests related to the reception of the antique in the eighteenth century, especially Grand Tour collecting and the restoration and fakery of ancient marbles.

Anne Bielman has been Professor of Ancient History at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) since 2005. She received her doctorate from Lausanne in 1994 with a thesis on the release of prisoners in Ancient Greece. She has been a visiting scholar in Paris, Rome, and Oxford. Since 1998 her work has focused on the epigraphical evidence for female public activities in Hellenistic Greece and Republican Rome.

T. Corey Brennan is Associate Professor of Classics at Rutgers University-New Brunswick; he has also taught at Bryn Mawr College. He was appointed Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the American Academy in Rome, 2009–2012. His books are The Praetorship in the Roman Republic (2000) and East and West: Papers in Ancient History Presented to Glen W. Bowersock (co-editor with Harriet I. Flower, 2009). He has written extensively on Roman history and culture.

Elizabeth D. Carney is Professor of History and Carol K. Brown Scholar in the Humanities at Clemson University. She is the author of Women and Monarchy in Ancient Macedonia (2000) and Olympias, Mother of Alexander the Great (2006), Arsinoë of Egypt and Macedon: A Royal Life (Oxford University Press, 2013), and co-editor (with Daniel Ogden) of Philip II and Alexander the Great: Father and son, lives and afterlives (2010). She is currently at work on a monograph about Eurydice, mother of Philip II and grandmother of Alexander.

Cheryl A. Cox is Associate Professor of Classics at the University of Memphis. She is the author of Household Interests (1998) and several articles on the family and household in ancient Athens.

Eve D’Ambra is the Agnes Rindge Claflin Professor of Art History at Vassar College, where she teaches Greek and Roman art and archaeology. She has published Roman Art (1998) and Roman Women (2007) as well as articles on the commemorative art of Roman citizens of the lower social orders. Her current research focuses on the sculpted portraits of Roman women and beauty.

Marguerite Deslauriers is Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Director of the Institute for Gender, Sexuality, and Feminist Studies at McGill University. She is the author of Aristotle on Definition (2007), in Brill’s series Philosophia Antiqua.

Sheila Dillon is Professor and Chair of the Department of Art, Art History & Visual Studies at Duke University, with a secondary appointment in the Department of Classical Studies. Her most recent book is The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World (Cambridge University Press, 2010). She has extensive fieldwork experience in both Greece and Turkey, and was a member of New York University Excavations at Aphrodisias from 1992 until 2004. Her current project is a history of portrait statuary in Roman Athens, which explores the impact of Rome and Roman portrait styles on Attic portraiture and honorific practices.

A. A. Donohue is the Rhys Carpenter Professor of Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology at Bryn Mawr College. Among her publications on the history and historiography of classical art are Xoana and the Origins of Classical Sculpture (1988), Greek Sculpture and the Problem of Description (2005), and a volume co-edited with M. D. Fullerton on Ancient Art and Its Historiography (2003).

Cristiana Franco teaches at University for Foreigners in Siena. Her research focuses on the role played by cultural representations of animal species in the process of naturalization of gender ideology in ancient cultures. Besides many articles she has published a study on the connection between the dog and the female in ancient Greek literature and myth (Senza ritegno: Il cane e la donna nell’immaginario della Grecia antica, 2003, published in English by the University of California Press as Shameless. The Canine and the Feminine in Ancient Greece, 2014), and an essay on the myth of Circe (Il mito di Circe, 2010).

Amy R. Gansell is Assistant Professor of Art History at St. John’s University in New York City, where she teaches courses on ancient and non-Western art. She received her PhD from Harvard University in 2008 and was a post-doctoral fellow at Emory University’s Bill and Carol Fox Center for Humanistic Inquiry. She is currently working on a book about feminine beauty and female imagery at the Neo-Assyrian Northwest Palace at Nimrud and has previously published on the Royal Tombs of Ur, Iron Age Levantine ivory sculptures of women, and ethno-archaeological interpretations of ancient Mesopotamian adornment.

Judith P. Hallett is Professor of Classics at the University of Maryland at College Park, where she has been named a Distinguished Scholar-Teacher. She received her PhD from Harvard University in 1971, and has been a Mellon Fellow at Brandeis University and the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women as well as the Blegen Visiting Scholar at Vassar College. Her major research specializations are Latin language and literature; gender, sexuality, and the family in ancient Greek and Roman society; and the history of classical studies, and the reception of classical Greco-Roman literary texts, in the United States. In 2013 Routledge published Domina Illustris: Roman Literature, Gender and Reception (ed. Donald Lateiner, Barbara K. Gold and Judith Perkins), a volume of nineteen essays in her honor.

Emily A. Hemelrijk is Professor of Ancient History at the University of Amsterdam. She has published numerous articles on Roman women. Her book, Matrona docta: Educated Women in the Roman Élite from Cornelia to Julia Domna, was published in 1999. She is currently working on a project called Hidden Lives – Public Personae: Women in the Urban Texture of the Roman Empire, for which she received a Vidi grant from the Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research (NWO). She is preparing a book on women’s public roles in the cities of the Latin West (outside Rome), that is entitled Hidden Lives – Public Personae: Women and Civic Life in Italy and the Latin West During the Roman Principate.

Madeleine M. Henry is Professor of Classics and Head of the School of Languages and Cultures at Purdue University. Her main research interests are women’s life in ancient Greece, Greek comedy, and the history of encyclopedia literature and of literary criticism. Her recent publications include The Greek Prostitute in the Ancient Mediterranean (2011, co-edited with Allison Glazebrook). Current and future projects are Neaera: Writing a Prostitute’s Life (book), “Orphic themes in J. J. Phillips’ Mojo Hand,” and “Mythic dimensions of the city of dreams: New Orleans as a Hellenistic space” (essays). She teaches Latin, Greek, courses in translation, and sometimes Women’s Studies.

Maura K. Heyn is Associate Professor in the Department of Classical Studies at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Her research focuses on the funerary sculpture of Palmyra, and she has recently published “Gesture and identity in the funerary art of Palmyra” in the American Journal of Archaeology. She has also written several papers on the mural decoration of the Temple of the Palmyrene Gods in Dura-Europos.

Lora L. Holland is Associate Professor of Classics at the University of North Carolina at Asheville, and was recently Blegen Research Fellow at Vassar College and Visiting Scholar in Greek and Roman Religion at the Center for Hellenic Studies in Washington, DC. She is the author of Religion in the Roman Republic, forthcoming in Wiley-Blackwell’s Ancient Religions series, and of various articles on Greek and Roman religion and culture.

Vedia Izzet is Research Fellow in Archaeology at the University of Southampton, UK. She was formerly a fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, and a Rome Scholar at the British School at Rome. She has directed British excavations at the Sant’Antonio sanctuary in Cerveteri and magnetometry survey at Spina. She is the author of The Archaeology of Etruscan Society (2007), and is co-editor of Greece and Rome.

Sharon L. James is Associate Professor of Classics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and has published numerous articles on women and gender in Latin literature, as well as Learned Girls and Male Persuasion: Gender and Reading in Roman Love Elegy (2003). She has recently completed a book manuscript on women in New Comedy. In 2012, she co-directed the NEH Summer Institute, “Roman Comedy in Performance.” Videotaped scenes are on-line at YouTube.

Ioli Kalavrezou earned her PhD at the University of California Berkeley, and is now Dumbarton Oaks Professor of the History of Byzantine Art at Harvard University. She has also taught at the University of California Los Angeles and the University of Munich. Since 1989 she has been on the Board of Senior Fellows of Dumbarton Oaks and the Center for Byzantine Studies in Washington, DC. She has also served on the National Advisory Board on Research and Technology of Greece (2004–2010). Her research covers a range of topics: ivory carving, imperial art, manuscript illumination, the use of symbols and relics in the empire, the cult of the Virgin Mary, and the everyday world of the Byzantines, especially for women.

Alison Keith is Professor and Chair of Classics at the University of Toronto. Her work focuses on Latin epic and elegy, and especially on the intersection of gender and genre in Latin literature. A past editor of Phoenix, she has written books on Ovid’s Metamorphoses, women in Latin epic, and Propertius, and edited volumes on Latin elegy and Hellenistic epigram, the European reception of the Metamorphoses (with S. Rupp), and Roman dress and society (with J. Edmondson).

Ross S. Kraemer is Professor Emerita of Religious Studies and Judaic Studies at Brown University. She is the author of numerous studies on gender and women’s religions in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, including Her Share of the Blessings: Women’s Religions among Pagans, Jews and Christians in the Greco-Roman World (1992) and Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2011). She holds a BA in religion from Smith College, and an MA and a PhD in religion from Princeton University.

Mireille M. Lee is Assistant Professor in the Department of History of Art at Vanderbilt University, with a secondary appointment in Classical Studies; she is also an affiliated faculty member in Women’s and Gender Studies. She has published widely on various aspects of Greek dress and gender. Her first book, Body, Dress, and Identity in Ancient Greece (2015) uses contemporary dress theory to uncover the social meanings of ancient Greek dress. Her current research focuses on Greek bronze mirrors.

Barbara Levick, Emeritus Fellow and Tutor in Literae Humaniores at St. Hilda’s College, Oxford, besides working on Asia Minor in ancient times, is the author of Tiberius the Politician (1976), Claudius (1990), Vespasian (1999), and Augustus, Image and Substance (2010). In the field of gender studies she has published Julia Domna, Syrian Empress (2007), and with Richard Hawley co-edited the collection Women in Antiquity: New Assessments (1995). She is currently working on a study of the Antonine Empresses: Imperial Women of the Golden Age: Faustina I and II.

Laura S. Lieber is Associate Professor of Late Ancient Judaism in the Religion Department at Duke University. She is the author of Yannai on Genesis: An Invitation to Piyyut (2010) and A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (forthcoming). She is also co-editor with Deborah Green of Scriptural Exegesis: Shapes of the Religious Imagination, a Festschrift in Honour of Michael Fishbane (2009).

Maria A. Liston is Associate Professor and Chair of the Anthropology Department at the University of Waterloo, and cross-appointed to the Classical Studies Department. She has studied cremation and inhumation burials from various sites in Crete and mainland Greece. In addition to the skeletons from wells in the Athenian Agora and the remains of the Theban Sacred Band from the Battle of Chaironeia (338 BC) she has recently begun working with the early Byzantine burials in the Sanctuary of Ismenion Apollo in Thebes.

Rachel Meyers is Assistant Professor of Classical Studies at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. She earned her Ph.D. in Classical Studies at Duke University in 2006. She is currently working on a book on the dynastic commemoration of the Antonine imperial family and has previously published on the topics of female benefactors and Roman numismatics.

Jennifer Sheridan Moss is an Associate Professor of Classics and former Director of Women’s Studies at Wayne State University. Her primary research interest is documentary papyrology from the late Antique period. Her work includes studies of taxation, women’s legal rights, and women’s literacy. She is currently writing an article on the ongoing misuse of Plutarch’s description of Cleopatra.

Jenifer Neils is Elsie B. Smith Professor in the Liberal Arts at Case Western Reserve University. She is the author of The Parthenon Frieze (2001) and has published two major exhibition catalogues, Coming of Age in Ancient Greece (2003) and Goddess and Polis: The Panathenaic Festival in Ancient Athens (1992). Her most recent book is entitled Women in the Ancient World, published in 2011 by the British Museum and the J. Paul Getty Museum.

Marianna Nikolaıdou is a Research Associate at the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA, and has taught archaeology and anthropology at UCLA Extension and the California State University, Los Angeles. Her fieldwork and publications focus on the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of the Aegean and the Levant. The co-author of the first book on gender in Aegean prehistory in 1993, she has been publishing extensively on gender archaeology and politics in the Aegean. Other research interests include symbolism and ritual, iconography, ceramics, adornment, and technology, with a co-edited volume on prehistoric shell technologies (2011). Current projects include the ceramic technologies at Tell Mozan, Syria, the prehistoric pottery from Ancient Methone, Northern Greece, and the iconography of religious symbols on Minoan pottery from Crete.

Maryline Parca teaches in the History Department of the University of San Diego. She has edited Latin inscriptions, published Greek literary and documentary papyri, and co-edited a volume of essays on the religious lives of ancient women. She is currently at work on wet nursing contracts and is acting as co-editor of the special issue “Gender, East and West in the Ancient World” for Classical World.

Holt Parker received his PhD from Yale and is Professor of Classics at the University of Cincinnati. He has been awarded the Rome Prize, the Women’s Classical Caucus Prize for Scholarship (twice), a Loeb Library Foundation Grant, and a Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities. He has published on Sappho, Sulpicia, sexuality, slavery, sadism, and spectacles. His book Olympia Morata: The Complete Writings of an Italian Heretic (2003) won the Josephine Roberts Award from the Society for the Study of Early Modern Women. Censorinus: The Birthday Book (2007) is the first complete English translation of that curious piece of learning. With William A. Johnson he has edited Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009). His translation of The Hermaphrodite by Antonio Beccadelli is part of the I Tatti Renaissance Library.

Werner Riess holds a PhD in Ancient History from the University of Heidelberg, Germany and is currently Professor of Ancient History at the University of Hamburg, Germany. He is the author of Apuleius und die Rauber: Ein Beitrag zur historischen Kriminalitatsforschung (2001) and Performing Interpersonal Violence: Court, Curse, and Comedy in Fourth-Century BCE Athens (2011).

Christina Riggs is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Art, Media and American Studies at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK. Her books include Unwrapping Ancient Egypt (2014), Ancient Egyptian Art: A Very Short Introduction (2014), and The Beautiful Burial in Roman Egypt: Art, Identity and Funerary Religion (2005); she has also edited the Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt (2012) and published many articles on art, archaeology, and the body in ancient Egypt.

Christina A. Salowey is Professor of Classical Studies at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia. She has served twice as the Gertrude Smith Professor at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Her interests are burial monuments of the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods and the cults of Herakles. She has published on Herakles as a cult figure, Archaic funerary korai, and the use of math and science in the teaching of ancient art.

Gillian Shepherd is Director of the A.D. Trendall Research Centre for Ancient Mediterranean Studies and Lecturer in Ancient Mediterranean Studies at La Trobe University, Australia. Her research interests are in the ancient Greek settlement of Sicily and South Italy, especially burial and votive practices, and interaction between different cultural groups, as well as childhood in antiquity. She has published on ancient Greek burial practices and sanctuaries in Sicily and is co-editor of the forthcoming Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Childhood.

Eva Stehle is Professor Emerita of Classics at the University of Maryland, College Park. She has published in a number of areas, often focusing on the implications of performance for understanding the reception of ancient texts in their original context and on the gendered origin of the speaking voice, whether as performer’s voice or as textual voice. Her book Performance and Gender in Ancient Greece: Nondramatic Poetry in its Context appeared in 1997. She is completing a book on Greek women’s religious ritual and its influence on the development of new religious forms in Classical Greece.

Kasia Szpakowska is Associate Professor of Egyptology at Swansea University, Wales, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, London, and Director of the Ancient Egyptian Demonology Project: Second Millennium BC. She publishes and lectures on Ancient Egyptian private religious practices, dreams, and gender. Her monographs include Behind Closed Eyes: Dreams and Nightmares in Ancient Egypt (2003) and Daily Life in Ancient Egypt: Recreating Lahun (2008), which uses the life a young girl as a model for reconstructing a snapshot in time. She is currently researching Clay Cobras and the Fiery Goddesses of Ancient Egypt.

Lauren Talalay is Curator Emerita and Research Associate at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, University of Michigan. Her research focuses on gender and figurines in Mediterranean prehistory as well as archaeology and popular culture. She has written numerous articles and is the author or co-editor of several books, including Deities, Dolls, and Devices: Neolithic Figurines from Franchthi Cave, Greece (1993), What these Ithakas Mean: Readings in Cavafy (2002), Prehistorians Round the Pond: Reflections on Prehistory as a Discipline (2005), and In the Field: the Archaeological Expeditions of the Kelsey Museum (2006).

Kathryn Topper is Associate Professor of Classics at the University of Washington. Her research focuses on Greek painting, gender and ethnicity in antiquity, ancient banquets, and word and image studies. Her publications include The Imagery of the Athenian Symposium (Cambridge UP, 2012), as well as articles on a variety of topics in Greek and South Italian vase painting. Her current project is a study of the Hellenistic banquet.

Monika Trumper is Professor of Classical Archaeology at the Freie Universitat Berlin. She has written two books and a number of articles on various monuments on Delos (domestic architecture, urban development, clubhouses of associations, shops, synagogues, and Agora of the Italians), and a book on Graeco-Roman slave markets. She is coeditor of the book Greek Baths and Bathing Culture: New Discoveries and Approaches (2013) and has published a number of articles on Greek bathing culture, which is the topic of her current fieldwork and research.