Cover

Table of Contents

Cover

WILEY-BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO SOCIOLOGY

Title page

Copyright page

Contributors

Introduction

Part I: Introduction

1 Philosophy and Sociology

COMPLEXITY: THE CORE ISSUE

THE POSITIVISM DISPUTE

THREE PATHS FROM KANT

NEO-KANTIANISM IN TROUBLE

THE STATUS OF THE PROBLEMS TODAY

CONCLUSION

2 A Selective History of Sociology

3 Quantitative Methods

HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY

GOALS AND STRATEGIES

SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE METHODS

CONCLUSIONS

4 Qualitative Methods

5 Classical Sociological Theory

6 Contemporary Sociological Theory

CHALLENGES FROM WITHIN MODERNITY

CHALLENGES FROM POSTMODERNITY

“ZOMBIE THEORIES”

THE LIVELINESS OF TRADITIONAL THEORIES

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SOCIAL WORLD AND IN SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY

CONCLUSION

Part II: Basic Topics in Sociology

7 Action, Interaction, and Groups

MEANING AND EMOTION IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

SOCIAL STRUCTURAL INFLUENCES ON MEANING

GROUP PROCESSES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEANING

FUTURE POTENTIAL FOR LINKAGE

8 Groups and Institutions, Structures and Processes

THEMES AND CONTRASTS

THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL FOUNDATIONS IN THE STUDY OF GROUPS

TWO EARLY RESEARCH PROGRAMS: STRUCTURING AND CONFORMITY

CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH PROGRAMS

CONCLUSION

9 The Sociology of Organizations

INTRODUCTION

EXPLORING THE FOUNDATIONS

INSTITUTIONAL ENTREPRENEURS

LEGITIMACY

INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS AND TRANSLATION

INSTITUTIONALISM’S OPPOSITION

WHITHER FOUCAULT’S POWER?

CONCLUSION

10 Cultural Analysis

INTRODUCTION: THE PROLIFERATION OF THE CULTURAL

GLOBALIZATION

COMMODIFICATION

MEDIATIZATION AND THE CULTURE OF IMMEDIACY

11 The Changing Life Course

THE LIFE COURSE PERSPECTIVE

DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXTS OF THE CHANGING LIFE COURSE

SOCIAL CONTRACTS AND THE DEVOLUTION OF RISK

CONCLUSIONS

12 Deviance

WHAT IS DEVIANCE?

SOME CONTEMPORARY DEBATES

ENTER DURKHEIM

IMPLICATIONS OF DURKHEIM’S IDEAS

DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL

MORAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

MORAL PANICS

DEVIANCE, CHANGE, AND STABILITY

POLITICS AND DEVIANCE

POLITICAL DEVIANCE VS. POLITICAL JUSTICE

POLITICAL TRIALS AND JUDGING DEVIANTS

CRIMINALS AS HEROES AND POLITICAL CRIMINALS

POWER AND MORALITY IN REGULAR DEVIANCE

TWO ILLUSTRATIONS

CULTURAL CRIMINOLOGY

CONCLUDING SUMMARY

13 Criminology

INTRODUCTION

THE MAKING OF LAW

THE BREAKING OF LAW

SINGLE FACTOR REDUCTIONISM

SYSTEMIC REDUCTIONISM

MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES

INTERDISCIPLINARY EXPLANATIONS

SOCIETY’S REACTION TO LAW BREAKING

CONCLUSION

14 Critical Sexualities Studies

HISTORY: THE EMERGING NEW CRITICAL SEXUALITIES STUDIES

FRAMING CRITICAL SEXUALITY STUDIES: ESSENTIAL SOCIAL FEATURES OF THE HUMANLY SEXUAL

CHANGE: TRANSFORMATIONS OF TWENTY-FIRST-CENTURY SEXUALITIES

CONCLUSION: GENERATIONAL SEXUALITIES

15 Feeling Class

INTRODUCTION

CLASS PERFORMATIVITY

DIFFERENT HISTORICAL TRAJECTORIES

CLASS RECOGNITIONS AND JUDGMENT

AFFECT AND SYMBOLIC VIOLENCE

CONCLUSION

16 Racial and Ethnic Issues

INTRODUCTION

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF RACE AND ETHNICITY THEORIES AND APPROACHES

CONTEMPORARY EXAMPLES OF RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION

RESISTANCE

CONCLUSION

17 Genders and Sexualities in Global Context

INTRODUCTION

SOCIOLOGY OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

DESTABILIZING CATEGORIES

INTERSECTIONAL ANALYSES OF GENDER AND SEXUALITIES

GENDER AND SEXUALITIES IN CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXT

GENDER, SEXUALITY, AND GLOBALIZATION

CONCLUSION

18 Changing Families

FLEXIBILITY AND CHOICE: THE EXAMPLE OF COHABITATION

COHABITATION AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS

PARENTING

FLEXIBILITY AND FAMILY STRUCTURE

CONCLUSION

19 Sociology of Education

THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION

SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

SCHOOL SECTOR AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

RACIAL/ETHNIC EFFECTS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

GENDER EFFECTS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION

CONCLUSIONS

20 Sociology of Religion

RETHINKING MICRO-LEVEL SECULARIZATION

RELIGIOUS PLURALIZATION

RELIGION AND HEALTH

ADOLESCENT RELIGION

CONSERVATIVE PROTESTANTISM IN THE UNITED STATES

TOLERANCE AND PREJUDICE

RELIGION AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

IMPROVING RELIGION MEASURES

GLOBALIZING RELIGION

RELIGION AND ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL OUTCOMES

CONCLUSION

21 Current Directions in Medical Sociology

PARSONS AND THE ROLE OF THEORY

THE POST-PARSONS ERA (1952–69)

THE PERIOD OF MATURITY (1970–2000)

THE PRESENT (2000–10)

HEALTH REFORM

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

CONCLUSION

22 Media and Communications

COMMUNICATION AND SOCIAL THEORY: LEGACY AND DEFINITIONS

CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Acknowledgment

23 Work and Employment

INTRODUCTION

THE SOCIOLOGY OF WORK

ASCRIPTIVE INEQUALITY AT WORK

THE SOCIOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS

CONCLUSION

24 The Sociology of Consumption

SUBSTANTIVE STUDIES OF CONSUMPTION

THEORIES OF CONSUMPTION

DISSATISFACTION IN AN AGE OF ABUNDANCE

CHOICE AND FREEDOM

THE SOCIOLOGY OF CONSUMPTION AND THE “GREAT RECESSION”

CONCLUSION

25 Population

THE DEBATE ABOUT POPULATION GROWTH AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

DEMOGRAPHIC THEORY OF POPULATION CHANGE AND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION

POPULATION PROCESSES OF FERTILITY, MORTALITY, AND MIGRATION

EXPANDING BEYOND FERTILITY, MORTALITY, AND MIGRATION

CONCLUSION

26 Urbanization

THEORIES OF URBANIZATION

URBANIZATION AND SUBURBANIZATION

MEGALOPOLIS, EXURBIA, AND THE MULTINUCLEATED METROPOLITAN REGION

URBANIZATION IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

CONTEMPORARY URBANIZATION TRENDS: MEGA-CITIES AND GLOBAL CITIES

27 Environmental Sociology

FROM CONSTRUCTIVISM AND REALISM TO AGNOSTICISM AND PRAGMATISM

ANTHROPOGENIC CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

SOCIAL IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

THE WAY FORWARD: SOLUTIONS

CONCLUSION

28 Social Movements

CONCEPTUALIZATION AND SIGNIFICANCE

GENERATING AND FACILITATING CONDITIONS

PARTICIPATION

DYNAMICS

OUTCOMES

NEW FRONTIERS IN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

CONCLUDING COMMENT

29 Globalization

THEORIZING GLOBALIZATION

METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE STUDY OF GLOBALIZATION

MAJOR TOPICS IN GLOBALIZATION

CONCLUSION

Part III: Cutting Edge Issues in Sociology

30 After Neoliberalism

CLASHING MODELS OF CAPITALISM: HAYEK VS. POLANYI

MARKET LIBERALISM’S RETURN: FROM THE “NOT QUITE GOLDEN AGE” TO THE “GREAT U-TURN”

HEGEMONIC NEOLIBERALISM: FROM CREST TO CRISIS TO EMPHATIC REASSERTION(?)

CAPITALISM AT THE POINT OF INFLECTION: NEOLIBERALISM’S WAKE

CONCLUSION

Acknowledgments

31 Organized Coercion and Political Authority

LOGICS OF CHANGE IN THE DOMAIN OF WAR

FROM STATE MAKING TO WAR MAKING

FROM WAR MAKING TO STATE MAKING

FROM WAR MAKING TO NEW WAYS OF MAKING WAR

THINGS FALL APART?

Acknowledgments

32 Science and Technology

INTRODUCTION: PARADOX AND PUZZLE

TECHNOSCIENCE

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM

ACTOR NETWORK THEORY

FEMINISM

CONVERGENCE

THE ROLE OF EXPERTISE

CONCLUSION

FUTURE TRENDS

33 The Internet, Web 2.0, and Beyond

TECHNOLOGY IS SOCIAL: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES ONLINE

SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES

OTHER FORMS OF DIGITAL SOCIALIZATION

THE SELF, SUBJECTIVITY, AND IDENTITY

INEQUALITIES

LABOR AND PROSUMPTION

CONCLUSIONS, INSIGHTS, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Index

WILEY-BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO SOCIOLOGY

The Wiley-Blackwell Companions to Sociology provide introductions to emerging topics and theoretical orientations in sociology as well as presenting the scope and quality of the discipline as it is currently configured. Essays in the Companions tackle broad themes or central puzzles within the field and are authored by key scholars who have spent considerable time in research and reflection on the questions and controversies that have activated interest in their area. This authoritative series will interest those studying sociology at advanced undergraduate or graduate level as well as scholars in the social sciences and informed readers in applied disciplines.

The Blackwell Companion to Major Classical Social Theorists

Edited by George Ritzer

The Blackwell Companion to Major Contemporary Social Theorists

Edited by George Ritzer

The Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology

Edited by Kate Nash and Alan Scott

The Blackwell Companion to Criminology

Edited by Colin Sumner

The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements

Edited by David A. Snow, Sarah A. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi

The Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Families

Edited by Jacqueline Scott, Judith Treas, and Martin Richards

The Blackwell Companion to Law and Society

Edited by Austin Sarat

The Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Culture

Edited by Mark Jacobs and Nancy Hanrahan

The Blackwell Companion to Social Inequalities

Edited by Mary Romero and Eric Margolis

The New Blackwell Companion to Social Theory

Edited by Bryan S. Turner

The New Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology

Edited by William C. Cockerham

The New Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Religion

Edited by Bryan S. Turner

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Major Social Theorists

Edited by George Ritzer and Jeffrey Stepnisky

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Sociology

Edited by George Ritzer

Also available:

The Blackwell Companion to Globalization

Edited by George Ritzer

The New Blackwell Companion to the City

Edited by Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson

Title page

Contributors

Graham Allan is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at Keele University, UK. His main research interests concern the sociology of informal relationships, particularly family sociology and the sociology of friendship. His recent publications include Stepfamilies (2011), co-authored with Graham Crow (Southampton University, UK) and Sheila Hawker, and The End of Children? Changing Trends in Childbearing and Childhood (2011), co-edited with Nathan Lauster (University of British Columbia).

Robert J. Antonio teaches social theory at the University of Kansas. He has been interested in theories and processes of modernization, anti-modernization, postmodernization, neomodernization, and globalization. Currently, he is focusing on the impact of the global system of production and consumption on the throughput of resources and production of waste and especially on the sustainability of the economic and cultural imperative of unplanned, exponential growth, central to modern capitalism and especially to today’s neoliberal regime of accumulation.

Nachman Ben-Yehuda’s work focuses on how, why, where, and when challenges to the status quo emerge and function as catalysts for processes of social change or stability. His books focus on betrayal and treason, the Masada myth, political assassinations, politics and deviance, the European witchcraze, deviant sciences and scientists, using archaeology for national purposes, and (with Erich Goode) moral panics. His 2010 book Theocratic Democracy examines public constructions of unconventional behavior amongst fundamentalists. His current work examines the culture of submarine warfare and atrocities. Ben-Yehuda is in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

Suzanne M. Bianchi is Dorothy Meier Chair in Social Equities and Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. She is a past President of the Population Association of America. Her research focuses on time use, gender equality in American families and workplaces, and intergenerational family ties and population aging.

Stewart R. Clegg is Research Professor and Director of the Centre for Management and Organization Studies Research at the University of Technology, Sydney; Visiting Professor of Organizational Change Management, Maastricht University Faculty of Business; Visiting Professor and International Fellow in Discourse and Management Theory, Centre of Comparative Social Studies, Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam; and he is also a Visiting Professor at Copenhagen Business School and EM-Lyon. A prolific publisher in leading academic journals in social science, management, and organization theory, he is also the author and editor of many books, including Power and Organizations (Clegg, Courpasson and Phillips 2006) and Frameworks of Power (1989).

William C. Cockerham is Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Chair of the Department of Sociology and Social Work at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, with secondary appointments in medicine and public health. Among his recent books are Health and Globalization (2010), The New Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology (2010), and Medical Sociology, 12th edition (2012). He is the former President of the Research Committee on Health Sociology of the International Sociological Association (2006–10) and a former member of the Editorial Board of the American Sociological Review (2008–11).

Remy Cross is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology at the University of South Florida. His areas of interest include social movements, radical activism, and the effects of new communication technologies on political behavior. His dissertation examines the decision-making and organization of grassroots anti-authoritarian movements on both the political right and left. His published work has appeared in the Journal of Social Structure, the Journal of Mathematical Sociology, and the Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements.

Paul Dean is a PhD candidate in Sociology at the University of Maryland. His dissertation research explores movements that seek to regulate corporations through social certifications (e.g., Fair Trade) and socially responsible investments by examining how standards for socially responsible practices are constructed. He is also a Lilly Graduate Teaching Fellow and co-creator/co-editor of “The Sociological Cinema: Teaching Sociology Through Video,” an online teaching resource for sociology instructors (www.thesociologicalcinema.com).

Mitchell Duneier is Maurice P. During Professor of Sociology at Princeton. He is the author of Sidewalk, Slim’s Table, and Ghetto (with Alice Goffman, forthcoming 2011).

Riley E. Dunlap is Regents Professor of Sociology at Oklahoma State University and one of the founders of the field of environmental sociology. He has served as Chair of the environmental sociology groups within the American Sociological Association, the Rural Sociological Society, and the Society for the Study of Social Problems, as well as President of the International Sociological Association’s Research Committee on Environment and Society. He is currently chairing the American Sociological Association’s Task Force on Sociology and Global Climate Change. Dunlap is senior editor of the Handbook of Environmental Sociology and Sociological Theory and the Environment.

Mark Erickson is Reader in Sociology at the University of Brighton, and his publications include Science, Culture and Society: Understanding Science in the 21st Century (2005), Business in Society (co-author, 2009), and Myths at Work (co-author, 2001).

Joe R. Feagin, Ella C. McFadden Professor at Texas A&M University, acquired his PhD in Sociology at Harvard University in 1966. Feagin has served as the Scholar-in-Residence at the US Commission on Civil Rights and has written 57 scholarly books in his research areas, one of which (Ghetto Revolts) was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. He is the 2006 recipient of a Harvard Alumni Association lifetime award and was the 2000 President of the American Sociological Association.

Ge Liu earned her PhD in Sociology in the Department of Sociology of the University of Notre Dame in April 2011. Her main fields of research interest are sociology of education, stratification, economic sociology, and quantitative methods. Her dissertation is on peer influence on adolescents’ academic outcomes, and in it she examines friendship networks and racial/ethnic differences in academic outcomes, US-East Asian differences in peer influence, and long-term peer influence.

Kevin Fox Gotham has research interests in real estate and housing markets, urban redevelopment, and the political economy of tourism. He is currently writing a book with Miriam Greenberg (University of California-Santa Cruz) on the federal response to the 9/11 and the Hurricane Katrina disasters. He is author of Race, Real Estate, and Uneven Development (2002) and Authentic New Orleans: Race, Culture, and Tourism in the Big Easy (2007).

Barbara Gurr’s research highlights the intersections of race, class, gender, sexuality, and citizenship. She is the former Director of Women’s Studies at Southern Connecticut State University and the former Assistant Director of Women’s Studies at the University of Connecticut, where she is currently a graduate student in Sociology. Her dissertation, “Restrictive Relations: Native American Women, Reproductive Justice, and the Indian Health Service,” utilizes a reproductive justice perspective to examine the failure of the federal government and the Indian Health Service to provide safe, adequate reproductive healthcare for Native American women.

Maureen T. Hallinan is the White Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame. Her primary research interests are in the effects of the formal and informal organization of schools on students’ cognitive and social development. Currently, she is investigating the effects of the school sector on student academic achievement. She is a past President of the American Sociological Association and the Sociological Research Association and a member of the National Academy of Education. She served as editor of The Sociology of Education and the Handbook of Sociology of Education.

Emma Head has been a Lecturer in Sociology at Keele University, UK, since 2006. She was awarded her PhD in Sociology from the University of Bristol in 2005. She then took up a postdoctoral fellowship at Leeds University. Her research interests are in the sociology of the family, particularly in the areas of parenting, early childhood, and policy.

Nathan Jurgenson is a PhD student in Sociology at the University of Maryland where he is working with George Ritzer on topics surrounding new technologies, especially social media. Nathan has focused on the topic of prosumption (that is, how people are increasingly producers of what they consume and vice versa), the blurring of the on- and off-line worlds, and how new possibilities of self-documentation via social media impact the way we live our everyday lives. All of this has vast consequences for identity, power and domination, surveillance, and much else.

Meyer Kestnbaum is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland College Park. Kestnbaum’s research focuses on warfare and the state, examining historical transformations in war making and their consequences. He has published on a variety of issues in this domain, including “Mars Revealed: The Entry of Ordinary People into War among States” in Adams, Clemens, and Orloff (eds.), Remaking Modernity (2005), and “The Sociology of War and the Military”, Annual Review of Sociology (2009). His work highlights patterns of inclusion and exclusion and processes of meaning-making bound up with the organization and use of coercive force.

Nancy A. Naples is Professor of Sociology and Women’s Studies at the University of Connecticut. She is author of Grassroots Warriors: Activist Mothering, Community Work and the War on Poverty (1998) and Feminism and Method: Ethnography, Discourse Analysis and Activist Scholarship (2003); editor of Community Activism and Feminist Politics: Organizing Across Race, Class, and Gender (1998); and co-editor of Women’s Activism and Globalization: Linking Local Struggles with Transnational Politics (with Manisha Desai, 2002) and The Sexuality of Migration: Border Crossing and Mexican Immigrant Men (with Salvador Vidal-Ortiz, 2009). Her current work includes a study of racialization and social regulation of citizenship in the Midwest and a comparative study of sexual citizenship.

Angela M. O’Rand is Professor of Sociology and Dean of Social Sciences at Duke University. She has published research on aspects of the life course for over 30 years. Based primarily on diverse longitudinal datasets, her research has identified linkages between married couples’ careers and retirement patterns; childhood adversity and later life outcomes in health and wealth; and childhood educational attainment and educational careers across midlife. A unique focus on the impact of retirement institutions (e.g., pension systems and related income security programs) on career trajectories and labor exits has distinguished her work.

John Durham Peters is A. Craig Baird Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Iowa. He is the author of Speaking into the Air: A History of the Idea of Communication (1999) and Courting the Abyss: Free Speech and the Liberal Tradition (2005). His scholarship traces out broad historical, philosophical, religious, cultural, legal, and technological contexts for the study of communication.

Ken Plummer is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex and the founder editor of the journal Sexualities. His works include Sexual Stigma (1975), Telling Sexual Stories (1995), and Intimate Citizenship (2003). His most recent book is Sociology: The Basics (2010).

Jefferson D. Pooley is Associate Professor of Media and Communication at Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania. He is co-editor, with David W. Park, of The History of Media and Communication Research. His research centers on the history of communication studies as the field’s emergence has intersected with the twentieth-century rise of the other social sciences.

P. J. Rey is a PhD student in the Department of Sociology at the University of Maryland. His research is primarily concerned with understanding the social implications of the emergence of the internet. Specifically, his work explores shifting economic relations in the age of digital abundance and the consequences of the constant visibility that is encouraged and facilitated by social media. Additionally, he holds an MA in Philosophy from Duquesne University and maintains an interest in French and German philosophy – particularly the Frankfurt School and post-structuralism.

George Ritzer is Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland. Among his awards are an Honorary Doctorate from La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia and the American Sociological Association’s Distinguished Contribution to Teaching Award. He has chaired the American Sociological Association’s Section on Theoretical Sociology, as well as the Section on Organizations and Occupations and History of Sociology, and he was the first Chair of the section-in-formation on Global and Transnational Sociology. Among his books in metatheory are Sociology: A Multiple Paradigm Science (1975/1980) and Metatheorizing in Sociology (1991). In the application of social theory to the social world, his books include The McDonaldization of Society (6th edn., 2011), Enchanting a Disenchanted World (3rd edn., 2010), and The Globalization of Nothing (2nd edn., 2007). His most recent book is Globalization: A Basic Text (2010). He is currently working on The Outsourcing of Everything (with Craig Lair, forthcoming). He was founding editor of the Journal of Consumer Culture. He also edited the 11-volume Encyclopedia of Sociology (2007) and the two-volume Encyclopedia of Social Theory (2005) and is currently editing the Encyclopedia of Globalization (forthcoming). He is editing a special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist on prosumption. His books have been translated into over 20 languages, with over a dozen translations of The McDonaldization of Society alone.

Kimberly B. Rogers is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology at Duke University. She received her BA in Psychology from Randolph-Macon Woman’s College in 2003, and her MA in Psychology from Wake Forest University in 2005. While at Wake Forest, her research explored American and Japanese thresholds for emotion recognition and use of contextual information in emotion perception. Since beginning her doctoral studies at Duke, her research has centered on the behavioral significance of cultural affective meaning. Her dissertation examines the social structural predictors of cultural meaning formation, and the processes that shape meaning and impression formation in dynamic social context.

Russell K. Schutt (BA, MA, PhD, University of Illinois at Chicago; postdoc, Yale University) is Professor and Chair of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, and Lecturer on Sociology in the Department of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. His many books, peer-reviewed articles, and book chapters concern research methods, social policy, mental health, law, organizations, and occupations, including Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research and Homelessness, Housing and Mental Illness. His research has been funded by the National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, and state agencies.

Jane Sell is Professor of Sociology and a Cornerstone Faculty Fellow at Texas A&M University. She is presently doing research in two areas: the conditions under which racial inequality might be disabled in task groups, and how sudden changes in events can modify cooperation in social dilemmas.

Alan Sica is Professor of Sociology and Founder of the Social Thought Program at Pennsylvania State University. He was editor and publisher of the journal History of Sociology, editor of the ASA journal Sociological Theory, and is currently editor of another ASA journal, Contemporary Sociology. His books include: Hermeneutics: Questions and Prospects; Weber, Irrationality, and Social Order; What Is Social Theory?; The Unknown Max Weber; Max Weber and the New Century; Max Weber: A Comprehensive Bibliography; and Social Thought: From the Enlightenment to the Present. He has been publishing about social theory and the history of sociology since 1978.

Beverley Skeggs is the author of The Media (with John Mundy, 1992), Feminist Cultural Theory (1995), Formations of Class and Gender (1997), Transformations: Thinking Through Feminism (with Sara Ahmed, Jane Kilby, Celia Lury, and Maureen McNeil, 2000); Class, Self, Culture (2004); Sexuality and the Politics of Violence and Safety (with Les Moran, Paul Tyrer, and Karen Corteen, 2004); and Feminism After Bourdieu (with Lisa Adkins, 2005). She is a series editor of the Transformations: Thinking Through Feminism book series (published by Routledge). She is Professor of Sociology at Goldsmiths, University of London, previously at the University of Manchester, and before that Director of Women’s Studies at the University of Lancaster. She has also taught at the universities of Keele and York.

Brittany Chevon Slatton earned her PhD from Texas A&M University, College Station, and is currently Assistant Professor of Sociology at Texas Southern University. Her work examines the intersection of race, gender, class, and sexuality, and relationship dynamics. She recently completed a study documenting white men’s contemporary perspectives on black women. Currently, she is working on an interdisciplinary study with Kamesha Spates on the intersection of masculinity and sexuality among men of color.

Christian Smith is the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, Director of the Center for the Study of Religion and Society, Director of the Notre Dame Center for Social Research, Principal Investigator of the National Study of Youth and Religion, and Principal Investigator of the Science of Generosity Initiative. Smith worked at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1994 to 2006, where he served as Associate Chair of the Department of Sociology from 2000 to 2005. Smith holds an MA (1987) and PhD (1990) in Sociology from Harvard University and has studied Christian historical theology at Harvard Divinity School and other Boston Theological Institute schools. He has directed more than $14 million in grant-funded research projects. Smith’s BA is in Sociology (1983), from Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts. Before moving to UNC Chapel Hill in 1994 and prior to moving to Notre Dame, Smith taught for six years at Gordon College (1988–94). Smith is the author, co-author, or editor of numerous books, including What is a Person?: Rethinking Humanity, Social Life, and the Moral Good from the Person Up; Souls in Transition: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Emerging Adults; Soul Searching: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers; Passing the Plate: Why American Christians Don’t Give Away More Money; Moral, Believing Animals: Human Culture and Personhood; The Secular Revolution: Power, Interests, and Conflict in the Secularization of American Public Life; American Evangelicalism: Embattled and Thriving; Resisting Reagan: Radical Religion and Social Movement Theory; Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movements; and The Emergence of Liberation Theology: Radical Religion and Social Movement Theory. He is also author or co-author of numerous journal articles. Smith’s scholarly interests focus on American religion, cultural sociology, adolescents, generosity, sociological theory, and philosophy of social science.

Lynn Smith-Lovin is Robert L. Wilson Professor of Arts and Sciences in the Department of Sociology (with secondary appointments in Psychology and Neuroscience and in Women’s Studies) at Duke University. She received the 2006 Cooley-Mead Award for lifetime achievement in social psychology from the American Sociological Association Section on Social Psychology and the 2005 Lifetime Achievement Award from the ASA Section on Sociology of Emotions. Her research examines the relationships among identity, action, and emotion. Her current projects involve (1) an experimental study of justice, identity, and emotion (funded by the National Science Foundation), (2) research with Miller McPherson on an ecological theory of identity (also funded by the National Science Foundation), and (3) a study of event processing in Arabic (funded by the Office of Naval Research). She has served as President of the Southern Sociological Society, Vice-President of the American Sociological Association, and Chair of the ASA Sections on the Sociology of Emotion and on Social Psychology.

David A. Snow is a Chancellor’s Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Irvine. He has authored numerous articles and chapters on social movements, religious conversion, framing processes, identity, homelessness, and qualitative field methods, and has co-authored or co-edited Down on Their Luck: A Study of Homeless Street People (with Anderson), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements (with Soule and Kriesi), Together Alone: Personal Relationships in Public Places (with Morrill and White), Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis (with Lofland, Anderson, and Lofland), Readings in Social Movements (with McAdam), A Primer on Social Movements (with Soule), and the Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements (with della Porta, Klandermans, and McAdam).

John Tomlinson is Professor of Cultural Sociology and Director of the Institute for Cultural Analysis, Nottingham (ICAn) at Nottingham Trent University. His many publications on the themes of globalization, cosmopolitanism, cultural modernity, and mediated cultural experience include Cultural Imperialism (1991), Globalization and Culture (1999), and The Culture of Speed (2007). He is currently writing Culture and Virtue: Capitalism, Media and the Fragmentation of Public Value (forthcoming).

Stephen Turner is Graduate Research Professor in Philosophy at the University of South Florida. His books include writings on explanation, such as Sociological Explanation as Translation (1980), issues of theory construction and statistical approaches to causality, including Causality in Crisis? Statistical Methods and Causal Knowledge in the Social Sciences (co-edited with Vaughn McKim, 1997). He has dealt with methodological issues in such fields as Organization Studies and International Relations. He has also written extensively on the history of methodology, especially of statistics and probabilistic thinking, including writings on Comte, Mill, Quetelet, and Durkheim, and on the origins of quantitative sociology in the United States. His most recent book, Explaining the Normative (2010), is a critique of the philosophical arguments for a normativity beyond ordinary social science explanation.

Steven P. Vallas has written widely in the sociology of work, authoring articles in the leading sociology journals. Much of his work has used ethnographic methods to explore the social bases of worker consent and resistance in various branches of the US economy. He is also the author of Work: A Critique (forthcoming). He is currently examining the shifting discourse found in popular management books, while also conducting research on the tensions and contradictions manifest within transnational movements to defend workers’ rights, both in the US and abroad.

Frank Webster is Professor of Sociology and Head of Department, City University London. He has written extensively on informational developments. Recent books include: Theories of the Information Society, 3rd edn. (2006); Journalists under Fire: Information War and Journalistic Practices (with Howard Tumber, 2006); and Anti-War Activism: New Media and Politics (with Kevin Gillan and Jennifer Pickerill, 2008).

Murray Webster, Jr., is Professor of Sociology at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte. He conducts experimental and natural settings research on the operation of status processes, and writes on experimental design and sociological theory construction. He is co-editor of Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences (with Jane Sell, 2007).

Charles F. Wellford is Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland, College Park. He was the founding director of the Office of International and Executive Programs (2005–7). From 1984 to 2007 he was Director of the Maryland Justice Analysis Center. He was Chair of the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice (formerly the Institute of Criminal Justice and Criminology) from 1981 to 1995 and from 1999 to 2004. From 1992 to 1998 he was Director of the Office of Academic Computing Services in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences. For 1998 he was Acting Associate Provost and Dean of Continuing and Extended Education, and in 1998–9 he was Interim Associate Provost for Research and Dean of the Graduate School. He serves on numerous state and federal advisory boards and commissions. He is a past (1995–6) President of the American Society of Criminology (ASC) and in 1996 was elected a Fellow of the ASC; in 2001 he was selected to be a lifetime National Associate of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He chaired the NAS Committee on Law and Justice from 1998 to 2004 and recently chaired the NAS panel on pathological gambling, the panel on research on firearms, and the panel to assess the National Institute of Justice. In Maryland he currently serves on the Maryland Sentencing Policy Commission. From 1976 to 1981 Dr. Wellford served in the Office of the United States Attorney General where he directed the Federal Justice Research Program. The author of numerous publications on criminal justice issues, Dr. Wellford’s most recent research has focused on the determinants of sentencing, and the correlates of homicide clearance.

Vanessa Wight is a family demographer at the National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Her research focuses on child poverty and its implications for family processes and child well-being.

Robert D. Woodberry is Director of the Project on Religion and Economic Change and Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Texas at Austin. His current research uses both historical and statistical methods to analyze the long-term impact of Protestant and Catholic missions on education, civil society, economic development, and democracy. Other interests include comparative colonialism and the spread of religious liberty. His articles – one of which won the Outstanding Article Award from the ASA Sociology of Religion Section in 2001 – appear in the American Sociological Review, Social Forces, JSSR, Teaching Sociology, and elsewhere.

William Yagatich is currently earning his PhD in Sociology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is also working on publishing the main findings of his Master’s thesis, where he examined the pressures of McDonaldization on the tattoo industry via the increasing popularity of American tattooing. His main research focus concerns the intersection of physical spatial structures, consumer behaviors, and power/knowledge. More specifically, in future work he will examine how spatial structures not only serve to control patterns of bodily movement but how these structures often serve to encourage consumption.

Richard York is Associate Professor of Sociology and Environmental Studies, Graduate Program Director of Sociology, and the Richard A. Bray Faculty Fellow at the University of Oregon. He has published over 50 articles in journals including American Sociological Review, Conservation Biology, Sociological Theory, and Theory and Society. He is co-editor of the journal Organization & Environment. He has also published three books: The Critique of Intelligent Design and The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth (both with John Bellamy Foster and Brett Clark) and The Science and Humanism of Stephen Jay Gould (with Brett Clark). He has twice (2004 and 2007) received the Outstanding Publication Award from the Environment and Technology Section of the American Sociological Association.