Cover Page




This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical literature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers.



A Companion to the Roman Army
Edited by Paul Erdkamp
A Companion to the Roman Republic
Edited by Nathan Rosenstein and
Robert Morstein-Marx

A Companion to the Roman Empire
Edited by David S. Potter
A Companion to the Classical Greek World
Edited by Konrad H. Kinzl
A Companion to the Ancient Near East
Edited by Daniel C. Snell
A Companion to the Hellenistic World
Edited by Andrew Erskine
A Companion to Late Antiquity
Edited by Philip Rousseau

In preparation

A Companion to Sparta
Edited by Anton Powell



A Companion to Classical Receptions

Edited by Lorna Hardwick and Christopher Stray

A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography

Edited by John Marincola

A Companion to Catullus

Edited by Marilyn B. Skinner

A Companion to Roman Religion

Edited by Jörg Rüpke

A Companion to Greek Religion

Edited by Daniel Ogden

A Companion to the Classical Tradition

Edited by Craig W. Kallendorf

A Companion to Roman Rhetoric

Edited by William Dominik and Jon Hall

A Companion to Greek Rhetoric

Edited by Ian Worthington

A Companion to Ancient Epic

Edited by John Miles Foley

A Companion to Greek Tragedy

Edited by Justina Gregory

In preparation

A Companion to Sophocles

Edited by Kirk Ormand A Companion to Aeschylus Edited by Peter Burian A Companion to Greek Art

Edited by Tyler Jo Smith and Dimitris Plantzos

A Companion to Ancient History

Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Archaic Greece

Edited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van Wees

A Companion to Julius Caesar

Edited by Miriam Griffin

A Companion to Byzantium

Edited by Liz James

A Companion to Ancient Egypt

Edited by Alan B. Lloyd

A Companion to Ancient Macedonia

Edited by Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington

A Companion to the Punic Wars

Edited by Dexter Hoyos

A Companion to Latin Literature

Edited by Stephen Harrison

A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought

Edited by Ryan K. Balot A Companion to Ovid

Edited by Peter E. Knox

A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language

Edited by Egbert Bakker

A Companion to Hellenistic Literature

Edited by Martine Cuypers and James J. Clauss

A Companion to Vergil’s Aeneid and its Tradition

Edited by Joseph Farrell and Michael C. J. Putnam

A Companion to Horace

Edited by Gregson Davis

A Companion to Families in the Greek and

Roman Worlds

Edited by Beryl Rawson

A Companion to Greek Mythology

Edited by Ken Dowden and Niall Livingstone

A Companion to the Latin Language

Edited by James Clackson

A Companion to Tacitus

Edited by Victoria Pagán

A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East

Edited by Daniel Potts

Title Page

Irene filiae carissimae


Ancient Italy.
Roman silver didrachm, c. 275 BC, showing a wreathed head of Apollo and horse.
Roman silver denarius, c. 212 BC, with Roma and Dioscuri.
Etruscan cast bronze coin, third century BC, with priestly accoutrements.
Roman gold stater, c. 220 BC, showing oath-taking scene.
Seleucid silver tetradrachm, 129–125 BC, depicting the altar of Sandan.
Roman silver denarius, c. 135 BC, showing the Columna Minucia.
Roman silver denarius, 42 BC, showing Octavian on horseback holding a lituus.
Roman gold aureus, AD 69–79, depicting the temple of Vesta.
Ephesian bronze coin, AD 138–61, showing the temple of Artemis.
Silver shekel, AD 132–5, depicting the destroyed Jerusalem Temple.
Bronze coin of Heliopolis, AD 193–211, with an aerial view of the temple.
Bronze coin of Ephesus, AD 218–22, showing the city’s four neocoric temples.
Gold aureus of Augustus, c. 16 BC, showing the clipeus virtutis and sacred laurel trees.
Gold coin made for Sulla, c. 84 BC, with his priestly symbols.
Silver denarius, 44 BC, showing the bust of Julius Caesar with priestly symbols.
Ancient British silver coin of Verica, early first century AD, showing a naked figure holding a lituus.
Bronze coin of Carthago Nova, Spain, mid-first century BC, with Roman priestly symbols.
Silver didrachm from Syrian Antioch, AD 41–54, showing the young Nero and Roman priestly emblems.
Bronze coin of Ephesus, AD 218–22, showing athletic prize-crowns.
Roman silver denarius, c. 97 BC, showing King Numa sacrificing.
Gold aureus of Augustus, 17 BC, showing the emperor sacrificing.
Brass sestertius of Caligula, AD 37–41, showing the emperor pouring a libation like a god and sacrificing.
Denarius of Augustus, 16 BC, showing Apollo Actius pouring a libation.
Denarius of Julius Caesar, 44 BC, with sacrificial implements combined with symbols of prosperity.
Base-metal coin of Constantine I, AD 321, showing a globe resting on an altar.
Denarius of Vitellius, AD 69, with temple and image of Jupiter Capitolinus.
Gold aureus of Elagabalus, AD 218–22, showing the stone image of the god Sol Elagabal being drawn in a chariot.
Denarius of Commodus, AD 187, with an image of Pietas sacrificing.
Bronze coin from Alexandria, AD 81–96, with the figure of Elpis Sebaste.
Copper as of Domitian, AD 84, showing the figure of Moneta Augusta.
Gold solidus of Constantine I, AD 317, mounted for wearing as a personal ornament or amulet.
Base-silver coin of Diocletian, c. AD 301, depicting Sacra Moneta.
Base-metal coin of Constantine I, AD 327, celebrating the foundation of Constantinople.
Gold solidus of Constantine I, c. AD 325, showing him “at prayer.”
Bronze coin commemorating the death of Constantine I, AD 337.
Bronze coin of Magnentius, AD 350–3, with prominent chi-rho symbol.
Base-silver coin of Vetranio, AD 350, showing him holding the labarum.
Base-silver coin of Constantine I, AD 318, one of the last issues to depict the image of Sol.
Gold solidus of the empress Eudocia, c. AD 423–4, showing an angel with the True Cross.
Base-metal coin, AD 326, showing Fausta, wife of Constantine I, and an image of the goddess Salus.
Base-metal coin, c. AD 388, showing Victory dragging a bound captive.
Base-metal coin, c. AD 430, with a simple cross motif.
Gold solidus, AD 704–11, with the image of Christ on the obverse and the emperor Justinian II with his son Tiberius displaced onto the reverse.
Altar of the magistri of the vicus Aescleti (Rome, AD 2/3).
Sacrifice on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of Hadrian’s reign (Rome, AD 137).
Testing a sacrificial animal (Rome).
Suovetaurilia sacrifice on the Anaglypha Traiani (Rome).
The Roman calendar before the reform of C. Iulius Caesar.
Wall painting of Apollo and Daphne, Pompeii.
Wall painting of Perseus and Andromeda, Pompeii.
Center of a silver dish, third century, found at Chaourse.
Lamp from the early Roman military camp of Haltern.
Mercury with money-bag and staff on a money-box from Italy, c. AD 200.
Lararium, Pompeii.
Temple precinct of Apollo on the Palatine.
Sacred precinct of Fortuna Augusta, Pompeii.
Marble relief of a triumphal arch, AD 176.
Marble relief of a triumphal arch, AD 176. Rome, attic of Constantine’s arch.
Fragment of a marble frieze from the temple of Apollo Sosianus, c. 20 BC.
Initial libation at a portable altar.
Votive epigraph from imperial Phrygia.
Charm on a tablet found in Berytus.
Fragment of a frieze of the Trajanic period.
Reconstruction of the memoria of Peter at the Vatican, second half of the second century.
Constantinian church buildings outside the gates of Rome.
Reconstruction of the presbyterium of the Constantinian Lateran Basilica.
Stational churches of Rome, sixth century.



Cecilia Ames studied at the National University of Cordoba, Argentina, and at Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen. Since 1994 she has been professor of ancient history and of myth and religion in Greece and Rome at the National University of Cordoba. Invited as a researcher to Tübingen and Erfurt universities and to the Kommission für Epigraphik und Alte Geschichte/German Archaeological Institute at Munich, she is also a research member of CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Argentina) and director of the “Discursive Practices in Greco-Roman Times” research project.

Clifford Ando is professor of classics and of the college at the University of Chicago. He studied at Princeton and Michigan and was formerly professor of classics, history, and law at the University of Southern California.

Nicole Belayche studied at the University of Paris IV–Sorbonne and the École pratique des hautes études (Paris). She was maître de conférences of Roman history at the universities of Orléans and Paris IV–Sorbonne 1989–99, then professor of Roman history at the University of Rennes. Since 2002, she has been directeur d’études at the École pratique des hautes études, sciences religieuses (Paris). She coordinates the following research programs within the Centre Gustave Glotz (UMR 8585): “Les communautés religieuses dans les mondes grec et romain,” “Les identités religieuses dans les mondes grec et romain,” and “Cohabitations et contacts religieux dans les mondes grec et romain.”

Frank Bernstein studied at the universities of Düsseldorf, Oxford (Brasenose College), and Duisburg. From 2002 he was Hochschuldozent of ancient history at the University of Mainz, then replacement teaching chair and full professor at the University of Bielefeld. Since 2007 he has been chair of ancient history at the University of Frankfurt/Main. He is working on Greek and Roman political and religious history.

Olivier de Cazanove studied at the Sorbonne, at the Ecole normale supérieure (Paris), and at the French School at Rome. Formerly director of the Jean Bérard Centre in Naples, then maître de conférences of ancient history at the University of Paris I, and professor of archaeology at the University of Burgundy at Dijon. He is currently professor of Roman archaeology at the University of Paris 1. He directed excavations in South Italy and works on the “Inventory of Sacred Places in Ancient Italy” program, promoted by the French National Center for Scientific Research, Italian universities and archaeological soprintendenze.

Ulrike Egelhaaf-Gaiser studied at the universities of Munich and Tübingen. She was a research assistant at the University of Tübingen 1994–5, then a research associate at the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Inscriptiones Graecae) and a research assistant at the University of Giessen. Since 2006 she has been a research associate at the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 434) working on “Memory Cultures” at the University of Giessen. She is currently replacement teaching chair of Latin at the University of Hamburg, and will be professor of Latin philology at the University of Göttingen from 2008.

Denis Feeney studied at Auckland University and Oxford University. He has held teaching positions at Edinburgh, Wisconsin, Bristol, and New College, Oxford, and is Giger Professor of Latin and chairman of the Department of Classics at Princeton University. In spring semester 2004 he was Sather Professor at the University of California, Berkeley.

Friederike Fless is professor of classical archaeology at the Institute for Classical Archaeology, Freie Universität Berlin. She studied at the University of Trier, the Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg, and the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz. Her current research focuses on Attic red figure vases as a part of Greek culture in the necropolis of Pantikapaion, toreutics and jewelry in the North Pontic region, and sepulchral representation in the Bosphoran kingdom.

Karl Galinsky studied at Princeton University. He is the Floyd Cailloux Centennial Professor of Classics and University Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin. He has directed several projects, including faculty seminars on Roman religion, for the National Endowment of the Humanities and received many awards both for his teaching and for his research, including grants from the Guggenheim and von Humboldt Foundations and from the Max-Planck Society.

Richard Gordon studied at Jesus College, Cambridge. He was a research fellow at Downing College 1969–70; then a lecturer and senior lecturer in ancient civilization at the University of East Anglia, Norwich. He was a visiting fellow at Darwin College 1979–80, and since 1987 has been a private scholar resident in Germany. He was made honorary professor in the history of ancient religions at the University of Erfurt in 2007.

Rudolf Haensch studied at the universities of Cologne and Bonn. He became a member of the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, in 2001, then replacement teaching professor of ancient history at Hamburg and Cologne, then visiting professor at the Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales (Paris). Since 2004 he has been second director of the “Kommission für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts” (Munich).

Stefan Heid has been professor of the history of liturgy and of hagiography at the Pontifical Institute for Christian Archeology at Rome since 2001.

Peter Herz studied at the universities of Mainz and Oxford. He was professor of ancient history at the University of Mainz 1986–94, then chair of ancient history at the University of Regensburg. In 1990 he became a member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.

Frances Hickson Hahn studied at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. She was assistant professor of classics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, 1987–93, then became associate professor of classics.

Marietta Horster studied at the University at Cologne, where she was a researcher in ancient history 1990–4. She was assistant professor in ancient history at the University of Rostock 1995–2001, researcher at the Prosopographia Imperii Romani 2003–6, replacement teaching chair at the Universitites of Bamberg, Humboldt University Berlin, Hamburg, and Heidelberg 2006–9, and has been chair of ancient history at the University of Mainz since 2010.

Ted Kaizer studied at the University of Leiden and Brasenose College, Oxford. He was an associate lecturer at the Open University 2001–2, then British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Since 2005 he has been a lecturer in Roman culture and history (senior lecturer since 2008) at the University of Durham.

Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann studied at the universities of Basel and Bonn. She is a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, and a research associate of the Archäologisches Seminar of the University of Basel. She works as a freelance archaeologist, and her main fields of research are Roman bronzes and religion, and Roman silver.

Hartmut Leppin studied at the universities of Marburg, Heidelberg, and Pavia. He was replacement teaching chair of ancient history at the University of Greifswald 1995–6, then Feodor-Lynen Fellow at the University of Nottingham, and Heisenberg Fellow at the University of Göttingen. Since 2001 he has been chair of ancient history at the University of Frankfurt/Main. He is a member of the editorial board of the Historische Zeitschrift and editor of Millennium Studies and the Millennium Yearbook.

Jack N. Lightstone studied at Carleton University and Brown University. He is currently president and vice-chancellor, as well as professor of history, at Brock University. He previously served as professor of religion and provost and vice-rector, academic, at Concordia University. He has been a visiting research fellow at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and at the University of Miami, and vice-president and subsequently president of the Canadian Society of Biblical Studies.

Attilio Mastrocinque studied at the University of Venice. He was a fellow of the Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Storici (Naples) 1975–6 and of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche 1978–81, then a researcher in ancient history at the University of Venice.

He was professor of Greek history at the University of Trento 1987–95 and at the University of Verona 1995–2002. Since 2002 he has been chair of Roman history at the University of Verona. He is also Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung research fellow at the universities of Cologne, Aachen, and Freiburg im Breisgau, and in 1993 he was invited professor at the Ecole normale supérieure (Paris).

Katja Moede is a researcher at the Institute for Classical Archaeology, Freie Universität Berlin.

Eric Orlin studied at Yale University, the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and the University of California, Berkeley. He was an instructor in ancient history at California State University, Fresno, 1995–6, then assistant professor of history and classical studies at Bard College, and since 2000 he has been associate professor of classics at the University of Puget Sound. He was a participant at the NEH Seminar on “Roman Religion in its Cultural Context,” American Academy in Rome, 2002.

C. Robert Phillips, III studied at Yale, Oxford, and Brown universities. He went to Lehigh University in 1975, where he became professor of classics (1987) and professor of classics and ancient history (1990); he chaired the Department of Classics 1982–8. In his free time he practices Chopin’s Etudes.

Athanasios Rizakis studied at the universities of Thessalonika, Paris, and Lyon. He was a lecturer in Greek language and civilization at the University Lyon III-Jean Moulin 1974–8, then assistant and maître assistant associé at the University of St-Etienne. He became a research fellow and, in 1984, director of research at the National Hellenic Research Foundation, where he is head of the “Roman Greece” program and of many other European or bilateral research projects. He was an invited member at the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton (1994), and visiting professor at the universities of Creta (1980–1), Lyon II (1987–8), and Cyprus (1996–7). Since 1998 he has been professor of ancient Greek history at the University of Nancy II (France).

Veit Rosenberger studied at the universities of Heidelberg, Augsburg, Cologne, and Oxford. He was an assistant at the University of Augsburg 1992–2003 and exchange professor at Emory University (Atlanta) 2000–1, and has been professor of ancient history at the University of Erfurt since 2004.

Jörg Rüpke studied at the universities of Bonn, Lancaster, and Tübingen. He was replacement teaching chair of Latin at the University of Constance 1994–5, then professor of classical philology at the University of Potsdam. Since 1999 he has been chair of comparative religion at the University of Erfurt, and since 2008 fellow of the Max Weber Centre and co-director of the International research group “Religious individualization in historical perspective” of the German Science Foundation. He was visiting professor at the Université Paris I-Sorbonne Panthéon in 2003, at the Collège de France and at Aarhus University in 2010, and T. B. H. L. Webster lecturer at Stanford University in 2005. In 2008 he received the Gay-Lussac Humboldt Prize.

Michele Renee Salzman studied at Bryn Mawr College. She was assistant professor of classical studies at Columbia University 1980–2, then assistant to associateprofessor at Boston University. Since 1995, she has been associate to full professor of history at the University of California at Riverside. She has been chair of the Department of History and professor-in-charge of the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies, Rome. She is senior editor of the Cambridge History of Ancient Mediterranean Religions.

John Scheid‘s PhD thesis was supervised by Robert Schilling and Hans Georg Pflaum. He was a member of the Ecole française de Rome 1974–7, then assistant professor of ancient history at the Université de Lille III, and afterwards professor and directeur d’études at the Ecole pratique des hautes études, sciences religieuses. Since 2001 he has been a member of the Collège de France.

Christopher Smith studied at Oxford University, and was appointed to St Andrews University in 1992. He is currently Director of the British School at Rome. In 2001 he gave the Stanford Lectures at Trinity College Dublin.

William Van Andringa studied at the universities of Toulouse and Oxford. He was a member of the French School at Rome 2002–3 and maître de conférences in Roman history and archaeology at the university of Picardie Jules-Verne. Since 2007, he is professor of Roman history (history of ancient religions) at the university of Charlesde-Gaulle Lille 3. Having supervised the excavations of the necropolis of Porta Nocera at Pompeii (2003–7), he is now Director of the archaeological journal Gallia and responsible for the research programme of the Temple of Fortuna Augusta at Pompeii.

Jonathan Williams studied classics at the University of Oxford. He was a lecturer in ancient history at St Anne’s College, Oxford, 1992–3, then curator of Iron Age and Roman coins at the British Museum. Since 2005 he has been policy adviser on international affairs for the British Museum. He is now Keeper of the Department of Prehistory and Europe at the British Museum.


Very few pages of this book were written by me. My first thanks go to my colleagues, who agreed to collaborate in this project, and made the bricks of this building. Their contributions combined the attempt to give an overview of the field, to introduce methodological problems of research into historical religions, and to give an individual face to each chapter. More reliably than in many projects before this, deadlines were held, limits kept to, questions quickly answered, and suggestions taken up or (for the benefit of the reader) rejected. The result attests to the various traditions of research in Italy and Greece, in Northern and Southern America, in Britain and France, in Germany and Switzerland. At the same time it attests to the coherence of an international scientific community that is willing and able to read and react to contributions in each other’s languages. I am grateful to those who provided English texts, to those who translated texts, and to those (mostly anonymous) who helped in improving these texts.

It was Al Bertrand who contacted me on July 30, 2003, about embarking on this project and who accompanied the Companion through all its stages, in particular the early phase of defining the project. Ben Thatcher, Sophie Gibson, Kitty Bocking, and Angela Cohen accompanied it at important steps along the way; Fiona Sewell as copy-editor was extremely helpful, sensible to intentions and mistakes, and last but not least efficient.

From the staff at the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Erfurt, Diana Püschel, Mihaela Holban, Blossom Stefaniw (for translations), Astrid Willenbacher (for the bibliography), and Elisabeth Begemann (who compiled the index) must be gratefully mentioned.

As our daughter started to read my last book, I felt I should dedicate this one to her, thus finally providing my excuse for missing a number of sunny afternoons and cozy evenings.

The cafeteria of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, Paris and Rome, Córdoba and Los Angeles, the Villa Vigoni on the Lago di Como, Munich and Erfurt offered places to discuss the book as a whole or individual chapters. I hope that it will find its way back to these places and many others. The fact that a paperback edition could appear is an indication that this wish is being granted.

Erfurt, September 2010


Journals and Works by Modern Authors

AE Année épigraphique.
AJAH American Journal of Ancient History.
AJP American Journal of Philology.
ANRW Temporini, Hildegard, and Haase, Wolfgang (eds.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. Berlin 1972–.
BEFAR Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d’Athénes et de Rome. Paris.
BHG Socii Bollandiani (eds.), Bibliotheca hagiographica graeca. 3 vols. Brüssels 19092. Halkin, F. (ed.), 19573.
BHL Socii Bollandiani (eds.), Bibliotheca hagiographica latina antiquae et medii aetatis. 2 vols. Brussels 1898–1901. Suppl. editio altera, 1911.
BMC Mattingly, Harold et al. (eds.), Coins from the Roman Empire in the British Museum. London 1923–.
CCL Corpus christianorum, series Latina.
CFA Scheid, John, Commentarii fratrum Arvalium qui supersunt: les copies épigraphiques des protocoles annuels de la confrérie arvale (21 av.–304 ap. J.-C.). Collection Roma antica 4. Rome 1998.
CIJud Frey, Jean-Baptiste, Corpus inscriptionum Judaicarum. 2 vols. Rome 1936–52 [repr. New York 1975].
CIL Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum. Berlin 1863–.
CIMRM Vermaseren, Maarten J., Corpus inscriptionum et monumento-rum religionis Mithriacae. The Hague 1956–60.
CP Classical Philology.
CQ Classical Quarterly.
CR Classical Review.
CSEL Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum.
CstipiVot Corpus delle stipi votive in Italia. Rome.
CW Classical World.
EJ2 Ehrenberg, Victor, and Jones, Arnold H. M., Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. 2nd edn. Oxford 1955.
EPRO Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l’empire romain.
FIRA2 Fragmenta iuris Romani antejustiniani.
FIRBruns Bruns, C. G., Mommsen, T., and Gradenwitz, O. (eds.), Fontes Iuris Romani Antiqui. 3 vols. Tübingen 1909–12.
FPL Fragmenta poetarum Latinarum.
FRH Peter, H. W. G. (ed.), Historicorum Romanorum fragmenta. Leipzig 1883. Repr. 1993.
GL Grammatici Latini, ed. Keil.
GRF Grammaticorum Romanorum fragmenta.
HABES Heidelberger althistorische Beiträge und epigraphische Studien.
HLL Herzog, Reinhart, and Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht (eds.), Handbuch der lateinischen Literatur. Munich 1989–.
HSCPh Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.
HTR Harvard Theological Review.
ICUR NS Inscriptiones christianae urbis Romae. Nova series.
IG Inscriptiones Graecae. Berlin.
IGLS Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie. Paris.
IGRR Cagnat, René, Inscriptiones Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes. Paris 1906–27.
IGUR Moretti, Luigi, Inscriptiones Graecae urbis Romae. Rome 1968–90.
ILCV Inscriptiones latinae christianae veteres.
ILLRP Degrassi, Attilio, Inscriptiones Latinae liberae rei publicae. Florence 1957–63.
ILS Dessau, Hermann (ed.), Inscriptiones Latinae selectae. Berlin 1892–1916.
JdI Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Berlin.
JRA Journal of Roman Archaeology.
JRS Journal of Roman Studies.
LIMC Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae.
MEFRA Mélanges de l’École française de Rome, Antiquité. Ecole française de Rome. Paris.
NGSL Lupu, Eran, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents. Leiden 2005.
NP Cancik, Hubert, et al. (eds.), Der Neue Pauly. Stuttgart 1996–2002 (English trans. Leiden 2004–).
ODB Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium.
OGIS Orientis Graeci inscriptiones selectae.
Orph. fragm. Kern, O. (ed.), Orphicorum fragmenta. Berlin 1922. Repr. 1963.
P&P Past and Present.
PawB Potsdamer altertumswissenschaftliche Beiträge. Stuttgart 1999–.
PCPS Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society.
P. Dura Welles, C. Bradford, Fink, Robert O., and Gilliam, J. Frank, The Parchments and Papyri: The Excavations at Dura-Europos. Final Report 5.1. New Haven, CT, 1959.
PG Migne, Patrologia graeca.
PGM Preisendanz, K., and Henrichs, A. (eds.), Papyri Graecae Magicae. Repr. Stuttgart 1973–4.
PGMtr Betz, Hans D. (ed.), The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation. Chicago 1986 [2nd edn. 1992].
PL Migne, Patrologia latina.
PLRE Jones, Arnold H. M. et al., The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire 1: A.D. 260–395. Cambridge 1971.
RDGE Sherk, Robert K., Roman Documents from the Greek East. Baltimore 1969.
RE Wissowa, Georg (ed.), Paulys Realenzyklopädie der Classischen Altertumwissenschaften: Neue Bearbeitung. Stuttgart, 1893–1980.
REA Revue des études anciennes.
RG-RW Religions in the Graeco-Roman World. Leiden.
RGVV Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten.
RIB Collingwood, Robin G., and Wright, R. P., The Roman Inscriptions of Britain. I, 1: Inscriptions on Stone. Oxford 1965.
RIC Roman Imperial Coinage. 10 vols. London 1923–94.
RICIS Bricault, Laurent, Recueil des inscriptions concernant les cultes isiaques. Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 31. Paris 2005.
RPAA Rendiconti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia. Vatican City.
RPC Burnett, Andrew M., and Amandry, Michel (gen. eds.), Roman Provincial Coinage. London 1993–.
RRC Crawford, Michael H., Roman Republican Coinage. 2 vols. Cambridge 1974.
SC Sources chrétiennes.
Schanz/Hosius Schanz, M., and Hosius, C., Geschichte der römischen Literatur bis zum Gesetzgebungswerk des Kaisers Justinian. 3 vols. Munich 1927.
SEG Supplementum epigraphicum Graecum. Leiden 1923–.
SGG Mastrocinque, A. (ed.), Sylloge gemmarum Gnosticarum, I. Rome 2003.
SIRIS Vidman, L. (ed.), Sylloge inscriptionum religionis Isiacae et Sarapiacae. RGVV 28. Berlin 1969.
Syll.3 Dittenberger, W. (ed.), Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum. 4 vols. 3rd edn. Leipzig 1915–24. Repr. Hildesheim 1984.
TAM Tituli Asiae Minoris.
TAPhA Transactions of the American Philological Association.
ThesCRA Thesaurus cultus et rituum antiquorum. 5 vols. Los Angeles 2004–6.
WUNT Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament.
YCS Yale Classical Studies.
ZPE Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik.

Works by Ancient Authors

Amm. Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae.
App. Civ. Appian, Bellum civile.
Apul. Apuleius.
    Apol. Apologia.
    Met. Metamorphoses.
Arnob. Arnobius, Adversus nationes.
Aug. Augustinus.
    Civ. De civitate Dei.
    Conf. Confessiones.
Aur. Vict. Aurelius Victor.
Cass. Dio Cassius Dio.
    Cat. Agr. Cato, De agricultura.
    CI Codex Iustiniani.
Cic. Cicero.
    Div. De divinatione.
    Har. resp. De haruspicum responsu.
    Leg. De legibus.
    Leg. agr. De lege agraria.
    Nat. De natura deorum.
    Const Imp. Or. ad sanct. Constantinus I imperator, Oratio ad sanctorum coetum.
    CTh Codex Theodosianus.
Dion. H. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities.
    Epist. Letters.
Eus. Eusebius.
    HE Historia ecclesiastica.
    Theoph. syr. De theophania (Syrian fragments).
    V. Const. Vita Constantini.
Fest. Sextus Pompeius Festus, De verborum significatione.
Hdt. Herodotus, Historiae.
    HE Church History.
Hist. Aug. Historia Augusta.
Hor. Horace.
Jos. Flavius Josephus.
Lact. DMP Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum.
Lib. Libanius.
Libanius, Laud. Const Libanius, Laudatio Constantini et Constantis.
    Livy, Per. Livy, Periochae.
    Macr. Sat. Macrobius, Saturnalia.
Mart. Martial, Epigrams.
Min. Fel. Minucius Felix.
    Or. Orationes.
Ov. Ovid.
    Am. Amores.
    Fast. Libri fastorum.
    Pont. Epistulae ex Ponto.
    Rem. Remedia amoris.
    Trist. Tristia.
    Paul. Fest. Paulus Diaconus, Ex Festo.
    Plin. Nat. Pliny the Elder, Natural History.
Plut. Plutarch.
Sall. Sallust.
    Seneca, Epist. Seneca minor, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium.
Sozomenus, HE Sozomenus, Historia ecclesiastica.
Suet. Suetonius.
Tac. Tacitus.
    Ann. Annals.
    Hist. Histories.
Tert. Tertullian.
    Apol. Apologeticum.
    Nat. Ad nationes.
    Spect. De spectaculis.
Val. Max. Valerius Maximus.
    Ling. De lingua latina.
    Rust. Rerum rusticarum de agri cultura.
Vell. Velleius Paterculus, Historia Romana.
Virg. Aen. Virgil, Aeneid.
Vitr. Vitruvius, De architectura.


In dating, BC/BCE and AD/CE are used.

The Roman empire.

1 Temple of Juno Moneta 2 Tabularium 3 Basilica Aemilia 4 Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus 5 Basilica Iulia 6 Temples of Fortuna and of Mater Matuta 7 Temple of Portunus 8 Temple of Hercules Olivarius 9 Ara maxima 10 Temple of Cybele or Magna Mater
The center of Rome, late republic.