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Contents

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO HISTORY

This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of the scholarship that has shaped our current understanding of the past. Defined by theme, period and/or region, each volume comprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The aim of each contribution is to synthesize the current state of scholarship from a variety of historical perspectives and to provide a statement on where the field is heading. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers.

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO WORLD HISTORY

A Companion to Western Historical Thought
Edited by Lloyd Kramer and Sarah Maza

A Companion to Gender History
Edited by Teresa A. Meade and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks

A Companion to International History 1900–2001
Edited by Gordon Martel

A Companion to the History of the Middle East
Edited by Youssef M. Choueiri

A Companion to Japanese History
Edited by William M. Tsutsui

A Companion to Latin American History
Edited by Thomas Holloway

A Companion to Russian History
Edited by Abbott Gleason

A Companion to World War I
Edited by John Horne

A Companion to Mexican History and Culture
Edited by William H. Beezley

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO BRITISH HISTORY

A Companion to Roman Britain
Edited by Malcolm Todd

A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages
Edited by S. H. Rigby

A Companion to Tudor Britain
Edited by Robert Tittler and Norman Jones

A Companion to Stuart Britain
Edited by Barry Coward

A Companion to Eighteenth-Century Britain
Edited by H. T. Dickinson

A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Britain
Edited by Chris Williams

A Companion to Early Twentieth-Century Britain
Edited by Chris Wrigley

A Companion to Contemporary Britain
Edited by Paul Addison and Harriet Jones

A Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland c.500-c.1100
Edited by Pauline Stafford

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO EUROPEAN HISTORY

A Companion to Europe 1900–1945
Edited by Gordon Martel

A Companion to Eighteenth-Century Europe
Edited by Peter H. Wilson

A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Europe
Edited by Stefan Berger

A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance
Edited by Guido Ruggiero

A Companion to the Reformation World
Edited by R. Po-chia Hsia

A Companion to Europe Since 1945
Edited by Klaus Larres

A Companion to the Medieval World
Edited by Carol Lansing and Edward D. English

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO AMERICAN HISTORY

A Companion to the American Revolution
Edited by Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole

A Companion to 19th-Century America
Edited by William L. Barney

A Companion to the American South
Edited by John B. Boles

A Companion to American Indian History
Edited by Philip J. Deloria and Neal Salisbury

A Companion to American Women’s History
Edited by Nancy A. Hewitt

A Companion to Post-1945 America
Edited by Jean-Christophe Agnew and Roy Rosenzweig

A Companion to the Vietnam War
Edited by Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco

A Companion to Colonial America
Edited by Daniel Vickers

A Companion to 20th-Century America
Edited by Stephen J. Whitfield

A Companion to the American West
Edited by William Deverell

A Companion to American Foreign Relations
Edited by Robert D. Schulzinger

A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction
Edited by Lacy K. Ford

A Companion to American Technology
Edited by Carroll Pursell

A Companion to African-American History
Edited by Alton Hornsby, Jr

A Companion to American Immigration
Edited by Reed Ueda

A Companion to American Cultural History
Edited by Karen Halttunen

A Companion to California History
Edited by William Deverell and David Igler

A Companion to American Military History
Edited by James Bradford

A Companion Los Angeles
Edited by William Deverell and Greg Hise

A Companion to American Environmental History
Edited by Douglas Cazaux Sackman

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This volume is dedicated to my co-author, colleague,
and close friend, Colin MacLachlan
and as always to Blue.

Figures

8.1 Overview of Codex Nuttall pages 14 to 22.

8.2 Page 14 of the Codex Nuttall.

8.3 Pages 15 to 18 of the Codex Nuttall.

8.4 Pages 19 to 21 of the Codex Nuttall.

8.5 Page 22 of the Codex Nuttall.

8.6 Overview of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.7 Top scene of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.8 Cells 1 and 2 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.9 Cell 5 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.10 Cells 8 to 11 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.11 Cell 16 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.12 Cell 18 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.13 Cells 28 to 30 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala. (center row), with cells 21 to 25 above and cells 33 to 37 below.

8.14 Cells 42 and 42 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.15 Cells 48 and 49 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.16 Cells 15, 20, and 27 of the Lienzo de Tlaxcala.

8.17 Macrocomposition in the Codex Nuttall: rivers and skybands on pages 14 to 22.

8.18 Macrocomposition in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala: scenes with Malinche (shaded on left) and scenes with Santiago (shaded on right).

37.1 Latin American population growth in the twentieth century. Data from Oxford Latin American Economic History Database (OXLAD).

37.2 Mexican population distribution, urban vs rural settlement. Data from INEGI Estadísticas Históricas de México CD-ROM.

37.3 Death rates in the main sources and targets of internal migration. Data from INEGI, Estadísticas Históricas de México CD-ROM.

37.4 Infant mortality in twentieth-century Mexico and three comparatives. Data from INEGI Estadísticas Históricas de México CD-ROM, United Nations Statistics Division.

Plates

(Between pages 330 and 331)

1 This reconstructed plan shows the arrangement of the lots, the house, and its rooms. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

2 Mauricio Porraz, owner of the Tivoli de San Cosme, a recreation center, sold a piece of land to Juan Antonio Azurmendi that he joined with other properties to form the lot for the House at 33 Sadi Carnot Street. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

3 The construction of neighborhoods on the western outskirts of Mexico City had begun in the mid-nineteenth century and, in the 1890s, work began on the San Rafael neighborhood where the house would be located. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

4 The exterior of the house, through the use of photography, seems linked to nature. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

5 The Photographer worked hard to establish relationships between light and shadows in order to make the image and artistic quality. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

6 This photograph makes a connection between photography and construction as it focuses on the work of the stonemasons. The two master masons or architects, the arrangement of the stones, and the workers illustrate the hierarchy of technical expertise in construction. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

7 One unidentified person from the previous image appears again, suggesting that he is an engineer or architect directing construction. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

8 Although the person in this photo has his back to the camera, it appears that he is the same figure of authority as in Plates 6 and 7. It is possible he was a professor of architecture. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

9 The photographs of the garden may demonstrate nineteenth century romantic attitudes to nature, especially if it was placed in order. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

10 Certainly gardens such as the one in this photograph captured the desire to control nature and subjugate it to human regulation. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

11 The construction of the gardens and the techniques used in the photo share a fundamental concern with perspective. This photograph clearly illustrates this fascination. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

12 Again, the photograph and the garden both share the landscape designer’s and the photographer’s abiding interest in perspective. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

13 This rather curious photograph shows the photographer, Juan Antonio Azurmendi, pulling his large camera. This had to be staged because photographic equipment of the time did not allow snapshots. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

14 Here Daniel Garza (the individual seen in full length), the photographic assistant, holds a backdrop with another helper, so Azurmendi can photograph his wife and daughters. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

15 This and the following photograph provide the landscape context for the house. The lake and the section called the orchard identify the suburban location and its bucolic setting. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

16 The photograph establishes a register of the house and its location, a record of what and where it was at the time of construction. Fototeca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

17 Carl Lumholtz “Dr. Rubio” Guajochic, Chihuahua in Unknown Mexico, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1902. Carl Lumholtz, Biblioteca del Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas – UNAM.

18 Bedros Tartarian, in Frederick Starr, Indians of Southern Mexico, Chicago, Lakeside Press, plate XXXVIII, “Aztec indian”, 1899. Bedros Tartarian, Biblioteca del Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas – UNAM.

19 Nicolás León, “Meassurement of the ear, according to Bertillon” in Cátedra de Antropología Física Del Museo Nacional de Etnografía, Arqueología e Historia. Antropometría, México, Imprenta del Museo Nacional 1911. Biblioteca del Instituto de Investigaciones Nicolás León,Biblioteca del Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas – UNAM.

20 Raúl Estrada Discua, “Otomi mother” a view within the show Exposición Etnográfica, November 1946, Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City. Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, UNAM. Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales – UNAM.

21 Raúl Estrada Discua, “Mame indian, Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas” Archivo México Indígena, cat.#1365, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México 1939-1946. Courtesy of Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, UNAM. Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales – UNAM.

22 Raúl Estrada Discua, “Zapotecs from the Sierra, hats” Archivo México Indígena, cat. #4550 Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México 1939-1946. Courtesy of Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, UNAM. Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales – UNAM.

23 Luis Márquez Romay, photographs in Revista de Revistas, October 1, 1939. Biblioteca “Rubén Bonifaz Nuño” Nacional, Instituto de Investigaciones Filolóas, UNAM. Instituto de Investigaciones Filolóas – UNAM.

24 Manuel ,varez Bravo, “India alfarera, Yucatán” El maestro Rural, Secretaría de Educación Pública, No. 3 and 4, 1937. Hemeroteca Nacional, Instituto de Investigaciones Filolóas, UNAM. © Colette Urbajtel/Asociación Manuel Álvarez Bravo.

Notes on Contributors

Claudia Agostoni is a historian and full time researcher at the Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Her research interests are the history of public health and health education during late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. She has published articles on the social history of medicine and public health, and is the author of Monuments of Progress. Modernization and Public Health in Mexico City, 1876–1910 and editor of Curar, sanar y educar. Enfermedad y sociedad en México, siglos XIX y XX. She has also co-edited Los miedos en la historia; De normas y transgresiones. Enfermedad y crimen en América Latina, and Modernidad, tradición y alteridad. La ciudad de México en el cambio de siglo (XIX–XX). She is currently working on the social history of smallpox vaccination in Mexico.

Elena Jackson Albarrán is Assistant Professor of History and Latin American Studies at Miami University of Ohio. She researches children’s popular culture in revolutionary Mexico, and she currently is working on a book entitled La historia de la infancia with Susana Sosenski.

Christon I. Archer is a specialist in the epoch of Spanish domination and the War of Independence in Mexico. He is also working on Spanish exploration in the Pacific Ocean with a focus on the eighteenth century Spanish voyages to the Northwest Coast. His books include, The Army in Bourbon Mexico. 1760–1810 (Albuquerque: University of new Mexico Press, 1977); The Wars of Independence in Spanish America, ed. (Wilmington: SR Books, 2000); The Birth of Modern Mexico, 1780–1821, ed. (Wilmington: SR, 2003); and A World History of Warfare (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003). Archer has written many articles and book chapters. At present, he is working on a project focused on the Royalist Army of New Spain and the transitions to Mexican nationhood, and a book titled the Eagle and the Thunderbird: Spanish/Indigenous Relations on the Northwest Coast, 1774–1795.

Linda Arnold is Professor of History at Virginia Tech, and is the author of Bureaucracy and Bureaucrats in Mexico City, 1742–1835, Política y justica: la Suprema Corte mexicana, 1824–1855, and numerous articles and book chapters. In addition to having catalogued major judicial record sets in the Mexican national archive and the Federal District archive, at the invitation of Mexican archivists, she has produced electronic catalogues in searchable PDF format for the Mexico City archbishop’s archive, the Mexican national archive, the Federal District archive, the defense archive, and the Supreme Court’s historical archive and interactive CD-ROM and DVD sets in PDF of the colonial documents in the Mexico City archbishop’s archive, the nineteenth century Supreme Court collection in the national archive, and the collection of 1825-1925 laws and decrees in the Federal District.

Liza Bakewell is Director of The Mesolore Project, Assistant Professor of Research at the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Brown University and NEH Associate Professor in the Humanities, Colgate University. Her publications include Madre: Perilous Journeys with a Spanish Noun; Mesolore, (co-authored); Looking High and Low: Art and Cultural Identity (co-edited); and Object Image Inquiry: The Art Historian at Work (co-authored). Her research focuses on the Spanish language, linguistics, contemporary Mexico, women’s studies, material culture, aesthetics, and virtual learning communities.

William H. Beezley is the pioneer in Mexican cultural history, and is Professor of History at the University of Arizona., Co-director of the Oaxaca Summer Institute in Modern Mexican History, and Distinguido Profesor Visitante at El Colegio de México. His publications on Mexico include Judas at the Jockey Club, The Oxford History of Mexico, edited with Michael C. Meyer, El Gran Pueblo with Colin M. MacLachlan, and, recently, Mexican National Identity: Memory, Innuendo, and Popular Culture. His current research involves a reassessment of José Vasconcelos as Minister of Education in Revolutionary Mexico, and Malbec Wine in Argentina.

Dina Berger is Associate Professor of History at Loyola University Chicago. She is the co-editor of Holiday in Mexico: Critical Reflections on Tourism and Tourist Encounters with Andrew G. Wood and author of The Development and Promotion of Mexico’s Tourism Industry: Pyramids by Day, Martinis by Night . She is currently working on the history of transnational civic associations in Mexico, particularly the Texas-based Pan American Round Table.

Christopher R. Boyer is Associate Professor of History and Latin American and Latino Studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His scholarship concentrates on the social and environmental history of Modern Mexico. His first book, Becoming Campesinos: Politics, Identity, and Agrarian Struggle in Postrevolutionary Michoacán, explains how the Mexican land reform influenced peasant culture in the 1920s and 1930s and he is currently finishing a second book on the social history of forest management in Mexico between 1880 and 1991, which will be published in 2011. His articles have appeared in the Latin American Historical Review, Historia Mexicana, and the American Historical Review, among others. He is also co-editor of a University of Arizona Press book series on Latin American environmental history.

Jürgen Buchenau is Professor of History and Director of Latin American Studies at University of North Carolina, Charlotte. His prior books include In the Shadow of the Giant: The Making of Mexico’s Central America Policy, 1876–1930; Tools of Progress: A German Merchant Family in Mexico City, 1865-Present; Mexico Other Wise: Modern Mexico in the Eyes of Foreign Observers; and Plutarco Elías Calles and the Mexican Revolution.

Steven B. Bunker is Assistant Professor of History at The University of Alabama. He is the author of the forthcoming Becoming a Consuming People: Creating Mexican Consumer Culture in the Age of Porfirio Díaz, 1876-1911. He also has several publications on consumption, crime, and the French community in Porfirian Mexico.

Roderic Ai. Camp is presently the Philip McKenna Professor of the Pacific Rim at Claremont Mckenna College. He serves as a member of the Advisory Board, Mexico Institute, Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Smithsonian Institution. He is a frequent consultant to national and international media, including the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, National Public Radio, and BBC. He is the author of twenty books on Mexico, six of which have been designated by Choice as outstanding academic books. His most recent publications include: Politics in Mexico, the Democratic Consolidation and Mexico’s Military on the Democratic Stage. He is the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters from St Olaf College for his scholarship and teaching on Mexico.

Susan M. Deeds is Professor of History at Northern Arizona University. She is a co-author (with Michael C. Meyer and William Sherman) of The Course of Mexican History, 9th ed. (Oxford University Press, 2010). She has authored Defiance and Deference in Colonial Mexico: Indians under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya (University of Texas Press, 2003), and many articles examining the ethnic, social, and cultural history of colonial Mexican north in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Deborah Dorotinsky has a B.A. in Cultural Anthropology fromU.C. Berkeley (1985), an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Art History from theUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México (2003). She is a full timeresearcher in the Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, UNAM and professorof Historiography of Art, History of photography and Visual Culture andgender topics in the Art History Graduate Program in the same university.She has published extensively in Spanish on the topics of visual imagery andethnic identity, indigenismo and photography and of late on visual cultureand gender in Mexico, 1920-1950. She was Academic Coordinator of the VisualCulture and Gender area in the Gender Studies Program (PUEG) in UNAM(2008-2010). She coordinated with Renato González Mello *Encauzar la mirada:** Arquitectura, pedagogía e imágenes en México 1920-1950”,*México, UNAM,2010. She is the proud mother of two girls andd member of the Collage ArtAssociation.

William E. French is Associate Professor of History at the University of British Columbia. He is the past director of the Latin American Studies Programme at that institution and Co-director of the Oaxaca Summer Institute. He is the author of A Peaceful and Working People: Manners, Morals, and Class Formation in Northern Mexico and co-editor, with William Beezley and Cheryl E. Martin, of Rituals of Rule, Rituals of Resistance: Public Celebrations and Popular Culture in Mexico and, with Katherine E. Bliss, of Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Latin America since Independence. He has published articles in the Hispanic American Historical Review and the Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies and contributed to the Oxford History of Mexico. He is currently completing a book on love letters, diaries, and courtship in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Mexico.

Paul Garner (Ph.D. Liverpool 1983) is Cowdray Professor of Spanish in the Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies at the University of Leeds, UK. He is the author of La Revolución en la Provincia: Soberanía estatal y caudillismo serrano en Oaxaca 1910–20 and Porfirio Díaz: A Profile in Power. He was Senior Editor of the Bulletin of Latin American Research and is currently the Editor of the book series Iberian and Latin American Studies (University of Wales Press). In 2007–08 he was a Leverhulme Research Fellow (UK), and a Visiting Professor in the Centro de Estudios Históricos at the Colegio de México. His book British Lions and Mexican Eagles: Business, Politics and Empire in the Career of Weetman Pearson in Mexico 1889–1919 will be published in 2011.

James A. Garza is an Associate Professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He is the author of The Imagined Underworld: Sex, Crime and Vice in Porfirian Mexico City (2008). In 2007, his article “The Long History of Mexican Immigration to the Rural Midwest’ (2006) was selected by the Journal of the West as its best article of the year.

Paul Gillingham holds an Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowship in the Humanities at the University of Pennslyvania. He has published widely on state formation and nationalism in Mexico. He is the author of Cuauhtémoc’s Bones: Nationalism & Forgery in Mexico (University of New Mexico Press, forthcoming in 2011) and the co-editor of Soft Authoritarianism in Mexico, 1938–1968 (Duke University Press, forthcoming.)

Byron Ellsworth Hamann is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Anthropology and the Department of History at the University of Chicago. His research focuses on writing, religion, and material culture in medieval Europe, prehispanic Mesoamerica, and the early modern transatlantic. He is currently finishing a dissertation centered on inquisitorial documents from sixteenth-century Valencia and Oaxaca entitled “Bad Christians, New Spains: Catholics, Muslims, and Native Americans in a Transatlantic World.” He is co-author of Mesolore, .

Timothy J. Henderson is Distinguished Research Associate Professor of History at Auburn University Montgomery. He is the author of The Worm in the Wheat: Rosalie Evans and Agrarian Struggle in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley of Mexico, 1906–1927, A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and its War with the United States, and The Mexican Wars for Independence. He is also co-editor (with Gilbert M. Joseph) of The Mexico Reader: History, Culture, Politics.

Susan Kellogg is Professor of History and Director of the Latin American Studies Program at the University of Houston. She is the author of Law and the Transformation of Aztec Culture and Weaving the Past: A History of Latin America’s Indigenous Women from the Prehispanic Period to the Present. She is co-editor (with Ethelia Ruiz) of the forthcoming Negotiation with Domination: New Spain’s Indian Pueblos Confront the Spanish State and is undertaking a project comparing conquest in four areas of Mesoamerica.

Víctor M. Macías-González is Associate Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, where he directs the Institute for Latina/o and Latin American Studies. His research interests are gender studies, and the material and social culture of greater Mexico’s long nineteenth century. He has published over a dozen articles and book chapters on manuals of etiquette, paintings, bath houses, masculinity, interior decoration, and beauty queens. Macías-González is presently revising a book manuscript on the Mexican aristocracy in the age of Porfirio Díaz, and has co-edited, with Anne Rubenstein, a volume on masculinity in modern Mexico.

Patricia Massé has a Masters degree in art history from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. She is an investigator for the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Histora (INAH) in the National Photographic Archive (la Fototeca Nacional) in Pachuca. She has written Simulacro y elegancia en tarjetas de visita. Fotografías de Cruces y Campa, 1998; Cruces y Campa una experiencia mexicana del retrato tarjeta de visita (2000), y Juan Antonio Azurmendi. Arquitectura domética y simbología en sus fotografías (2009).

Diana Montaño is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Arizona.

María L. olin Muñoz is an Assistant Professor of History at Susquehanna University where she holds a Weber Fellowship in the Humanities. She is the co-editor of Populism in 20th Century Mexico: The Presidencies of Lázaro Cárdenas and Luis Echeverría and a contributor to the project, “Native Peoples of the World.” She is currently working on a book manuscript that examines the role of indigenous communities and their leaders in reshaping official indigenous policies in Mexico after 1960.

Stephen Neufeld is Assistant Professor of Latin American History at California State University, Fullerton. A native of Calgary, Canada, his research interests have happily brought him to warmer climes, first to the University of Arizona for a Ph.D., and then to southern California. His continuing work focuses on the daily lives of soldiers and officers and their role in society and role of the military in the construction of the Mexican nation.

Daniel Newcomer is Associate Professor of Latin American History at East Tennessee State University in Johnson City. He is author of Reconciling Modernity: Urban State Formation in 1940s León, Mexico (Nebraska: 2004). His interests include popular and alternative cultures and their relationship to state formation. His current research explores the development of the beer brewing industry and its contributions to national identity in nineteenth-century Mexico.

Servando Ortoll holds a Ph.D. in historical sociology from Columbia University and is currently a research professor at the Centro de Investigaciones Culturales-Museo of the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. He is the author and editor of more than 10 books and over 50 articles on Mexican social and political history. Currently, he is investigating Chinese migration to Sonora and Baja California and writing a biographical novel of Victoriano Huerta.

Ricardo Pérez Montfort Ricardo Pérez Montfort is a Research Fellow at the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social (CIESAS), Professor in the Postgraduate Division of the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy, UNAM, and Professor of History, Centro de Investigaciones y Docencia en Humanidades del Estado de Morelos. His research and publications focus on the cultural history and history of photography of Mexico in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In addition to hosting a public radio program on literature and music in Latin America, he has written 18 books and over 70 articles. His most recent work is Cotidianidades, imaginarios y contextos: Ensayos de historia y cultura en México, 1850–1950.

Pablo Piccato is Associate Professor at the Department of History and Director of the Institute of Latin American Studies, Columbia University. His research and teaching focuses on modern Mexico, particularly on crime, politics, and culture. Among books and articles published in the US and Latin America, his work includes City of Suspects: Crime in Mexico City, 1900–1931, Actores, espacios y debates en la historia de la esfera pública en la ciudad de México (co-edited with Cristina Sacristán), True Stories of Crime in Modern Mexico (co-edited with Robert Buffington), Tyranny of Opinion: Honor in the Construction of the Mexican Public Sphere and a forthcoming article in Social History: “Public sphere in Latin America: A map of the historiography.” He is working on poet Salvador Díaz Mirón, and on Mexican civil society’s responses to crime.

Gretchen Pierce is an Assistant Professor of Latin American and World History at Shippensburg University. Her dissertation, “Sobering the Revolution: Mexico’s Anti-Alcohol Campaigns and the Process of State-Building, 1910–1940” (2008), examines the temperance movement and State formation in Mexico from the national, state, and popular perspectives. It argues that both projects were contested and participatory.

Susie Porter is Associate Professor at the Department of History and the Gender Studies Program, University of Utah, and is author of Mujeres y Trabajo: condiciones de trabajo y discursos públicos en la ciudad de México, 1879–1931, co-editor of Mexican History: A Primary Source Reader, with Nora Jaffray and Edward Osowksi, and Orden social e identidad de género. México siglos XIX y XX, with María Teresa Fernández Aceves and Carmen Ramos Escandón. Her current research explores middle-class culture in Mexico. She also teaches leadership workshops in the Spanish-speaking community in Salt Lake City.

Monica Rankin is an Assistant Professor of History at the University of Texas at Dallas. Since she completed her Ph.D. in Latin American History from the University of Arizona, she has written ¡México, la patria! Propaganda and Production during World War II (University of Nebraska Press, 2009) and Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture: The Search for National Identity, 1820s-1900 (Facts on File, 2010). She has also written several chapters and articles that make her a pioneer in the history of Mexican diplomacy, gender, fashion, and identity in the 1940s. Her current research continues to examine these issues. She is a Director of the Oaxaca Summer Institute, where, notably, La Casona del Llano Restaurant has named “la sopa Mónica” in her honor.

Matthew Restall was educated at Oxford and UCLA, and is Edwin Erle Sparks Professor of Latin American History at Pennsylvania State University. He studies colonial Yucatan and Mexico, Maya history, the Spanish Conquest, and Africans in Spanish America. His articles and books include The Maya World, Maya Conquistador, and Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Most recently he has published two edited volumes—Beyond Black and Red and Black Mexico, two co-authored volumes—Mesoamerican Voices and Invading Guatemala, and The Black Middle: Africans, Mayas, and Spaniards in Colonial Yucatan. He is a former NEH and Guggenheim fellow, editor of the Latin American Originals series, and co-editor of Ethnohistory journal.

Terry Rugeley is Professor of Mexican and Latin American History at the University of Oklahoma. He is the author of five books, including Of Wonders and Wise Men: Religion and Popular Cultures in Southeast Mexico, 1800–1876 and Rebellion Now and Forever: Mayas, Hispanics, and Caste War Violence in Yucatán, 1800–1880. Dr. Rugeley divides his time between Norman, Oklahoma, and Mérida, Yucatán. He is currently working on a history of Tabasco’s nineteenth-century civil wars.

Robert Schwaller received his Ph.D. at the Pennsylvania State University. His dissertation “Defining Difference in Early New Spain” compares the ideological development of socio-racial categories with the lived experiences of mestizos and mulatos. He published “‘Mulata, Hija de Negro y India:’ Afro-Indigenous Mulatos in Early Colonial Mexico” in the Journal of Social History.

Kathryn A. Sloan is Associate Professor of Latin American History at the University of Arkansas. She is the author of Runaway Daughters: Seduction, Elopement, and Honor in Nineteenth-Century Mexico. She has published essays in The Americas and anthologies of works on girlhood and masculinity. She is currently working on a synthesis of Latin American women’s history for the Greenwood series Women’s Roles through History.

Ageeth Sluis is an Assistant Professor of Latin American History and Gender Studies at Butler University. She is the author of “Bataclanismo! Or, How Female Deco Bodies Transformed Postrevolutionary Mexico City” in The Americas and “Journeys to Others and Lessons of Self: Carlos Castaneda, Heterotopia, and Indigenous Masculinity at the End of the Mexican Revolution” in the Journal of Transnational American Studies (forthcoming). She is completing Deco Body/ Deco City: Spectacle and Modernity in Mexico City, 1915–1939 that examines the relationship between changing gender norms, embodiment, aesthetics, architecture and urban reform in Mexico City. She has conducted research in Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos Aires.

Gabriela Soto Laveaga is Associate Professor of History and Director of Latin American and Iberian Studies at the University of California Santa Barbara. She has published on population policies, the emergence of the country’s steroid hormone industry, and traditional medicine in Mexico. Her first book Jungle Laboratories: Mexican Peasants, National Projects, and the Making of the Pill explores the local impact of the global search for medicinal plants through the case study of Mexican barbasco, the precursor to the mass production of synthetic steroid hormones. She is currently working on a new project on state repression, healthcare, and physician strikes in Mexico.

Elisa Speckman Guerra is a researcher at the Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas UNAM, and a member of the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, the Mexican Academy of Penal Sciences, and the Mexican Academy of Sciences (AMC), she is the author of Crimen y castigo and La Barra Mexicana de Abogados, and co-editor of six books on the subjects of law, justice, criminality, legal culture, and social and cultural history. Among others prizes, she has received the AMC’s prize for research in the humanities.

Michele M. Stephens received her B.A. in History from Rutgers College, New Brunswick, in 1999. She completed her M.A. in History, with emphases in Latin American and United States History, at California State University, Los Angeles, in 2004. Ms. Stephens is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Latin American History at the University of Oklahoma, examining the impact of the state on the Huichol Indians of Mexico during the nineteenth century.

Emily Wakild is Assistant Professor of History at Wake Forest University. She has taught courses or studied in Ecuador, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico, Chile, and Peru. She has recently published articles in Estudios Mexicanos/Mexican Studies and Environmental History, and has a forthcoming article with Christopher Boyer in the Hispanic American Historical Review. She was awarded a Fulbright fellowship for her dissertation research and is now completing a book length study of the creation of Mexico’s National Parks that examines the convergence of social reforms and nature protection. Her research interests include the social and environmental history of revolution in Latin America, the comparative history of conservation, and cultural understandings of climate history.

David Yetman holds the title of research social scientist at the Southwest Center of the University of Arizona, and has a Ph.D. in philosophy, but his writing career has been largely devoted to field work in Latin America. He has traveled on foot, horse, motor scooter, auto, and plane in Mexico for the last fifty years and has written extensively on Sonoran people, landscapes, and plants. His studies of indigenous people include extensive travels and life among Guarijíos, Mayos, and Seris. A specialist in the ecology and ethnobotany of columnar cacti, his books include Mayo Ethnobotany, The Organ Pipe Cactus, and The Great Cacti, Ethnobotany and Biogeography of Columnar Cacti. Since 2001 he has been the host of the Public Broadcasting System television documentary series “The Desert Speaks.”