Cover Page

CONTENTS

Cover

Half Title Page

Title Page

Copyright

List of Tables

List of Figures

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Going Global

Chapter 2: Nation-State System

Chapter 3: International Organizations

Chapter 4: Human Rights

Chapter 5: The Natural Environment

Chapter 6: Population and Consumption

Chapter 7: Infectious Disease and Globalization

Chapter 8: The Gendered World

Chapter 9: Information and Communication Technologies

Chapter 10: War and Violent Conflict

Chapter 11: Peace

Glossary

Index

BRIEF CONTENTS

Cover

Half Title Page

Title Page

Copyright

List of Tables

List of Figures

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Going Global

Introduction

Why Global Studies?

What We Talk About When We Talk About Globalization

Dimensions of Globalization

In Focus: Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations”

Global Citizenship: Rights, Responsibility, Inequalities, and Connections

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 2: Nation-State System

Introduction

Nations, States, and the Nation-state System

Emergence of the Nation-state System

Struggling States

The Nation-state’s Challenges and Competitors

In Focus: Terrorists

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 3: International Organizations

Introduction

Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

In Focus: Amnesty International

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 4: Human Rights

Introduction

Where Do Human Rights Come From?

Human Rights in the Modern Era

In Focus: What Is Torture?

How Are Human Rights Monitored and Enforced?

Emerging Human Rights

Human Rights and Non-State Actors

Human Rights Abuses: Why They Affect Us All

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 5: The Natural Environment

Introduction

Global Climate Change

In Focus: Chico Mendes and Brazil’s Rubber-tappers

Ongoing Global Environmental Challenges

Waste Production

Environmental Discrimination

International Environmental Protection Efforts

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 6: Population and Consumption

Introduction

Global Population

Population Pressures

Consumption

Global Consumption Patterns

In Focus: Population Growth, Aging, and Consumption in the Land of the Lonely Hearts Club

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 7: Infectious Disease and Globalization

Introduction

Microbes and Infectious Diseases: A Brief Overview

Infectious Disease and Globalization: The Current Picture

In Focus: AIDS and Globalization

The Global Fight against Infectious Disease: Current Challenges

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 8: The Gendered World

Introduction

Defining Our Terms

Gender, Poverty, and Development

United Nations

In Focus: Microcredit

Labor and Migration

Human Security and Human Rights

Education and Health

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 9: Information and Communication Technologies

Introduction

Information and Communication Technologies

The Information Age

Networked: The Impact of the Internet

The Digital Divide

In-Focus: Internet Censorship

New Media

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 10: War and Violent Conflict

Introduction

When Does Violent Conflict Become War?

Types of War and Violent Conflict

In Focus: Geno/Politicide Risk Factors

War and Pre-history

The History of War

Causes of War

Ethical and Legal Dimensions of War

In Focus: Private Military Companies

The Costs of War

Conclusion

Notes

Chapter 11: Peace

Introduction

What Constitutes Peace? Defining Our Terms

Origins of the Modern Peace Movement

Waging Peace

Global Connections: The Personal Dimension of Peace

In Focus: United Fruit

Conclusion

Notes

Glossary

Index

An Introduction to Global Studies

Title Page

TABLES

2.1 The World’s 100 Largest Economies (2000)

3.1 UN ECOSOC Agencies

3.2 Secretary-Generals of the United Nations

3.3 Payments Owed to the UN by the 15 Major Debtor Countries:
2007 (in US$ millions)

3.4 List of UN Peacekeeping Operations 1948–2008

3.5 NATO Members

3.6 OAS Member States

3.7 Arab League Member States and Observers

4.1 UN High Commissioners for the Office of the United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights

4.2 International Criminal Court

5.1 The Top 20 Carbon Dioxide Emitters (2004)

5.2 International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of
Threatened Species, 2008

5.3 Persistent Organic Pollutants

6.1 World Population Milestones

6.2 Estimated Total Fertility for the World, the Major Development
Groups, and the Major Areas

6.3 International Migrants by Major Area, 1960–2000

7.1 Examples of Drug-Resistant Infectious Agents and Percentage of
Infections that are Drug-Resistant by Country or Region

7.2 Emergent Diseases Identified Since 1973

7.3 HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria – The Basic Facts, 2000

7.4 Basic Concepts in Disease Emergence

7.5 World Megacities 1975, 2000, and (projected) 2015: Population in Millions

7.6 Passenger Traffic, 2005

8.1 Organizations with a Focus on Women

8.2 UN Treaties Specific to Women

9.1 History and Growth of the Internet

9.2 Internet Users, 2002–2005

9.3 Demographics of Social Network Users

9.4 Demographics of US Internet Users

9.5 Top Ranked ICT Development Countries, 2007

9.6 Lowest Ranked ICT Development Countries, 2007

10.1 Countries Involved in the Most Inter-state Conflicts, 1946–2003

10.2 One-Sided Violence by Region, 1989–2004

10.3 World War I Casualties and Costs

10.4 World War II Casualties and Costs

10.5 Selected Treaties Relating to the Laws of War

10.6 Violent War Deaths from 1955 to 2002

10.7 Battle and Total War Deaths in Selected African Conflicts

10.8 Defense Expenditures of NATO Countries, 2007

11.1 Agencies of the UN

11.2 Human Development Index (HDI) Ranking, 2006

FIGURES

2.1 Countries that Received the Most Migrants in 2005

4.1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights

5.1 Sources of Methane Gas

5.2 Ogallala Aquifer

5.3 The Aral Sea, 1960–2004

6.1 World Population Growth Rates: 1950–2050

6.2 Total Fertility Rate and Life Expectancy at Birth: World, 1950–2050

6.3 Calorie Availability: Developed vs. Developing Countries

8.1 Employment by Sector by Gender, 1998 and 2008

8.2 Percentage of Primary School Age Boys and Girls Out of School

8.3 Maternal Mortality by Region, 2005

9.1 Internet Users by Age Group, 2005

9.2 Mobile Cellular Subscriptions, 2007

9.3 Internet Users Per 100 Inhabitants, 2007

10.1 One-Sided Violence by Region, 1989–2004

10.2 Conflicts with the Largest Battle Death Totals

10.3 Battle and Total War Deaths in Selected African Conflicts

10.4 Defense Expenditures of NATO Countries, 2007

PREFACE

While the field of Global Studies is relatively new, its subject matter is old in the sense that humans around the world have always been connected through multiple layers of culture, trade, travel, migration, ecology, etc. It is only recently, however, that the academy has caught up with this reality. The academy’s slowness in making the various globalization processes and effects the object of interdisciplinary analysis is due in part to organizational structures in higher education, many of which encourage disciplines to be protective of their boundaries. Despite such barriers, the interdisciplinary nature of so many of the major issues facing the world at the beginning of the twenty-first century has pushed against, and is increasingly breaking through, some of those long-standing disciplinary boundaries. The emergence of Global Studies as a distinct interdisciplinary field occurred at a time when globalization was increasingly and profoundly affecting multiple areas of people’s everyday lives. Scholars and students have found that Global Studies enhances our understanding of global phenomena by bringing the methodologies and discourses from a variety of disciplines to bear on many of the most pressing issues of our day. Global Studies makes connections not only among various disciplines but also between the local and the global, and oneself and others. For example, while we might not make the immediate connection between what we think of as a personal action, such as reaching for our cell phones, and a conflict occurring on the other side of the world, like the conflict in Central Africa, Global Studies provides a framework that allows us to explore the ways in which the personal is global and the global is highly personal. To journey through this book is to explore these connections.

We start in chapter 1 by providing an overview of what constitutes Global Studies. The historical context for the evolution of the field is discussed in concert with competing conceptualizations of globalization. Various dimensions of globalization are addressed, including economic, political, and cultural processes. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the term “global citizenship” and its relationship to ideas like belonging, civic responsibility, and civic engagement.

Chapter 2 presents the historical background to the development of the nation-state as the primary social, political, and economic organizing structure of human society. The expansion of the nation-state from Europe via colonialism is traced. The chapter also outlines some of the internal and external threats facing the modern nation-state, including social cleavages like ethno-nationalism, cultural complexities posed by migration, as well as the dynamic nature of the roles played by international organizations, non-governmental organizations, and multinational corporations. The chapter concludes by exploring the increasing number of marginal and failed states and the dangers and opportunities these present.

Chapter 3 delves much deeper into the structure, roles, and relationships between international organizations and the nation-state. The historical background for the development of international organizations is presented, followed by a detailed examination of the major international organizations operating in the world today, including the UN, the WTO, and various regional organizations, such as the EU. The chapter ends with a discussion of the evolution of non-governmental organizations and the changing nature of the roles they play both within countries and within the international arena.

Human rights is the focus of chapter 4. The chapter begins with a discussion of the evolution of human rights, the various schools of thought that undergird human rights, and the key founding documents of the modern human rights movement. This is followed by an exploration of the debates over different interpretations of human rights, including, for example, disagreements about whether human rights are universal or must be tempered with respect to cultural norms. The monitoring and enforcement of human rights follows this discussion, with a particular focus on transnational justice mechanisms such as the International Criminal Court. Evolving notions of humanitarian intervention are also discussed, including the “right to protect” (R2P). Finally, newer human rights discourses are considered, including the right to water, sexual rights, and the right to one’s own genetic material.

Perhaps more than the previous chapters, chapter 5 drives home the inter-connectedness that characterizes our modern world. It begins with a detailed discussion of global climate change, including its causes and impacts. Other ongoing global environmental challenges are also discussed, such as the increasingly precarious situation facing the global water supply, the health impacts of air pollution, increasing plant and animal extinction rates, and the environmental impacts of waste production. The chapter concludes with a discussion of environmental discrimination. Woven throughout the chapter are discussions of various strategies being developed and deployed in an effort to improve the global environment.

Chapter 6 investigates the relationship between population and consumption patterns. The chapter begins by describing current population statistics and projections, including the demographic issues they will produce. The word’s population is estimated to grow to 9 billion by 2040. This growth will bring with it serious challenges, particularly when it comes to issues of poverty, urbanization, and migration. Providing the basic necessities for so many people poses an equally serious challenge to the environment. Debates about and strategies for meeting theseneeds are the focus of the second half of the chapter, and it ends with an investigation of global consumption patterns.

From “swine flu” to SARS to AIDS, infectious diseases demonstrate how advances in technology and improved modes of travel and communication can help both to spread disease and to track, treat, and quarantine it. The first section of chapter 7 traces the history of infectious diseases, exploring the interactions between globalization and infectious diseases as well as the relationship between human interaction with the environment and the evolution and spread of disease. Disease in the context of migration, air travel, food production, and urbanization are discussed as examples of our global connectedness. The chapter concludes with a survey of the current challenges posed by infectious diseases, including treatment questions that arise over the availability of pharmaceuticals.

Chapter 8 explores the world through the lens of gender. It begins by defining its terms before launching into a detailed discussion of some of the ways in which globalization affects women and men differently. The intersection of gender, poverty, and development are then discussed, with a special focus on some of the labor and migration issues that have emerged in our globalized world. Human security and human rights issues that are particularly pressing for women are the chapter’s next focus, including an overview of some of the UN’s efforts to integrate gender analysis and gender equality into its mission and programs. The chapter concludes with a discussion of education and health issues that affect women, their families, and the communities in which they reside.

The fast pace of globalization is perhaps best illustrated in chapter 9, which focuses on information and communication technologies (ICTs). The chapter explores the relationship between ICTs and evolving conceptions of the Information Age and the Digital Age. It then looks at the emergence of networks and the communication changes that networks like the Internet and the World Wide Web have engendered. The web allows us instantly to connect with people around the world, breaking down traditional space/time barriers and opening up new avenues for both economic development and global citizenship. The chapter concludes by looking at the relationship between “new media” and globalization.

The final two chapters focus on war and peace. Chapter 10 traces the history of violent conflict and then looks at both its causes and attempts to prevent it. The chapter ends with an examination of some of the costs of war, including human casualties, environmental destruction, economic damage, and the diversion of resources from development to supporting the war machine. Chapter 11 moves us from war to peace, beginning with an exploration of the history of peace movements. It discusses peaceful forms of conflict resolution and ends with a focus on organizations that work to eradicate violent social conditions that are antithetical to peace.

Each chapter endeavors to provide readers with a thorough understanding of the competing approaches that scholars bring to bear on the topics presented. Instead of prescribing solutions, the book asks questions and presents multiple perspectives, encouraging readers to think critically about the issues presented and to comeaway with a better understanding of how connected we all are to one another. If our readers find themselves wondering about things like how their cell phones were made, who made them, and under what working conditions, how the materials were extracted that make up their parts, and where those materials are likely to go once they dispose of the phone, then we have succeeded in our mission.

The chapters also contain a number of special features. Each chapter begins with a series of thought-provoking quotations from notable people designed to get readers thinking about the complexities revolving around the chapter’s main topic. These are followed by questions that frame the chapter. Students should be able to formulate thoughtful responses to each of these questions after having read the chapter. All the chapters also contain “Researching to Learn” sections that provide students with research ideas, sample search strategies, and authoritative academic resources, such as relevant websites and important primary and secondary sources on selected topics. Additionally, the chapters contain various graphs, charts, and tables designed to illustrate key points and to appeal to visual learners. Each chapter contains an “In Focus” section that provides a specific real-world example illustrating one of the chapter’s themes. Each chapter ends with a conclusion that draws together the key themes.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to express our appreciation to editors and staff at Wiley-Blackwell who were instrumental in helping us complete this book.

Patricia J. Campbell: I would like to thank my family, especially my parents Barbara and Gerald, for their love and support (I promise not to worry about it Dad), and Christy for her endless patience and seemingly endless constructive feedback.

Aran MacKinnon: For my brother Gregor, for all his inspiration and because he so loves the world. Wonderful world, beautiful people. This book is also for Kieran, Alistair, and Duncan, brave new global citizens.

Christy R. Stevens: I would like to thank Patricia for bringing me in on this project and enduring my feedback and revisions with grace and good humor.