cover

Contents

titlepage

Preface

There is no shortage of data - the attributes or measures assigned to a variable - in clinical medicine. With growth in both the number of available investigative} modalities and the volume of investigations performed in clinical practice, the challenge of data interpretation lies in the translation of relevant raw data into information that can be appropriately applied to clinical decision making.

To condense the vast potential remit of this book, we have decided to focus on the interpretation of data derived from the more commonly encountered investigations in clinical practice. We have therefore attempted to limit the inclusion of approaches to interpreting data derived from other clinical activities such as clinical history taking and examination. However, this has not been an easy task (particularly in certain specialties, such as neurology), as these activities are - quite rightly - inextricably linked to the investigations performed as part of the management of patients. Notwithstanding the subject of this book, it is important to remember that the history and examination of patients remains at the core of patient management and investigations should be performed only as an adjunct to these processes - not as a replacement. Fundamentally, the interpretation of data derived from investigative procedures should always be undertaken with the clinical context in mind.

For medical students and junior doctors alike, data interpretation is a common feature of both examinations and clinical practice. This textbook aims to serve as an aide memoire, providing a concise repository of facts, figures and succinct explanations that can be used during both revision and clinical attachments. With the origins of this book stemming from our own clinical finals examination revision notes, each chapter has been written with close input from specialists in the field and highlights the approach to interpreting the key data sets encountered in a particular specialty. The 'patient data' chapter aims to bring all of these specialties together to consider some of the more practical aspects of interpreting and presenting data encountered in a clinical setting.

We hope that readers will find this textbook of use and that it will help put some structure to the multiple - and at times unwieldy - channels of data encountered in medical practice.

SA, KK, RM, DP

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the following people for their help in the preparation of this book.

Sonya Abraham, Senior Lecturer in Rheumatology and Medicine, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London

Philip Bejon, Senior Research Fellow, Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford

Mark Blunden, Consultant Nephrologist, Barts and The London Hospitals, London

Anne Bolton, Head of Ophthalmic Imaging, Oxford Eye Hospital, Oxford

Muhammed Zameel Cader, Clinician Scientist and Honorary Consultant Neurologist, Oxford Centre for Gene Function, Oxford

Peter J Charles, Lead Biomedical Scientist, Translational Research, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College, London

Fiona Cuthbertson, Specialist Registrar in Ophthalmology, Oxford Eye Hospital, Oxford

Andrew Davies, Senior Lecturer in Medical Oncology, and Honorary Consultant Cancer Sciences Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, Southampton

Michelle Emery, Consultant in Endocrinology and Diabetes, Homerton University Hospital, London

Adrian Lim, Consultant Radiologist, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith and Charing Cross Hospitals, London

Taya Kitiyakara, Consultant Gastroenterologist, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

George Markose, Consultant Radiologist, St George's Hospital, London

Peter Morgan-Warren, Specialty Registrar in Ophthalmology, West Midlands

Abdul Mozid, Cardiology Specialist Registrar, Essex Cardiothoracic Centre, Basildon

Geoffrey E Packe, Consultant Physician in Chest and General Medicine, Newham University Hospital, London

Zeudi Ramsey-Marcelle, ST7 Obstetrics and Gynaecology, North Middlesex University Hospital, London

Simon Richardson, Academic Clinical Fellow, Haemato-oncology, University College, London

Stefanie Christina Robert, Locum Consultant in Acute Medicine, Royal London Hospital, London

Sherif Sadek, Consultant Radiologist, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London

Parveen Vitish-Sharma, CT2 in General Surgery, St George's Hospital, London

Abbreviations

1/7

one day

1/12

one month

1/52

one week

18-FDG

18-fluorodeoxyglucose

AIH1

autoimmune hepatitis 1

AIH2

autoimmune hepatitis 2

ABG

arterial blood gas

ABP

arterial blood pressure

ABP1

Ankle Brachial Pressure Index

AC

air conduction

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACS

acute coronary syndrome

ACTH

adrenocorticotrophic hormone

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

ADP

adenosine diphosphate

ADPKD

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

AF

atrial fibrillation

AFP

alpha-fetoprotein

ALP

alkaline phosphatase

ALT

alanine aminotransferase

AMA

anti-mitochondrial antibody

AML

acute myeloid leukaemia

ANA

anti-nuclear antibody

ANCA

anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

APTT

activated partial thromboplastin time

ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARPKD

autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

ASM

anti-smooth muscle antibody

ASOT

anti-streptolysin O titre

AST

aspartate transaminase

ATN

acute tubular necrosis

AV

atrioventricular

AVPU

Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive

BC

bone conduction

Bd

bis in die (twice per day)

BE

base excess

B-HCG

beta human chorionic gonadotrophin

BMI

body mass index

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia

BS

bowel/breath sounds

BSEP

brainstem sensory evoked potential

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

CCP

cyclic citrullinated peptide

CEA

carcinoembryonic antigen

CF

cystic fibrosis

CHD

coronary heart disease

CJD

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

CK

creatine kinase

CLO

Campylobacter-like organism

CMAP

compound muscle action potential

CML

chronic myeloid leukaemia

CMV

cytomegalovirus

CNS

central nervous system

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COX

cyclooxygenase

CPET

cardiopulmonary exercise testing

CRP

C-reactive protein

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

CT

computed tomography

CTG

cardiotocography

CTPA

computed tomography pulmonary angiogram

CTU

computed tomography urogram

CVA

cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

CVD

cardiovascular disease

CVP

central venous pressure

CXR/AXR

chest/abdominal X-ray

DI

diabetes insipidus

DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

DKA

diabetic ketoacidosis

DM

diabetes mellitus

DMSA

dimercaptosuccinic acid

DTPA

diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

DWI

diffusion weighted imaging

ECG

electrocardiogram

ECT

electroconvulsive therapy

EEG

electroencephalogram

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EMG

electromyelogram

EOG

electrooculography

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatograhy

ERV

expiratory reserve volume

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ESWL

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

FBC

full blood count

FDP

fibrin degradation product

FEV1

forced expiratory volume (in 1 second)

FLAIR

fluid attenuated inversion recovery

FNA

fine needle aspiration

FOB

faecal occult blood

FRC

functional residual capacity

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

FVC

forced vital capacity

G6PD

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

GBS

Guillain-Barré syndrome

GCS

Glasgow Coma Scale

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

GGT

gamma glutamyl transferase

GH

growth hormone

GI

gastrointestinal

GORD

gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Hb

haemoglobin

HBV

hepatitis B virus

HCC

hepatocellular carcinoma

hCG

human chorionic gonadotrophin

Hct

haematocrit

HDL

high density lipoprotein

HIFU

high intensity focused ultrasound

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

HMMA

hydroxymethylmandelic acid

HMPAO

hexamethylene propyleamine oxime

HONK

hyperosmolar non-ketotic

HR

heart rate

HSV

herpes simplex virus

HUS

haemolytic uraemic syndrome

IBD

inflammatory bowel disease

IC

inspiratory capacity

IGF-1

insulin-like growth factor

IHD

ischaemic heart disease

IM

intramuscularly

INR

international normalised ratio

IRV

inspiratory reserve volume

IU

international units

IV

intravenous

IVC

inferior vena cava

IVDU

intravenous drug use

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

IVU

intravenous urogram

JACCOL

jaundice/anaemia/cyanosis/ clubbing/oedema/ lymphadenopathy

JVP

jugular venous pressure

KCO

carbon monoxide gas transfer coefficient

LAD

left axis deviation

LBBB

left bundle branch block

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

LDL

low density lipoprotein

LFT

liver function test

LH

luteinising hormone

LHRH

luteinising hormone-releasing hormone

LFTs

liver function tests

LMN

lower motor neuron

LMWH

low-molecular weight heparin

LP

lumbar puncture

L/RIF

left/right iliac fossa

L/RUQ

left/right upper quadrant of the abdomen

L/RVF

left/right ventricular failure

LVH

left-ventricular hypertrophy

MAC

Mycobacterium avium complex

MCH

mean corpuscular haemoglobin

MCHC

mean cell haemoglobin concentration

MCUG

micturating cysturethrogram

MCV

mean cell volume, mean corpuscular volume

MEN

multiple endocrine neoplasia

MI

myocardial infarction

MIBG

meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine

MMSE

mini-mental state examination

MRA

magnetic resonance angiography

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MRSA

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MRV

magnetic resonance venography

MS

multiple sclerosis

MSU

mid-stream urine

NABQI

N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine

NAC

N-acetylcysteine

NAD

nothing abnormal detected

NASH

non-alcoholic steato hepatitis

NCS

nerve conduction studies

NHL

non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

NSAID

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

OCP

ova, cysts, parasites

OD

omni die (once per day)

OGD

oesophageal gastroduodenoscopy

PACS

picture archiving and communication system

PAN

polyarteritis nodosa

PAPP-A

pregnancy associated plasma protein A

PaCO2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PaO2

partial pressure of oxygen

PBC

primary biliary cirrhosis

PCOS

polycystic ovarian syndrome

PCP

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PCV

packed cell volume

PE

pulmonary embolus

PEFR

peak expiratory flow rate

PERLA

pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation

PET

positron emission tomography

PKD

polycystic kidney disease; pyruvate kinase deficiency

PL

prolactin

PND

paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea

PNS

peripheral nervous system

PO

orally

PR

per rectum, rectally

PRN

as required

PRV

polycythaemia rubra vera

PSA

prostate specific antigen

PSC

primary sclerosing cholangitis

PT

prothrombin time

PTC

percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography

PTH

parathyroid hormone

PUBS

percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling

PUO

pyrexia of unknown origin

QDS

quater die sumendus (four times per day)

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

RBBB

right bundle branch block

RBC

red blood cell

RF

risk factor, rheumatoid factor

RIBA

radioimmunoblot assay

RR

respiration rate

RTA

renal tubular acidosis

rt-PA

recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator

RV

residual volume

SA

sinoatrial

SAH

subarachnoid haemorrhage

SBP

spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

S/C

subcutaneous

SEP

sensory evoked potential

SHBG

sex hormone binding globulin

SIRS

systemic inflammatory response syndrome

SLA

soluble liver antigen

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

SOB(OE)

shortness of breath (on exertion)

SPECT

single photon emission computed tomography

STIR

short tau inversion recovery

SVC

superior vena cava

SVT

supraventricular tachycardia

T3

tri-iodo

T4

thyroxine

TB

tuberculosis

TBG

thyroxine-binding globulin

TDS

ter die sumendus (three times per day)

TFTS

thyroid function tests

TIA

transient ischaemic attack

TIBC

total iron-binding capacity

TLC

total lung capacity

TOE

transoesophageal echo

TRH

thyrotrophin-releasing hormone

TRUS

transrectal ultrasound

TSH

thyroid stimulating hormone

TT

thrombin time

TTE

transthoracic echocardiography

tTG

tissue transglutaminase

TTP

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

TV

tidal volume

U&E

urea and electrolytes

UC

ulcerative colitis

UMN

upper motor neuron

US

ultrasound

UTI

urinary tract infection

VC

vital capacity

VEP

visual evoked potential

VF

ventricular fibrillation

VMA

vanillylmandelic acid

VT

ventricular tachycardia

VTE

venous thromboembolism

WCC

white cell count

WHO

World Health Organization

WPW

Wolff-Parkinson-White

ZN

Ziehl-Neelsen

Chapter 1

NORMAL RANGES

Notes

1 All are serum values (unless otherwise stated).

2 'Normal range' values differ between individual laboratories and normal healthy individuals, as well as different ages and sexes. Furthermore, disease processes beyond those commonly associated with a particular abnormality' may be associated with variations in individual measurements. For example, elevated ESR levels may be found in heart failure (even in the absence of the presence of any of the common 'normal' causes of elevated ESR). Quoted reference intervals should therefore be considered as guides rather than absolute values, and should always be considered in the clinical context.

3 All values are for adults unless otherwise stated.

Haematology

Full blood count (FBC)

Haemoglobin (Hb) 13.0-18.0 g/dL (males), 11.5-16.5 g/dL (females)
Mean cellular volume (MCV) 80-96 fL
Packed cell volume (PCV)/Haematocrit (Hct) 40-50% (males), 36-45% (females)
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) 28-32pg
Mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 32-35 g/dL
Reticulocytes 25-85 × 109/L or 0.5-2.4%
Platelets 150-400 × 109/L
White cell count (WCC) 4-11 × 109/L
Differential WCC: Neutrophils 2.5-7.5 × 109/L
Lymphocytes 1.5-4.0 × 109/L
Monocytes 0.2-0.8 × 109/L
Eosinophils 0.04-0.44 × 109/L
Basophils 0.0-0.1 × 109/L

Others

Erythrocyte 0-15 mm/1st hour
sedimentation (males), 0-30 mm/1st
rate (ESR) hour (females)

Coagulation screen

Prothrombin time (PT) 12-15s
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) 40-50s
Bleeding time 3-8 min
International normalised ratio (INR) <0.9-1.2
Fibrinogen 1.8-5.4g/L
D-Dimer <0.5mg/L (varies with assay used, e.g. ELISA/latex agglutination, etc.)

Haematinics

Iron 12-30 μmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) 45-75 μmol/L
Ferritin 15-300 μg/L
Transferrin 2.0-4.0g/L
B12 160-760ng/L
Folate 2.0-11.0μg/L
Red cell folate 160-640 μg/L
Haptoglobins 0.13-1.63g/L

Haemoglobin electrophoresis (normal adults)

Haemoglobin A >95%
Haemoglobin A2 2-3%
Haemoglobin F <2%

Chemistry

Ions
Sodium (Na+) 137-144 mmol/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mmol/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-107 mmol/L
Bicarbonate (HCO-3) 20-28 mmol/L
Corrected calcium (Ca2+) 2.2-2.6 mmol/L
Phosphate (PO4-) 0.8-1.4 mmol/L
Copper (Cu2+) 12-26 μmol/L
Caeruloplasmin 200-350 mg/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 0.75-1.05 mmol/L
Anion gap 12-16 mmol/L Calculated by: ([Na+] + [K+])-([Cl-] + [HCO-3])
Renal
Urea 2.5-7.5 mmol/L
Creatinine 60-110 μmol/L
Urate 0.23-0.46 mmol/L (males), 0.19-0.36 mmol/L (females)
Plasma osmolality 278-305 mosmol/kg
Hepatic
Total protein 61-76 g/L
Albumin 37-49 g/L
Total bilirubin 1-22 μmol/L
Conjugated bilirubin 0-3.4 μmol/L
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 5-35 U/L
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 1-31 U/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 45-105 U/L (over 14 years)
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) 4-35 U/L (<50 U/L in males)
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 10-250 U/L
Cardiac
Creatine kinase MB fraction <5%
Troponin I 0-0.4 μg/L
Troponin T 0-0.1 μg/L
Others
Creatine kinase (CK) 24-195 U/L (males), 24-170 U/L (females)
Plasma lactate 0.6-1.8 mmol/L
Fasting plasma glucose 3.0-6.0 mmol/L
Haemoglobin AI C (HbAIC) 3.8-6.4%
Fructosamine <285 μmo/L
Serum amylase 60-180 U/L

Lipids and lipoproteins

NB: These target levels vary depending on the patient's overall cardiovascular risk assessment.

Cholesterol <5.2 mmol/L
LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L
HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol >1.55 mmol/L
Fasting serum triglyceride 0.45-1.69 mmol/L

Blood gases

(See Chapter 3 for further information)

H+ 35-45 nmol/L
pH 7.35-7.45
PaO2 10.6-12.6 kPa
PaCO2 4.7-6.0 kPa
Base excess ±2 mmol/L

NB: 1 kPa = 7.6 mmHg. Atmospheric pressure approximately 100 kPa.

Hormones

Adrenal

Serum aldosterone (normal diet) Upright (4 h): 330-830 pmol/L
Supine (30 min): 135-400 pmol/L
Serum cortisol 09.00: 200-700 nmol/L
22.00: 50-200 nmol/L
Urinary cortisol <280 nmol/24 h
Dexamethasone suppression test Overnight (after 1 mg dexamethasone): cortisol <50 nmol/l
Low dose test (2 mg/day for 48 h): cortisol <50 nmol/L
Serum oestradiol
Males
Females
<180 pmol/L
Post-menopausal: <100 pmol/L
Follicular: 200-400 pmol/L
Mid-cycle: 400-1200 pmol/L
Luteal: 400-1000 pmol/L
Serum progesterone
Males (very rarely undertaken)
Females:
<6 nmol/L
Follicular <10 nmol/L
Luteal >30 nmol/L (should be checked on day 21 of 28-day menstrual cycle)
Serum testosterone
Males
Females
9-35 nmol/L
0.5-3 nmol/L

Anterior pituitary

Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) 09.00: <18 pmol/L
Plasma follicle stimulating
hormone (FSH)
Males
Females
1-7 U/L
Follicular: 2.5-10 U/L
Mid-cycle: 25-70 U/L
Luteal: 0.32-2.1 U/L
Post-menopausal: >30 U/L
Plasma growth hormone (GH)
Basal, fasting and between <1 mU/L
pulses:
After hypoglycaemia >40 mU/L (many centres accept values
>20 mU/L)
Plasma luteinising hormone (LH)
Males
Females
1-10 U/L
Follicular: 2.5-10 U/L
Mid-cycle: 25-70 U/L
Luteal: 1-13 U/L
Post-menopausal: >30 U/L
Plasma prolactin (PL) 65-490 mlU/L (females), 55-340 mlU/L
(males) or 1-25 ng/mL (females),
1-20 ng/mL (males)

Posterior pituitary

Plasma antidiuretic 0.9-4.6 pmol/L
hormone (ADH) (NB: random values can be meaningless - need to measure this in the context of hydration status and should ideally be measured only in the specialist context of a controlled hypertonic saline infusion test)

Thyroid

Plasma thyroid binding globulin (TBG) 13-28 mg/L (not routinely measured in clinical practice)
Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4-5 mU/L
Total plasma thyroxine (T4) 58-174 nmol/L
Free T4 10-22 pmol/L
Total tri-iodothyronine (T3) 1.07-3.18nmol/L
Free T3 5-10 pmol/L
Serum TSH receptor antibodies <7 U/L
Serum antithyroid peroxidase <50 IU/mL

Others

Plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) 0.9-5.4 pmol/L
Plasma calcitonin <27 pmol/L (should be measured in fasting state)
Serum cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) 60-105 nmol/L
Serum
25-OH-cholecalciferol
45-90 nmol/L

Tumour markers

NB: These values can be meaningless when interpreted outside the appropriate clinical context. Tumour markers are best used for monitoring treatment response and tumour recurrence, as well as for diagnosis when considered alongside relevant clinical and other investigative findings.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) <10 kU/L
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) <10 μg/L
Neurone specific enolase <12 μg/L
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) <4 μg/L (males >40 years)/
<2 μg/L (males <40 years)
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (B-HCG) <5 U/L
CA 125 <35 U/mL
CA 19-9 <33 U/mL

Cerebrospinal fluid

Opening pressure 50-200 mm H2O
Protein 0.15-0.45 g/L
Albumin 0.066-0.442 g/L
Chloride 116-122 mmol/L
Glucose 2.2-4.4 mmol/L (>50% plasma glucose)
Lactate 1-2 mmol/L
Red cell count 0/mm3
White cell count ≤5/mm3
Differential
Lymphocytes 60-70% (<5/mm3)
Monocytes 30-50%
Neutrophils None

Sweat

Chloride 60 mmol/L (higher values are consistent with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis) NB: Some sources use higher values for the diagnosis of CF

Immunoglobulins

IgM 0.45-2.0 g/L
IgG 7.0-14.5 g/L
IgA 0.8-4.0 g/L

Urine

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 70-140 mL/min
Creatinine clearance (an estimate of GFR) 75-115 mL/min (females),
82-125 mL/min (males)
Total protein <150 mg/24 h
Albumin <30 mg/24 h
Albumin/creatinine ratio <3.5 mg/mmol (males),
<2.5 mg/mmol (females)
Sodium 100-250 mmol/24 h
Potassium 14-120 mmol/24 h
Phosphate (inorganic) 15-50 mmol/24 h
Calcium 2.5-7.5 mmol/24 h
Urobilinogen 1.7-5.9μmol/24h
Osmolality 350-1000 mosmol/kg
5-HT metabolite
5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (HIAA) 16-73 μmol/24 h
Catecholamine and metabolites
Noradrenaline 60-660 nmol/24 h
Adrenaline 15-160 nmol/24 h
Metanephrines 0.03-0.695 μmol/mmol creatinine or <5.5 μmol/24 h
Hydroxymethylmandelic acid (HMMA)/vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) 16-48 μmol/24 h

NB: Most centres are moving away from the measurement of VMA due to its poor relative sensitivity as compared to catecholamines and metanephrines.

Units and conversion tables

images/c01_image001.jpg Always write out the abbreviation in full when documenting in notes or charts (especially drug prescription charts) - for example, write 'milligrams' rather than 'mg') to avoid confusion.

images/c01_image001.jpg Errors cost lives: a slight misinterpretation of what unit is written (for example, if 'μg' looks like 'mg') could lead to a 1,000-fold increase in the dose administered. These errors happen but can be prevented.

Length

1 centimetre (cm) 10 millimetres (mm)
1 metre (m) 100 centimetres (cm) = 1000 millimetres (mm)
1 inch 25.4 millimetres (mm)
1 foot 12 inches = 304.8 millimetres (cm)

Mass

1 nanogram (ng) 1000 picograms (pg)
1 microgram (μg) 1000 nanograms (ng)
1 milligram (mg) 1000 micrograms (μg)
1 gram (g) 1000 milligrams (mg)
1 kilogram (kg) 1000 grams (g)
1 pound (lb) 0.45 kilograms (kg)

Volume

1 millilitre (mL) 1000 microlitres (μL)
1 litre (L) 1000 millilitres (mL)
1 pint Approximately 568 mL
1 decilitre (dL) 100 millilitres (mL)
1 fluid ounce (fl oz) Approximately 29.6 mL
1 unit per litre (U/L) Also written as IU/L (international units/litre)
milliunits per litre (mU/L) 10-3 units/litre
kilounits pre litre (kU/L) 103 units/litre

Concentration

mole (mol) SI base unit of the amount of a substance - amount of substance of a system that contains an equivalent number of elementary entities (e.g. atoms, molecules, electrons, etc.) as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon-12 (12C)
millimole (mmol) 10-3 mol
micromole (μmol) 10-6 mol
picomole (pmol) 10-12 mol
osmole (osmol) 1 osmole is one gram molecular weight (I mole) of any non-dissociable substance, and contains 6.02 × 1023 particles
milliosmole (mosmol) 10-3 osmol

Pressure

pascal (Pa) measure of force per unit area (one newton per square metre)
kilopascal 1000 Pa