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Contents

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To my wife, Gülimgen, and my children,
Meliha, Miray, imgbrahim Eren,
Zeynep, and imgbrahim Emir
for their inspiration.

And to those who have helped and supported
me in any way throughout
my education and professional life.

imgbrahim Dinçer

To my wife, Margot, and my children,
Allison and Cassandra for their inspiration.
And to Frank C. Hooper and David S. Scott,
two giants in the field of energy and wonderful mentors.

Marc A. Rosen

About the Authors

imgbrahim Dinçer is a full professor of mechanical engineering in the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science at University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT). Renowned for his pioneering works in the area of sustainable energy technologies, he has authored and co-authored numerous books and book chapters, more than 600 refereed journal and conference papers, and many technical reports. He has chaired many national and international conferences, symposia, workshops, and technical meetings. He has delivered more than 200 keynote and invited lectures. He is an active member of various international scientific organizations and societies, and serves as editor-in-chief (for International Journal of Energy Research by Wiley, and International Journal of Exergy and International Journal of Global Warming by Inderscience), associate editor, regional editor, and editorial board member on various prestigious international journals. He is a recipient of several research, teaching, and service awards, including a Premier’s Research Excellence award in Ontario, Canada, in 2004. He has made innovative contributions to the understanding and development of sustainable energy technologies and their implementation, particularly through exergy. He has actively been working in the areas of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and his group has developed various novel technologies and methods.

Marc A. Rosen is a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology in Oshawa, Canada, where he served as founding Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science from 2002 to 2008. Dr. Rosen has served as President of the Engineering Institute of Canada and of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering. He has acted in many professional capacities, including founding editor-in-chief of the journal Sustainability and a member of the Board of Directors of Oshawa Power and Utilities Corporation. With over 60 research grants and contracts and 500 technical publications, Dr. Rosen is an active teacher and researcher in thermodynamics, energy technology, sustainable energy, and the environmental impact of energy systems. Much of his research has been carried out for industry. Dr. Rosen has worked for such organizations as Imatra Power Company in Finland, Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, the Institute for Hydrogen Systems near Toronto, and Ryerson University in Toronto, where he served as chair of the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Industrial Engineering. Dr. Rosen has received numerous awards and honours, including an Award of Excellence in Research and Technology Development from the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, the Engineering Institute of Canada’s Smith Medal for achievement in the development of Canada, and the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering’s Angus Medal for outstanding contributions to the management and practice of mechanical engineering. He is a Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada, the Canadian Academy of Engineering, the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the International Energy Foundation.

Preface

Thermal energy storage (TES) is an advanced energy technology that is attracting increasing interest for thermal applications such as space and water heating, cooling, and air conditioning. TES systems have enormous potential to facilitate more effective use of thermal equipment and large-scale energy substitutions that are economic. TES appears to be the most appropriate method for correcting the mismatch that sometimes occurs between the supply and demand of energy. It is therefore a very attractive technology for meeting society’s needs and desires for more efficient and environmentally benign energy use.

This book is research oriented, and therefore includes some practical features often not included in other, solely academic textbooks. This book is essentially intended for use by advanced undergraduate and graduate students in various disciplines ranging from mechanical to chemical engineering, and as a basic reference for practicing energy engineers. Analyses of TES systems and their applications are undertaken throughout this comprehensive book, providing new understanding, methodologies, models, and applications, along with descriptions of several experimental works and case studies. Some of the material presented has been drawn from recent information available in the literature and elsewhere. The coverage is extensive, and the amount of information and data presented can be sufficient for several courses, if studied in detail. We strongly believe that this book will be of interest to students, engineers, and energy experts and that it provides a valuable and readable reference text for those who wish to learn more about TES systems and applications.

Chapter 1 addresses general aspects of thermodynamics, fluid flow, and heat transfer to furnish the reader with background information that is of relevance to the analysis of TES systems and their applications. Chapter 2 discusses the many types of energy storage technologies available. Chapter 3 deals extensively with TES methods, including cold TES. Chapter 4 addresses several environmental issues that we face today, and discusses how TES can help solve these problems. Several successful case studies are presented. Chapter 5 describes how TES is a valuable tool in energy conservation efforts that can help achieve significant energy savings. Chapter 6 covers energy and exergy analyses of a range of TES systems, along with various practical examples. Chapter 7 delves into both sensible and latent TES systems and their modeling, simulation, and numerical analyses; numerous case studies and illustrative examples are incorporated into this chapter, including heat transfer with phase change in simple and complex geometries. Chapter 8 discusses many practical TES applications and case studies along with their technical features and potential benefits. As the final unit, Chapter 9 reflects current developments in TES systems and applications, technologies, methods and techniques, and thereby seeks to provide thoughts on the future of thermal energy storage.

Incorporated throughout this book are many wide-ranging, illustrative examples that provide useful information for practical applications. Conversion factors and thermophysical properties of various materials are listed in the appendices in the International System of Units (SI). Complete references and a bibliography are included with each chapter to direct the curious and interested reader to further information.

The second edition of this book includes updated materials, new chapters, and questions/problems for each chapter. We feel that the enhanced content makes this edition of Thermal Energy Storage: Systems and Applications the best candidate as a text for senior level undergraduate and/or graduate level courses in the area.

imgbrahim Dinçer
Marc A. Rosen
August 2010

Acknowledgements

Many people and organizations provided assistance that helped greatly in bringing this edition of our book to fruition.

We are most grateful to the following colleagues, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students of ours for the time and effort they dedicated to assist in the preparation of some chapters, sections, figures, and problems:

Their assistance helped us enhance the content and make it more focused as a comprehensive resource and textbook on thermal energy storage.

We are particularly thankful to the many companies and agencies that contributed documents and illustrations for use in this book. These valuable materials permit us to cover many recent developments and to provide a high degree of industrial relevance and practicality. Most such materials from the first edition are retained in this edition, because of their continuing illustrative nature and relevance. Furthermore, new materials from industry are included in this edition to enhance the coverage of practical applications. The relevant companies and agencies are acknowledged throughout the book where elements of the materials they provided are utilized.

We are grateful to several reviewers, colleagues, friends, and graduate students of ours for the feedback and suggestions they provided during the preparation of the first and current editions of this book.

We acknowledge the support provided by our former and current academic institutions. In this second edition, several externally contributed chapters from the first edition have been replaced in order to provide a more unified and cohesive presentation. We nonetheless acknowledge with sincere thanks the chapters that were contributed to the first edition by Professors Adrian Bejan, Afshin J. Ghajar, Kamal A.R. Ismail, Marcel Lacroix, and Yousef H. Zurigat.

Also, we sincerely appreciate the encouragement of our publisher and their recognition of the increasing importance of thermal energy storage. In addition, we are grateful for the exemplary support provided by Nicky Skinner and Debbie Cox of John Wiley & Sons in the development of this second edition of the book, from the initial review phase to the final product.

Last, but not least, we thank our wives, Gülimgen Dinçer and Margot Rosen, and our children Meliha, Miray, imgbrahim Eren, Zeynep, and imgbrahim Emir Dinçer, and Allison and Cassandra Rosen. They have been a great source of support and motivation, and their patience and understanding throughout this project have been most appreciated.