Cover

Contents

Volume I

Volume II

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO THE ANCIENT WORLD

This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical literature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers.

ANCIENT HISTORY

Published

A Companion to the Roman Army
Edited by Paul Erdkamp

A Companion to the Roman Republic
Edited by Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx

A Companion to the Roman Empire
Edited by David S. Potter

A Companion to the Classical Greek World
Edited by Konrad H. Kinzl

A Companion to the Ancient Near East
Edited by Daniel C. Snell

A Companion to the Hellenistic World
Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Late Antiquity
Edited by Philip Rousseau

A Companion to Ancient History
Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Archaic Greece
Edited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van Wees

A Companion to Julius Caesar
Edited by Miriam Griffin

A Companion to Byzantium
Edited by Liz James

A Companion to Ancient Egypt
Edited by Alan B. Lloyd

A Companion to Ancient Macedonia
Edited by Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington

A Companion to the Punic Wars
Edited by Dexter Hoyos

A Companion to Augustine
Edited by Mark Vessey

A Companion to Marcus Aurelius

Edited by Marcel van Ackeren

Literature and Culture

Published

A Companion to Classical Receptions
Edited by Lorna Hardwick and Christopher Stray

A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography
Edited by John Marincola

A Companion to Catullus
Edited by Marilyn B. Skinner

A Companion to Roman Religion
Edited by Jörg Rüpke

A Companion to Greek Religion
Edited by Daniel Ogden

A Companion to the Classical Tradition
Edited by Craig W. Kallendorf

A Companion to Roman Rhetoric
Edited by William Dominik and Jon Hall

A Companion to Greek Rhetoric
Edited by Ian Worthington

A Companion to Ancient Epic
Edited by John Miles Foley

A Companion to Greek Tragedy
Edited by Justina Gregory

A Companion to Latin Literature
Edited by Stephen Harrison

A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought
Edited by Ryan K. Balot

A Companion to Ovid
Edited by Peter E. Knox

A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language
Edited by Egbert Bakker

A Companion to Hellenistic Literature
Edited by Martine Cuypers and James J. Clauss

A Companion to Vergil’s Aeneid and its Tradition
Edited by Joseph Farrell and Michael C. J. Putnam

A Companion to Horace
Edited by Gregson Davis

A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds
Edited by Beryl Rawson

A Companion to Greek Mythology
Edited by Ken Dowden and Niall Livingstone

A Companion to the Latin Language
Edited by James Clackson

A Companion to Tacitus
Edited by Victoria Emma Pagán

A Companion to Women in the Ancient World
Edited by Sharon L. James and Sheila Dillon

A Companion to Sophocles
Edited by Kirk Ormand

A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
Edited by Daniel Potts

A Companion to Roman Love Elegy
Edited by Barbara K. Gold

A Companion to Greek Art
Edited by Tyler Jo Smith and Dimitris Plantzos

Image

Image

List of Illustrations

Megarian bowl from Thebes. Scenes of the Underworld. c. 200 BC ( London, British Museum 1897.0317.3. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Attic marble votive relief from Eleusis. Cave of Pan. 4th c. BC (Athens, National Museum 1445. Photo: Studio Kontos/Photostock).
Lakonian lead figurine of a warrior, from Sparta. 6th–5th c. BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of A.J.B. Wace, 1924 (24.195.64). Image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence).
London, Hyde Park Gate, designed by Decimus Burton with a free version of the Parthenon frieze designed by John Henning, 1825 (photo: D. Plantzos).
Athens, the building of the Academy designed by Theophile Hansen, with free-standing statues of Athena and Apollo by Leonidas Drosis, 1859–1887 (photo: D. Plantzos).
Athens, ‘Greek art’ replicas on sale in one of the city’s souvenir shops, 2011 (photo: D. Plantzos).
Development of Lakonian Pottery (after Dawkins 1929: pl. 19).
Chronological table of overlapping terminologies, historical, cultural, and artistic events (after Whitley 2001: 62, ).
Athenian red-figure pelike fragment. Hermaic stelai. c. 480–470 BC ( Paris, Louvre C 10793 © RMN/Hervé Lewandowski).
Plan of Alexandria (after Hoepfner and Schwandner 1994: fig. 225).
Athens, the Agora. Planning development from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period (after Camp 1986: figs. 21, 66 and 139).
Chart of main Greek pottery shapes (after Pedley 2007: fig. 6.72).
Athenian Late Geometric krater. Funeral procession. c. 745–740 BC (Athens, National Archaeological Museum A 990. Photo: akg-images/Erich Lessing).
Athenian black-figure dinos signed by the painter Sophilos. Wedding of Peleus and Thetis. c. 580 BC (London, British Museum 1971, 1101.1).
Athenian black-figure kylix. Gigantomachy. c. 550–540 BC ( Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glypothek 2238. Photo: Renate Kühling).
Athenian red-figure kylix signed by Douris. School scene. c. 485–480 BC (Berlin, Archaeological Museum 2285. Photo: Johannes Laurentius. © 2011. Photo Scala, Florence/BPK, Bildagentur für Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte, Berlin).
Athenian red-figure amphora of Panathenaic shape. Gorgon pursued by Perseus. c. 490–480 BC ( Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glypothek 2312. Photo: Renate Kühling).
Athenian white-ground lekythos. Mistress and maid with child. c. 460–450 BC (Berlin, Archaeological Museum 2443. bpk/Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin/Johannes Laurentius).
Middle Protocorinthian aryballos. Bellerophon and the Chimaira. c. 660 BC (Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 95.10. USA/Catharine Page Perkins Fund/The Bridgeman Art Library).
Corinthian Outline Style oinochoe. Ritual race (?) or komos (?). c. 450–400 BC (Corinth Archaeological Museum C-1934-362, 2003-2-28, Hesperia 1937: 311–312, fig. 40. Courtesy of the American School of Classical Studies, Corinth Excavations, I. Ioannidou and L. Bartzioti).
Boeotian black-figure kantharos. Komasts. Mid 6th c. BC (Munich, Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glypothek 6010. Photo: Renate Kühling).
Boeotian Kabeiran skyphos fragments. Kabeiros reclining, to left ‘caricatured’ figures. c. 410–400 BC (Athens, National Archaeological Museum 10426. © Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism/Archaeological Receipts Fund).
Eretrian Orientalizing amphora. c. 625–600 BC (Athens, National Archaeological Museum 12077. Photo: Studio Kontos/Photostock).
Lakonian black-figure cup (interior). Hunt for the Kalydonian Boar. c. 560 BC ( Paris, Louvre E 670 Giraudon/ The Bridgeman Art Library).
‘Melian’ amphora. Riders. c. 660 BC (Athens, National Archaeological Museum 912. Photo: Studio Kontos/Photostock).
South Ionian Wild Goat Style oinochoe. c. 630–620 BC (Tübingen, Institut für Klassische Archäologie 1237).
Fikellura style amphora with a running man. c. 530 BC (London, British Museum 1864,1007.156. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Klazomenian black-figure amphora. c. 540–525 (London, British Museum 1888.2-8.71a. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Marble statue of a maiden (kore). c. 510 BC ( Athens, Acropolis Museum 675. Evangelos Tsiamis/Acropolis Museum Acr. 675).
Marble statue of a youth (kouros). c. 600 BC (Athens, National Archaeological Museum 2720. Photo © AISA/The Bridgeman Art Library).
Marble statue of a youth. c. 460 BC (Mozia, Whitaker Museum 23102. © Johnny Jones/Alamy).
Marble statue of a youth. Roman copy of the bronze Doryphoros by Polykleitos. c. 440 BC (Minneapolis Institute of Arts 86.6). The John R. Van Derlip Fund and Gift of funds from Bruce B. Dayton, an anonymous donor, Mr and Mrs Kenneth Dayton, Mr and Mrs W John Driscoll, Mr and Mrs Alfred Harrison, Mr and Mrs John Andrus, Mr and Mrs Judson Dayton, Mr and Mrs Stephen Keating, Mr and Mrs Pierce McNally, Mr and Mrs Donald Dayton, Mr and Mrs Wayne MacFarlane, and many other generous friends of the Institute.
Marble statue of Athena. Roman copy of the chryselephantine Athena Parthenos by Pheidias. c. 447–432 BC (Athens, National Archaeological Museum 129. © Universal Images Group/SuperStock).
Marble gravestone of Ampharete. c. 410 BC (Athens, Kerameikos Museum P 695, I 221. © Karl Hausammann/Alamy).
Marble statue of Aphrodite. Roman copy of the Knidian Aphrodite by Praxiteles. c. 350 BC. (Vatican, Museo Pio-Clementino. © 2011. Photo Scala, Florence).
Marble head of Alexander. c. 330–320 BC (Athens, Acropolis Museum 1331. Socratis Mavrommatis/Acropolis Museum, Acr. 1331).
Marble statue of an athlete. Roman copy of the bronze ‘Apoxyomenos’ by Lysippos. c. 330 BC. (Vatican, Museo Pio-Clementino. © 2011. Photo Scala, Florence).
Marble statue of Gaul chieftain committing suicide alongside his wife. c. 220–210 BC (Rome, Terme National Museum 8608. The Art Archive/Museo Nazionale Terme Rome/Gianni Dagli Orti).
Lefkandi (Euboea). Reconstruction of the ‘heroon’. 10th c. BC (after Boardman 1996: 31, fig. 13).
Standard Greek temple plan.
Greek architectural orders (after Jenkins 2006: fig. 1).
Athens, the Hephaisteion. c. 450–400 BC (American School of Classical Studies at Athens: Agora Excavations).
Acropolis, the Erechtheion. c. 430/420–410/400 BC (American School of Classical Studies at Athens: Agora Excavations).
Delphi, the Tholos. c. 390–380 BC (photo: D. Plantzos).
Delphi, the Athenian Treasury (restored). c. 490–450 BC (photo: D. Plantzos).
Reconstruction of the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi. c. 525 BC (drawing after E. Hansen).
West frieze of the Great Altar of Pergamon. Detail showing Nereus and Oceanus fighting the Giants. c. 170 BC (Berlin, Pergamon Museum. © Ruggero Vanni/Corbis).
Parthenon, reconstruction of the east pediment. 447–432 BC (drawing by K. Iliakis).
Reconstruction of the north pediment of the Hieron of Samothrace. c. 280 BC (drawing by D. Scahill).
The Mausoleum at Halikarnassos, slab from the Amazonomachy frieze. c. 360–350 (London, British Museum 1015. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Parthenon, south metope 27. Fight between a human Lapith and a centaur. 447–432 BC (London, British Museum. © Universal Images Group/SuperStock).
Marble acroterion from a temple in the Athenian Agora. Nike. c. 420–400 BC (Athens, Agora Archaeological Museum S312. American School of Classical Studies at Athens: Agora Excavations).
Artemision of Ephesos, sculptured column drum. Hermes and Alcestis. c. 320 BC (London, British Museum 1206. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Wooden panel depicting a sacrifice scene. Pitsa Cave, Peloponnese. 540–530 BC (Athens, National Archaeological Museum 16464. © Universal Images Group/SuperStock).
Wall-painting depicting a banquet. Tomb of the Diver, Paestum. c. 470 BC (Paestum, National Archaeological Museum. © The Art Archive/ SuperStock).
Mosaic pavement of an unswept floor, presumably copying a Hellenistic original by Sosos. From the Aventine Hill, Rome. 2nd c. AD. (Vatican, Museo Gregoriano Profano. © 2011. Photo Scala, Florence).
Wall-painting depicting a guard in Macedonian military gear from the façade of the Tomb at Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki. c. 300 BC (Tsimpidou-Avloniti 2005: table 39, Hellenic Ministry of Culture – Archaeological Receipts Fund).
Mosaic panel depicting a battle of Alexander against Darius. From the House of the Faun, Pompeii. Late 2nd c. BC (Naples, National Archaeological Museum. © David Lees/Corbis).
Painted gravestone of Hediste from Demetrias, Thessaly. c. 200 BC (Volos, Archaeological Museum L 1. © The Art Archive/Alamy).
Pebble mosaics, dining-room, and anteroom, ‘House of the Mosaics’ at Eretria. c. 375–350 BC (Photo courtesy of the Swiss School of Archaeology in Greece).
Mosaic of irregular tesserae and split pebbles at Euesperides, set in a surround of pebble mosaic. 261–c. 250 BC (Photo © John Lloyd, 1998).
Tessellated mosaic, site of the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria. Crouching dog. Probably 2nd c. BC (© BA Antiquities Museum/M. Nafea).
Tessellated mosaic, House III S, Theater Quarter, Delos. Late 2nd or early 1st c. BC (Photo © Ruth Westgate).
Gold earring, said to come from Rhodes. 7th c. BC (London, British Museum BM 1860.0404.107 (1174/75) © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Gold pendant disc from Kul Oba (Crimea). Head of Athena. c. 400–350 BC (St Petersburg, Hermitage Museum KO5. Fine Art Images/Heritage- Images/TopFoto).
Pair of gold boat-shaped earrings, said to come from Eretria. c. 420–400 BC (London, British Museum BM 1893.11-3.1. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Gold strap necklace with seed-like pendants, said to be from Melos. c. 330–300 BC (London, British Museum BM 1872.6-4.660. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Agate sealstone in the form of a scarab. A satyr at the symposion. c. 550–500 BC (London, British Museum BM GR 1865.7-12.106 (Gems 465). © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Impression of a chalcedony sealstone signed by Dexamenos of Chios. A flying heron. c. 450–430 BC (St Petersburg, Hermitage Museum Ju O. 24. Beazley Archive, Oxford University. Photo: C. Wagner).
Chalcedony sealstone. Nike erecting a trophy. c. 350 BC (London, British Museum GR 1865.7-12.86. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Impression of a tourmaline sealstone. Portrait of Alexander the Great. c. 330–300 BC (Oxford, Ashmolean Museum. Beazley Archive, Oxford University. Photo: C. Wagner).
Gold finger ring. Herakles worshipping. Late 5th c. BC (Private collection. Beazley Archive, Oxford University. Photo: C. Wagner).
Terracotta model. Mule carrying amphorae. c. 780–720 BC (London, British Museum GR.1921.11–29.2. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Terracotta figurine. Goddess. c. 520–500 BC (London, British Museum 68. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Terracotta figurine. Woman carrying water jar. c. 200 BC (London, British Museum 2518. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Terracotta ‘Tanagra’ figurine. Woman. c. 250–200 BC (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum GR66.1937. University of Cambridge/The Bridgeman Art Library).
Terracotta figurine. Winged Victory (Nike). c. 180 BC (Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 01.7690. Museum purchase/The Bridgeman Art Library).
Silver stater of Elis/Olympia. Head of Zeus (obverse). c. 330 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Syracuse. Head of Athena (reverse). c. 410 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver decadrachm of Syracuse. Head of Arethusa (reverse). Signed by Kimon. c. 405–400 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver decadrachm of Syracuse. Head of Arethusa (reverse). Signed by Evainetos. c. 400–390 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander the Great, possibly struck in Memphis. Head of Herakles (obverse). c. 321 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Athens. (a) Head of Athena (obverse). (b) Owl (reverse) c. 450–431 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Syracuse. (a) Quadriga (obverse). Signed by Euth[…]. (b) Head of Arethusa (reverse). Signed by Eum[…]. c. 410 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander the Great, struck by Nikokles of Paphos. Head of Herakles (obverse). c. 320 BC (after E.T. Newell 1919) (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Syracuse. (a) Quadriga (obverse). Signed by Kimon. (b) Head of Arethusa (reverse). c. 410 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Mithridates Eupator of Pontos. (a) Head of Mithridates (obverse). (b) Pegasos (reverse). 89 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Aitna. (a) Head of Silenos (obverse). (b) Zeus (reverse). c. 465 BC (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Silver tetradrachm of Naxos. (a) Head of Dionysos (obverse). (b) Silenos (reverse). c. 460 BC. (All rights reserved. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium).
Athenian red-figure calyx-krater (Caltagirone, Museo Regionale della Ceramica 961. Drawing by D. Weiss).
Black-figure plaque. A potter by his kiln. 6th c. BC (Paris, Louvre MNB 2858; drawing after Hoffmann and Boehm 1965: fig. 147).
Black-figure plaque. A potter working at a kiln loaded with pottery wares. 6th c. BC. (Berlin, Antikensammlung F893; drawing after Hoffmann and Boehm 1965: fig. 147).
Suggested diagram of the three stages (oxidization, reduction, reoxidization) in a single firing of Athenian gloss-covered pottery (drawing by E. Hasaki, adapted from Clark et al. 2002: 92, fig. 88).
Techniques of bronze-working and select examples of each (illustration by E. Hasaki and D. Weiss).
Athenian red-figure kylix (Foundry Cup). c. 490–480 BC (Berlin, Antikensammlungen F 2294. bpk/Antikensammlung, SMB/Johannes Laurentius).
Relief on a sarcophagus, from Ephesos. A sculptor’s workshop. 2nd c. AD (inv. 775 T. DAI neg. no. 1055-D-DAI-IST-R16453/Mendel Foto).
Statuette of kouros, from Naukratis. 6th c. BC (London, British Museum GR 1888,1006.1 (sculpture B 438). © The Trustees of the British Museum).
East Greek ‘situla’, from Tell Defenneh. 6th c. BC (London, British Museum GR 1888.2-8.1 © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Bronze statuette of Alexander Aigiochos. 1st c. AD (London, British Museum 1922,0711.1. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Marble statuette of Sarapis. 1st–2nd c. AD (LOAN ant.103.93. Reproduced by permission of the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Photo © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge).
Rhodian aryballos. Late 8th–early 7th c. BC (Rhodes, Archaeological Museum; drawing by S. Grice).
Athenian oinochoe produced for the Cypriot market. Mythological scene. c. 550 BC (London, British Museum 94.11–1.476. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Limestone statue of a maiden (kore). c. 500 BC (London, British Museum C280. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Cypro-Phoenician silver bowl from Amathus. Egyptianizing deities, sphinxes, city-siege. c. 750–600 BC (London, British Museum 123053. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Relief from Palace P at Pasargadae. Late 6th c. BC (photo: J. Boardman).
The Temple of Apollo ruins at the Didyma site in western Turkey. 3rd c. BC–2nd c. AD (© Pixtal/SuperStock).
Didyma, Temple of Apollo. 3rd c. BC–2nd c. AD (after Jenkins 2006: fig. 31).
Didyma, Temple of Apollo: fragment of female figure (kore) carved onto a column. 6th c. BC. (bpk/Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin/ Johannes Laurentius).
Ivory statuette of female figure with children, from Bayındır. Late 8th–7th c. BC (Antalya, Archaeological Museum 2.21.87 © Bogdan Berkowskiy).
Statue of a wounded Amazon. Marble copy after a Greek original of c. 440–430 BC (so-called Sciarra type) (Berlin, Antinkensammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Photo: Juergen Liepe. © 2011. Photo Scala, Florence/BPK, Bildagentur für Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte, Berlin).
Reconstruction drawings of the Mausoleum of Mausolos and Artemisia, Halikarnassos. Mid 4th c. BC (after Jenkins 2006: figs. 205–208).
The Nereid Monument at Xanthos (Lycia). c. 400 BC (London, British Museum. © Peter Horree/Alamy).
Jubilejnoe II (Russia), reliefs from a heroon. 4th c. BC (drawing by D. Weiss).
Gold pectoral from Tolstaya Mogila, Ukraine. 4th c. BC (Kiev, Historical Museum, Ukraine/Photo © Boltin Picture Library/The Bridgeman Art Library).
Gold vessel decorated in relief from Kul Oba (Crimea). Herakles with Scythian warriors. Second half of the 4th c. BC (St Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum K-O 11. akg-images/Electa).
Silver phiale from Duvanli (Bulgaria). Chariot race. Late 5th c. BC (Bashova Tumulus, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. © The Art Archive/Alamy).
Silver phiale from the Rogozen treasure (Bulgaria). Herakles and Auge. 4th c. BC (Vratsa, Regional Historical Museum NIM 22304. INTERFOTO/Alamy).
Marble relief from Plevna (Bulgaria). A Thracian hero. 2nd c. AD (Pleven, Regional Historical Museum. Drawing by D. Weiss).
Krater from Cerveteri, signed by Aristonothos. Odysseus and his men blind the cyclops Polyphemos. Mid 7th c. BC (Rome, Capitoline Museums Ca 172. © Gianni Dagli Orti/Corbis).
The so-called ‘Temple of Poseidon’, Paestum. c. 460 BC (© Jim Zuckerman/Corbis).
Selinus, limestone metope from ‘Temple E’. Hieros Gamos between Zeus and Hera. c. 460–450 BC (Palermo, Regional Archaeological Museum ‘Antonino Salinas’ 3921B. Photo Scala, Florence – courtesy of the Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali).
Apulian red-figure ‘phlyax’ vase. Chiron and Apollo. c. 380–370 BC ( London, British Museum F151. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Limestone grave relief from Taras. Young warrior and woman in front of an altar (Elektra and Orestes?). c. 300 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art Fletcher Fund, 1929. Acc.n.: 29.54. Image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence).

List of Color Plates

Chian chalice. Lion. c. 575–550 BC (Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum 14305. © Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism/Archaeological Receipts Fund).
Athenian black-figure amphora signed by Exekias. Achilles and Ajax playing dice. c. 530 BC (Rome, Museums of the Vatican 16757 (344). Gregorian Museum of Etruscan Art. © Universal Images Group/SuperStock).
Athenian white-ground calyx-krater. Hermes entrusts the infant Dionysos to a silen and nymphs. c. 440–435 BC (Rome, Museums of the Vatican 16586 (559). Gregorian Museum of Etruscan Art. Photo Scala, Florence).
Pair of bronze statues of soldiers (The Riace Warriors). (a): c. 450 BC; (b): c. 430 BC (Reggio di Calabria, National Museum. Photo Scala, Florence – courtesy of the Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali).
Marble relief from the east frieze of the Parthenon (slab V). The frieze is usually thought to show the procession of the Panathenaic festival, the ­commemoration of the birthday of the goddess Athena. 447–432 BC (London, British Museum 1816,0610.19. © The Trustees of the British Museum).
Athenian Acropolis, the Parthenon. 447–432 BC (© SuperStock).
Epidauros, the theater. 4th c. BC ().
Wall-painting depicting Hades abducting Persephone. Persephone Tomb, Vergina. c. 350–340 BC (Vergina, Macedonia, Greece. The Bridgeman Art Library).
Wall-painting depicting a female kithara player with younger ­companion. From the Villa of P. Publius Synistor, Boscoreale. c. 50–40BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Rogers Fund, 1903. Acc.n. 03.14.5. Image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence).
Mosaic signed by Gnosis, ‘House of the Rape of Helen’ at Pella. ‘The Deer Hunt’. c. 325–300 BC (© World History Archive/Alamy).
Bronze krater from Derveni (northern Greece). Dionysos and Ariadne. c. 330–320 BC (Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum B1. © DeAgostini/SuperStock).
Sardonyx plate (‘Tazza Farnese’) engraved in the cameo technique. Isis and other Egyptian divinities in an allegory of fertility. Late 2nd–early 1st c. BC (Naples, National Archaeological Museum. Photo Scala, Florence – courtesy of the Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali).

List of Maps

Greece and the Aegean (source: Erskine, Companion to Ancient History, map 1; adapted by D. Weiss).
Greece and the East (source: Erskine, Companion to Ancient History, map 2; adapted by D. Weiss).
Egypt and the Nile Delta (source: drawn by S. Weber).
Cyprus and the Near East (source: drawn by S. Grice).
The Black Sea, showing Greek cities (source: drawn by J. Bouzek).
Southern Italy and Sicily (source: Rhodes, A History of the Classical World, map 2; adapted by D. Weiss).

Notes on Contributors

John Boardman is Emeritus Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology at the University of Oxford. He has published widely on many aspects of Greek art and archaeology, Greek gems, and ­collection history, most ­recently (together with C. ­Wagner) The Marlborough Gems (2009). He has worked in the Beazley Archive (Classical Art Research Centre) since his retirement in 1994.

 

Jan Bouzek, Professor of Archaeology is currently vice-­director of the Institute of Classical Archaeology at Charles University in Prague. He specialized in European prehistory, early Greek, Etruscan and Black Sea archaeology, and studies concerned with contact archaeology, Roman provincial and Far Eastern archaeology and art history. Editor of the periodical Studia Hercynia, he is also a member of the scientific committee of the Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae. His books include Studies of Greek Pottery in the Black Sea Area (Prague, 1990) and, as editor, The Culture of Thracians and their Neighbours (2005).

 

Lucilla Burn is Keeper of Antiquities at the Fitzwilliam Museum and Fellow of Newnham College, Cambridge. She is the author of ­several important books on ancient art, including a monograph on The Meidias Painter (1987), A Catalogue of Greek Terracottas in the British Museum vol. 3 (with R.A. Higgins, 2001), and Hellenistic Art: From Alexander the Great to Augustus (British Museum Press, 2004). Her primary research interests are Greek vases, terracottas, and the Classical tradition.

 

François de Callataÿ is the Head of Curatorial Departments at the Royal Library of Belgium. A member of the Royal Academy of Belgium (Class of Letters), he is a professor at the École Pratique des Hautes Études (Paris/Sorbonne) as well as at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. He has published extensively on Greek numismatics, especially on royal Hellenistic numismatics. A specialist of quantification in ancient times, he is increasingly interested in the ancient economy.

 

Dimitris Damaskos is Assistant Professor in Classical Archaeology at the University of Western Greece. He studied classical archaeology at Athens and Berlin. His first book was Untersuchungen zu hellenistischen Kultbildern (1999). He has also published various articles on Greek and Roman art and archaeology. His research focuses on Hellenistic and Roman art and society, sculpture and topography of ancient Macedonia, and the history of archaeology in Greece in the 19th and 20th c.

 

Eleni Hasaki is an Associate Professor of Anthropology and Classics at the University of Arizona. She is a Mediterranean archaeologist whose research focuses on the craft technologies of Greco-Roman antiquity, the spatial organization of workshops, craft apprenticeship, and the negotiation of social status through crafts, especially ceramics. She has been involved in archaeological fieldwork in Greece (Paros, Cyclades), ethnoarchaeology in Tunisia (Moknine), and an experimental open-air lab for pyrotechnology in Tucson, Arizona. Her book, The Penteskouphia Pinakes and Potters at Work at Ancient Corinth, is being published by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

 

Tamar Hodos is Senior Lecturer in Archaeology at the University of Bristol. She is a specialist in the archaeology of the Mediterranean during the Iron Age. The author of Local Responses to Colonization in the Iron Age Mediterranean (2006) and co-editor (with S. Hales) of Material Culture and Social Identities in the Ancient World (2009), her areas of focus have been Sicily, Italy, Turkey, and North Africa, encompassing themes such as post-colonial perspectives, globalization, and identity.

 

Veli Köse is Senior Lecturer in Archaeology at Hacettepe University in Ankara. He is a classical ­archaeologist who specializes in the material culture and archaeology of the Hellenistic and Roman worlds, and the author of Necropoleis and Burial Customs of Sagalassos in Pisidia in Hellenistic and Roman Times (2005). Since 2008, he has directed the Aspendos Survey Project and is co-director of the Pisidia Survey Project (with L. Vandeput). His areas of research focus have been western and southern Turkey, and the themes of burial ­customs, architecture, urbanization, acculturation, and the material culture of Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor, as well as the ancient economy.

 

Kenneth Lapatin is Associate Curator of Antiquities at the J. Paul Getty Villa in Malibu, CA. He is the author or editor of several books, including Chryselephantine Sculpture in the Ancient Mediterranean World (2001), Mysteries of the Snake Goddess: Art, Desire, and the Forging of History (2002), and Papers on Special Techniques in Athenian Vases (2008). He has mounted exhibitions of Greek vases, polychrome sculpture, ancient and modern gems, and Roman villas around the Bay of Naples. His current research projects address ancient luxury and historiography.

 

Thomas Mannack is Director of the Beazley Archive’s pottery database and Reader in Classical Iconography at Oxford. He has published extensively on Greek pottery, including A Summary Guide to Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum (with T.H. Carpenter, 1999), several fascicules of the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum for collection in Great Britain, and a monograph on The Late Mannerists in Athenian Vase-Painting (2001). His handbook of Greek vase-painting, entitled Griechische Vasenmalerei: eine Einfüh­rung, appeared in 2002.

 

Clemente Marconi is the James R. McCredie Professor of Greek Art and Archaeology at the Institute of Fine Arts of New York University. A specialist in the archaeology of Sicily and South Italy, he is the author of Temple Decoration and Cultural Identity in the Archaic Greek World: The Metopes of Selinus (2007) and the editor of Greek Painted Pottery: Images, Contexts, and Controversies (2004). He is Director of the Institute of Fine Arts excavations on the acropolis of Selinunte, and is also involved in the investigations of the Sanctuary of the Great Gods at Samothrace.

 

Olga Palagia is Professor of Classical Archaeology at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. She is a specialist in Greek sculpture and Macedonian art. She has published a monograph (The Pediments of the Parthenon, 1993) and several articles on the sculptures of the Parthenon. She has also published widely on Athenian sculpture of the Classical period, Ptolemaic portraiture, Greek sculptural techniques, Greek sculptures of the Roman period, and Macedonian painting and sculpture. Her most recent edited books include Greek Sculpture (2006), Art in Athens during the Peloponnesian War (2009), and, co-edited with B.D. Wescoat, Samothracian Connections: Essays in Honor of James R. McCredie (2010).

 

Stavros A. Paspalas is Deputy Director of the Australian Archaeo­logical Institute at Athens. A specialist in ancient pottery, he has researched the non-figured wares from the Anglo-Turkish excavations at Old Smyrna, and contributed to the Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae. He is Deputy Director of the Australian Excavations at Torone, and Director of the Australian Paliochora Kythera Archaeological Survey.

 

Dimitris Plantzos is Assistant Professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of Ioannina, Greece. His research focuses primarily on Greek gems and seals, Greco-Roman painting, and modern receptions of classical antiquity. His publications include Hellenistic Engraved Gems (1999), a modern-Greek translation with introduction and commentary of the Imagines by Philostratos the Elder (2006), and (as co-editor with D. Damaskos) A Singular Antiquity: Archaeology and Hellenic Identity in 20th-c. Greece (2008).

 

Tyler Jo Smith is Associate Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology at the University of Virginia. A specialist in Greek vase-painting, iconography, and performance, she has edited (with M. Henig) Collectanea Antiqua: Essays in Memory of Sonia Chadwick Hawkes (2007) and is the author of Komast Dancers in Archaic Greek Art (2010). Her current research focuses on early Greek drama and the visual and material manifestations of Greek religion. She is Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London and a Senior Fellow at the Institute of Classical Studies, London.

 

Claudia Wagner is a senior member of the Classics Faculty of the University of Oxford and Director of the gem programme in the Beazley Archive, the Classical Art Research Centre of the University (). She has published on Greek dedication practices, antique and post-antique gems, and most recently (together with J. Boardman) Gem Mounts and the Classical Tradition (2009).

 

Nicki Waugh is a part-time lecturer at Edinburgh University for the Office of Life-Long Learning. Her primary areas of research include the Archaic sanctuaries of Sparta and interpretations of fertility. She has contributed to Spartan Women, edited by E. Millender (2009), with a summary of her research on the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, and has provided an article on interpretations of fertility at the site in Sparta and Lakonia from Prehistory to Premodern (2009). She is also a contributor to the Cambridge Dictionary of Classical Civilization (2006).

 

Sabine Weber is Lecturer at the Institute of Classical Archaeology at the University of the Saarland in Saarbrücken, Germany. Her primary areas of research include Greek pottery and Archaic Greek sculpture. She is author of several articles on Greeks in Egypt, among them ‘Greek Painted Pottery in Egypt: Evidence of Contacts in the Seventh and Sixth Centuries BCE’, in Moving across Borders: Foreign Relations, Religion and Cultural Interactions in the Ancient Mediterranean (2007). She is also co-author (with U. Schlotzhauer) of the forthcoming volume Griechische Keramik des 7. und 6. Jhs. v. Chr. aus Naukratis und anderen Orten in Ägypten.

 

Ruth Westgate is Lecturer in Archaeology and Ancient History at Cardiff University. Her research focuses on the social, political, and economic aspects of ancient domestic architecture and interior decoration. She has co-edited (with N. Fisher and J. Whitley) a conference volume exploring these themes, Building Communities: House, Settlement and Society in the Aegean and Beyond (2007), and is currently working on a comprehensive study of Classical and Hellenistic mosaics.

 

Marina Yeroulanou studied Classical Archaeology at the University of Oxford, focusing on architectural dedications in Greek sanctuaries and building techniques. She is the ­co-editor (with M. Stamatopoulou) of Excavating Classical Culture – Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Greece (2002) and Architecture and Archaeology in the Cyclades: Papers in Honour of J.J. Coulton (2005). She is currently working in Greece as a ­project manager on documentation and management systems for museums and cultural organizations.

Preface

While there is certainly no shortage of introductory handbooks devoted to ancient Greek art, the aims of the current two-volume set are rather new and somewhat different. Some readers may be surprised to learn that the idea for this Companion originated not as one of a series of such books covering the various aspects of the Greco-Roman world, its history, religion, literature, and such, but instead as a result of the publication of Blackwell’s A Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945 (ed. A. Jones, 2006), to which an Art History colleague had contributed a chapter. At the time, the ‘companion’ phenomenon had not yet found its way to the visual and material cultures of the ancient Mediterranean. Thus, we were delighted with Blackwell’s enthusiasm for the idea, and their plans subsequently to publish similarly in the Roman, Egyptian, and Near Eastern areas. Our aim has been first and foremost to lend multiple voices to Greek art in its many manifestations: from the ‘nuts and bolts’ (sculpture, vases, architecture, etc.), to engagement with the world beyond via colonization and trade, to the themes and interpretations of images, to the history of research and reception. We have encouraged our authors to approach their topics as they have best seen fit and tried as little as possible to insert our own opinions or examples. Some chapters are more purely archaeological, others more art-historical, and most (expectedly) make use of the rich store of textual sources familiar to and at the disposal of all classical archaeologists. The result, we hope, is a pleasing melange suitable for student, scholar, and enthusiast alike.

A few preliminary comments might prove helpful. The abbreviations, unless otherwise noted, follow those listed in the Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd edition. Owing to a great deal of overlap, especially with regard to major publications cited by a number of our authors, a collated bibliography follows on from the book’s final chapter. Each chapter concludes with a brief ‘Further Reading’ section intended to direct the reader to more detailed or specialized aspects of the various topics, as well as those that are most accessible. As in the main text, the full citations are listed in the comprehensive bibliography. The illustrations, which appear throughout the main text, have been chosen to represent a good range of types, materials, and quality. That being said, it has been impossible to include every major work of Greek art or architecture, and our intention has been to include as well some of the less well-known or more ‘minor’ examples. Where an illustration is lacking, we have attempted to indicate a handy reference to a decent published photograph or drawing. Greek spellings, italics, and the like are always a tricky business, and no particular system has been followed here. Italics have been used sparingly for Greek terms, and avoided for more technical ones (e.g. vase shapes, parts of a temple, etc.). For the sake of clarity, capital letters have been used generally to denote chronological time periods. When quoting from other texts, we have of course retained the original types.

In addition to our many patient contributors, the editors gratefully acknowledge the people and institutions who have aided in the successful completion of this publication: the British School at Athens; the Australian Institute of Athens; the Fiske Kimball Fine Arts Library, University of Virginia; the Visual Resources Collection, University of Virginia; graduate students at the University of Virginia – Katelyn Crawford, Dylan Rogers, Carrie Sulosky, and Anne Williams – who have read drafts of chapters and saved us all from many errors; Dan Weiss (Virginia), who prepared the drawings and assisted in numerous ways with all visual aspects; and Amanda Sharp (Virginia/Oxford), who prepared the bibliography. At Blackwell we thank Al Bertrand, who oversaw the project until it crossed the Atlantic (from Oxford to Boston), where Haze Humbert and Galen Young so brilliantly took over. To each of the museums and collections who have so kindly permitted the publication of material in their holdings we extend our sincere thanks. Funding has been generously provided by: the College of Arts and Sciences, University of Virginia; the McIntire Department of Art (Lindner Endowment), University of Virginia; and an anonymous donor.
 

Tyler Jo Smith,
Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
January 2011
Dimitris Plantzos,
Ioannina, Greece

PART I

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1

The Greeks and their Art

Tyler Jo Smith and Dimitris Plantzos

We start from the purpose of the Greek artist to produce a statue, or to paint a scene of Greek mythology. Whence this purpose came, we cannot always see. It may have come […] from a commercial demand, or from a desire to exercise talent, or from a wish to honour the gods (Gardner 1914: 2).

1.1 Greek Art and Classical Archaeology

When Percy Gardner was appointed the first Lincoln and Merton Professor of Classical Archaeology at Oxford in 1887, the discipline was still largely in its infancy. His book entitled The Principles of Greek Art, written almost 100 years ago, demonstrates that classical archaeology of the day was as much about beautiful objects and matters of style as it was about excavation and data recording. Now, as then, the terms ‘Greek art’, ‘classical art’, and indeed ‘classical archaeology’ are somewhat interchangeable (Walter 2006: 4–7). To many ears the term ‘classical’ simply equals Greek – especially the visual and material cultures of 5th and 4th c. BC Athens. Yet it should go without saying, in this day and age, that Greek art is no longer as rigidly categorized or as superficially understood as it was in the 18th, 19th, and much of the 20th c. By Gardner’s own day, the picture was already starting to change. Classical archaeology, with Greek art at the helm, was coming into its own. The reverence with which all things ‘classical’ were once held – be they art or architecture, poetry or philosophy – would eventually cease to exist with the same intensity in the modern 21st c. imagination. At the same time, there would always be ample space for some old-fashioned formal analysis, and the occasional foray into connoisseurship.

Greek art has been defined in various ways, by various people, at various times. Traditionally, it has been divided into broad time periods (Orientalizing, Archaic, Classical, etc.) dependent on style and somewhat on historical circumstances or perceived cultural shifts. As with most areas of the discipline, this rather basic framework has seen a number of versions and has encouraged further (sometimes mind-numbingly minute) sub-categorization. In fact, no chronology of the subject has been universally accepted or considered to be exact. Some (though by no means all) speak in terms of the Late Archaic, High Classical, or Hellenistic Baroque; others prefer the Early Iron Age or the 8th c. BC (Whitley 2001: ch. 4). Regardless of terminology, within these large chronological divisions the subject has routinely been taught, discussed, and researched according to a triumvirate much loved by the history of art: sculpture, architecture, and painting (normally including vases); and leaving much of the rest relegated to the ill-defined catch-all phrase of ‘minor arts’ (Kleinkunst): terracottas, bronze figurines, gems and jewelry, and so on.

But major versus minor is not the whole story. Some areas of Greek art have proved more difficult to assemble than others. For example, should mosaics be placed under architecture, viewed in relation to wall-painting, or, for lack of a better option, classified as ‘minor’ art despite their sometimes vast scale? Other objects, such as coins, have not always been considered ‘art’ per se, in spite of their stylistic and iconographic similarities with other artifacts, and their sometimes critical role in the dating of archaeological contexts. Alas, it is a hierarchy that we have all come to live with for better or worse. It encourages questions of quality, taste, and value, and these days even plays a role in debates over cultural property and the repatriation of antiquities. Did all objects of ancient Greek art have ‘equal’ value? How might such value be measured? Should we even try? Is it valid to speak of earrings and fibulae in the same breath as Skopas and Mnesikles? Is a Boeotian ‘bell-idol’ as much a ‘work of art’ as a life-size sculpture, or a mold-made Megarian bowl () as worthy of our attention as an Athenian red-figure vase? Where, if at all, shall we draw the line? Do altars, votive reliefs (), and perirrhanteria make the A-list? What about roof tiles and gutters; or, indeed, the ‘lost’ arts of weaving and basketry? Is it simply the inclusion of figure decoration, both mythological and everyday, on such ritual or utilitarian objects that allows them to join the corpus? Surely, the answer must lie somewhere between design and function, material and process. It is reassuring to think that any of the above might constitute ‘Greek art’, from the stately, good, and beautiful to the mundane, lewd, and grotesque.

Megarian bowl from Thebes. Scenes of the Underworld. c. 200 BC (London, British Museum 1897.0317.3. © The Trustees of the British Museum).

Images

Attic marble votive relief from Eleusis. Cave of Pan . 4th c. BC (Athens, National Museum 1445. Photo: Studio Kontos/Photostock).

Images