Cover

Contents

Image

This book is dedicated to

THE PEOPLE OF GREECE

for whom ‘Philoxenia’ (kindness to strangers)

has always been an essential quality

of Aegean life

List of Figures and Tables

The author and publisher gratefully acknowledge the permission granted to reproduce the copyright material in this book

Figures

German excavations at the Heroon in Olympia, 1880. In the foreground are Richard 3Borrmann and Wilhelm Dörpfeld. © bpk, Berlin.
Distribution of the major modern olive-production zones with key Bronze Age sites indicated. 12The shading from A to C indicates decreasing olive yields, D denotes no or minimal production. Major Bronze Age sites are shown with crosses, circles, and squares. C. Renfrew, The Emergence of Civilization (Study in Prehistory), London 1972, Figure 18.12. © 1972 Methuen & Co. Reproduced by permission of Taylor & Francis Books UK.
Major geological zones of Greece.13 H. C. Darby et al., Naval Geographical Intelligence Handbook, Greece, vol. 1. London: Naval Intelligence Division 1944, Figure 4.
Average annual rainfall in Greece.16 H. C. Darby et al., Naval Geographical Intelligence Handbook, Greece, vol. 1. London: Naval Intelligence Division 1944, Figure 59.
The vertical zonation of crops in the Mediterranean lands.18 J. M. Houston, The Western Mediterranean World. London 1964, Figure 28. Courtesy of J. M. Houston.
Vegetation sequence in Greece, from Mediterranean lowland (right) to inner mountain 19peaks (left).Modified from J. Kautzky, Natuurreisgids Griekenland. Vasteland en Kuststreken. De Bilt 1995, diagram on p. 23.
Soils of Greece.22 H. C. Darby et al., Naval Geographical Intelligence Handbook, Greece, vol. 1. London 1944, Figure 7.
Cross-section of the infill of the Plain of Troy, Northwestern Anatolia, since the last glacial era. 23Note the dominance of marine deposits and of river sediments laid down in a former sea inlet almost to the innermost part of the plain, and the late and superficial progradation (advance) of the modern dry land plain alluvia. Author after J. C. Kraft et al., “Geomorphic reconstructions in the environs of ancient Troy,” Science 209 (1980), 776–782, Figure 3. Reproduced by permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Peneios River open valley terraces, Thessaly, with archaeologists recording lithic finds 31from Palaeolithic hunter-gatherer activity. Courtesy of Curtis Runnels.
Key Mesolithic sites in Greece.34 N. Galanidou and C. Perlès (eds.), The Greek Mesolithic. Problems and Perspectives. London 2003, Figure 1.1.
Upper Mesolithic stone-tool assemblage from Franchthi Cave. Most of the small tools 36or microliths (right) are related to fishing: tools for preparing nets and traps for the capture of fish and then their processing for eating and storage. Shellfish collection and processing would also benefit from some of these small tools but also from some larger tools (left). The curved trapezoidal arrows however (upper right) could also be used for the land game, red deer and boar, identified in the Cave deposits. Many of the larger cutting and scraping tools (left) would be useful for processing land animals. Plant remains include wild fruits, nuts, and cereals, but no specific tools can yet be associated with these.C. Perlès, The Early Neolithic in Greece. Cambridge University Press 2001, Figures 2.4 and 2.5.
Mesolithic settlement system in the Argolid.38.C. Runnels et al., “A Mesolithic landscape in Greece: Testing a site-location model in the Argolid at Kandia.” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 18 (2005), 259–285, Figure 2.
The setting of the Klithi Cave and other sites in the Epirus upland and lowland region with 41likely seasonal moves of game animals. Arrowed routes between uplands and lowlands mark migrations of deer, cattle and horse. Routes purely within the uplands those of ibex and chamois. Low glacial sea levels made Corfu island part of the mainland. G. Bailey (ed.), Klithi: Palaeolithic Settlement and Quaternary Landscapes in Northwest Greece, vol. 2. Cambridge University Press 1997, Figure 30.25.
The spread of Neolithic farming and herding during the Holocene (our current Interglacial, 48ca. 10,000 BP [before present] till now). Dates are in years BC.L. Louwe Kooijmans, Between Geleen and Banpo. The Agricultural Transformation of Prehistoric Society, 9000–4000 BC. Amsterdam, Archaeology Centre, Amsterdam University 1998, Figure 2.
Early Neolithic house from Nea Nikomedeia (left) and Middle Neolithic house from Sesklo 53acropolis (right).D. R. Theochares, Neolithikos politismos. Suntomi episkopisi tis neolithikis ston helladiko choro. Athens 1993, Figures 19 and 48.
The author’s model for fissive and corporate community settlement systems.54 J. L. Bintliff, “Emergent complexity in settlement systems and urban transformations.” In U. Fellmeth et al. (eds.), Historische Geographie der Alten Welt. Festgabe für Eckart Olshausen. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 2007, 43–82, Figure 7.
Reconstruction of the Upper Town at Sesklo. D. R. Theochares, Neolithikos politismos. 56Suntomi episkopisi tis neolithikis ston helladiko choro. Athens 1993, Figure 43.
Plan of excavated areas at Dhimini and reconstruction drawing.57 D. Preziosi and L. A. Hitchcock, Aegean Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press 1999, Figures 7 and 8.
Distribution map of EN tells of the Thessalian Eastern Plain and Central Hill Land. 61The Thiessen polygon analysis suggests territory packing. C. Perlès, The Early Neolithic in Greece. Cambridge University Press 2001, Figure 7.9.
Characteristic tableware pottery forms from the Neolithic sequence of Thessaly. 68Phase 1 = EN, 2 = MN, 3–4 = early then late LN, 5 = FN. Note that in the last three phases a wide range of undecorated domestic and cookwares are in use, not shown here. J.-P. Demoule and C. Perlès, “The Greek Neolithic: A new review.” Journal of World Prehistory 7/4 (1993), 355–416, Figure 8. London: Springer Verlag.
Characteristic stone tools of the Greek Neolithic.70 J.-P. Demoule and C. Perlès, “The Greek Neolithic: A new review.” Journal of World Prehistory 7/4 (1993), 355–416, Figure 6. London: Springer Verlag.
The spread of exotic lithic raw materials (obsidian, andesite and honey flint) and the location of the71emery source on Naxos. C. Perlès, “Systems of exchange and organization of production in Neolithic Greece.” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 5 (1992), 115–164, Figure 1.
Middle Neolithic double figurine from Thessaly.75 Drawing by Professor Lauren Talalay, University of Michigan.
live and wine presses from the rural mansion of Vathypetro, Late Minoan Crete.84 Photos J. Lesley Fitton.
Proposed Early Helladic settlement hierarchy for the Argolid Survey: size of circle reflects 87site extent and implied political status. M. H. Jameson et al. (eds.), A Greek Countryside. The Southern Argolid from Prehistory to the Present Day. Stanford 1994, Figure 6.9. © 1994 Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.
Monumental structure (“House of the Tiles”) at Lerna.88 D. Preziosi and L. A. Hitchcock, Aegean Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press 1999, Figure 17.
(Upper) Male status graves with weapons (Schwert = sword, Dolch = dagger, Lanze = lance, 90and Rasiermesser = razor-knives) in the EH2 R Grave tumuli at Nidri, Levkas. (Lower) Precious metal in the same graves (Silber = silver, Werkzeug = symbolic craft-tools).I. Kilian-Dirlmeier, Die Bronzezeitlichen Gräber bei Nidri auf Leukas. Bonn 2005, Abb. 95–96. Courtesy of Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz.
A Mesara communal tomb or tholos, Early and Middle Minoan. Whether the stone roof 98was a corbelled dome, or flat, is still disputed. S. Hood, The Minoans. Crete in the Bronze Age. London 1971, Figure 127. Reconstruction drawn by Martin E. Weaver. Plan drawn by Patricia Clarke.
The Agiofarango Valley in Minoan times.99 J. L. Bintliff, Natural Environment and Human Settlement in Prehistoric Greece. Oxford British Archaeological Reports 1977, Chapter 8, Figure 9.
Selected Early Minoan wares, emphasizing the significance of drinking sets.101 K. Branigan (ed.), Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. Sheffield 1998, Figures 1.5 and 8.1. Reproduced by permission of Continuum International Publishing Group.
Early Cycladic boats.105 C. Broodbank, An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. © Cambridge University Press 2000, Figure 23.
Travel ranges in the Early Cycladic Aegean from major island foci. The chief centers indicated, 106north to south, are Aghia Irini (Kea), Chalandriani (Syros), Grotta Aplomata (Naxos), and Daskaleio (Keros). C. Broodbank, An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. © Cambridge University Press 2000, Figure 85.
Typical ceramic and metal pot forms of Early Cycladic 2.108 C. Broodbank, An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. © Cambridge University Press 2000, Figure 60.
The fortified enclosure site at Chalandriani, Syros.109 O. Dickinson, The Aegean Bronze Age. © Cambridge University Press 1994, Figure 4.5.
Cycladic symbolic culture. Typology of figurines by period, oldest at the top of the sequence.115 C. Renfrew, The Emergence of Civilization (Study in Prehistory). London 1972, Figure 11.8. © 1972 Methuen & Co. Reproduced by permission of Taylor & Francis Books UK.
The Vrokastro Survey in Eastern Crete shows the progressive infill of the Cretan landscape 126 between the Final Neolithic and First Palace period (above) and the Second Palace period (facing page). J. B. Hayden, J. A. Moody, and O. Rackham, “The Vrokastro Survey Project, 1986–1989. Research design and preliminary results.” Hesperia 61/3 (1992), 293–353, Figures 16 and 17. Reproduced by permission of American School of Classical Studies at Athens © 1992.
The mature plan of the major palace at Phaistos.129 D. Preziosi and L. A. Hitchcock, Aegean Art and Architecture. © Oxford University Press 1999, Figure 62.
The reconstructed small palace within the country town of Gournia.129 J. L. Fitton, Minoans. Peoples of the Past. London 2002, Figure 54.
A possible settlement hierarchy in Palatial Crete. The following centers are suggested 130to have possessed palaces, large or small, in the First and/or Second Palace period: Khania, Monastiraki, Phaistos, Knossos, Arkhanes, Galatas, Malia, Gournia, Petras, Zakro. E. Adams, “Social strategies and spatial dynamics in Neopalatial Crete: An analysis of the North-Central area.” American Journal of Archaeology 110 (2006), 1–36. Reproduced by permission of Archaeological Institute of America (Boston).
Knossos palatial fresco taken to represent public ceremonies in the outer West Court.133 J. Driessen, “The King Must Die: Some Observations on the Use of Minoan Court Compounds.” In J. Driessen, et al. (eds.), Monuments of Minos, Austin: University of Texas at Austin Press, 2002, 1–14. Courtesy of J. Driessen.
Knossos palatial fresco taken to represent public ceremonies in the inner Central Court.133 J. Driessen, “The King Must Die: Some Observations on the Use of Minoan Court Compounds.” In Driessen, Laffineur, Schoep eds., Monuments of Minos, Austin: University of Texas at Austin Press, 2002, 1–14. Courtesy of J. Driessen.
The early First Palace (Protopalatial) court-complex at Malia set against its New Palace 134(Neopalatial) successor.I. Schoep, “Looking beyond the First Palaces: Elites and the agency of power in EMIII-MMII Crete.” American Journal of Archaeology 110 (2006), 37–64, Figure 3. Reproduced by permission of Archaeological Institute of America (Boston).
Malia palace and town.135 I. Schoep, “Social and political organization on Crete in the Proto-Palatial Period: The case of Middle Minoan II Malia.” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15 (2002), 101–132, Figure 1.
Carved serpentine cup, known as the Chieftain’s Cup, found at the Minoan site 137of Ayia Triada on Crete. © Roger Wood/CORBIS.
Clay archive records in Minoan Linear A script.143 P. M. Warren, The Making of the Past. The Aegean Civilizations. Ekdotiki Athenon SA, Athens 1975, 37. Heraklion Museum, Crete. Photo: Ekdotiki Athenon, Athens.
Typical painted fine wares of First Palace date.144 O. Dickinson, The Aegean Bronze Age. © Cambridge University Press 1994, Figure 5.8.
Scene on Isopata engraved ring gem showing ritual dancing in a natural setting 147with a small floating figure. Drawn by V.-P. Herva after Platon and Pini 1984: no. 51, from V.-P. Herva, “Flower lovers, after all? Rethinking religion and human-environment relations in Minoan Crete.” World Archaeology 38 (2006), 590, Figure 2.
Engraved ring gem. Offerings to a seated female figure before a mystical tree. 147Clyde E. Keeler, Apples of Immortality from the Kuna Tree of Life. New York 1961/Hathi Trust Digital Library.
Major and minor settlements on the Middle Cycladic Cyclades.156 C. Broodbank, An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. © Cambridge University Press 2000, Figure 109.
The development of the Middle then Late Cycladic town at Phylakopi.158 T. Whitelaw, “A tale of three cities: Chronology and Minoisation at Phylakopi in Melos.” In A. Dakouri-Hild and S. Sherratt (eds.), Autochthon. Papers Presented to O. T. P. K. Dickinson. Oxford 2005, 37–69, Figure 1.
Minoan cultural radiations.160 C. Broodbank, An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. © Cambridge University Press 2000, Figure 121.
The present-day outline of Thera island with the location of the Bronze Age town at Akrotiri.162 J. Chadwick, The Mycenaean World. Cambridge 1976, Figure 4.
Middle Helladic gray Minyan ware goblet.164 © Trustees of the British Museum.
Middle Helladic village at Malthi, Peloponnese.165 E. Vermeule, Greece in the Bronze Age. Chicago 1964, Figure 14.
From left to right, development over time of male dress and gifts in the Shaft Graves. 172Areas shaded black are in gold. I. Kilian-Dirlmeier, “Beobachtungen zu den Schachtgräbern von Mykenai.” Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 33 (1986), 159–198, Figures 14–16. Courtesy of Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz.
Plan of the late “Treasury of Atreus” tholos at Mycenae.174 W. Taylour, The Myceneans. London 1966, Figure 43.
The great settlement mound or Toumba at Thessaloniki.176 Author.
Mycenaean krater (LH3) depicting an octopus, from Ialysos (modern Trianda), Rhodes, 182Aegean Sea, h. 41 cm. © Trustees of the British Museum.
The earliest clear palace plan at Pylos, LH3A period (left) shows some resemblance 183to a Minoan “court-complex,” whilst the later palace, LH3B period (right) has more controlled access and is less permeable to the public. U. Thaler, “Constructing and reconstructing power.” In J. Maran et al. (eds.), Constructing Power: Architecture, Ideology and Social Practice. Hamburg 2006, 93–116, Tafel 16, 1–2.
A first attempt to model the settlement hierarchy for the Mycenaean Plain of Argos: primary, 186secondary, and tertiary settlements are shown as triangles then larger and smaller circles. J. L. Bintliff, Natural Environment and Human Settlement in Prehistoric Greece. Oxford 1977, Appendix A, Figure 1a.
The palace at Pylos in LH3B: the Great Megaron reconstructed.188 Watercolor by Piet de Jong, digitally edited by Craig Mauzy. Courtesy of Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati.
View and partial plan of Mycenaean fortress at Gla, Central Greece.190 Photo R. V. Schoder, SJ, © 1989 Loyola University of Chicago. Plan from R. V. Schoder, SJ, Ancient Greece from the Air. London: Thames and Hudson 1974, 79.
Mycenaean-style chamber tomb construction.193 S. Hood, The Minoans. Crete in the Bronze Age. Thames and Hudson, London 1971, Figure 29. Drawn by Patricia Clarke.
Mycenaean ceramic findspots abroad. Shaded areas and black squares mark areas 196and settlements with important concentrations, isolated dots mark small findspots. Black circles denote key Mycenaean centers in the Aegean homeland. G.-J. van Wijngaarden, Use and Appreciation of Mycenaean Pottery in the Levant, Cyprus and Italy. Amsterdam 2002, Figure 2.
Halstead’s model for the Mycenaean palatial economy.198 P. Halstead, “The Mycenaean palatial economy: Making the most of the gaps in the evidence.” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 38 (1992), 57–86, Figure 4. © Cambridge University Press.
Characteristic fine ware, early Iron Age (Protogeometric style), a grave assemblage 210from the Kerameikos cemetery in Athens. © Trustees of the British Museum.
Lefkandi elite mansion and/or cult burial structure, ca. 1000 BC, with subsequent 211cemetery to its east.A. Snodgrass, An Archaeology of Greece. The Present State and Future Scope of a Discipline. Stanford 1987, Figure 54. Reproduced by permission of University of California Press Books.
(Upper) The EIA to Archaic evolution of settlement foci in Boeotia. Known and 216hypothesized (question mark) nucleated settlements in later Geometric and Archaic times. By Classical times these multiple local foci have become separated into city-states (solid triangles) and their dependent villages (solid circles). Possible agricultural territories are marked by the polygons. (Lower) Territorial analysis of the historically and archaeologically located rural villages in the territory of Classical Athens, also showing urban (intramural) administrative units (rural and urban “demes”). Possible agricultural territories are marked by the polygons. J. L. Bintliff, “Territorial behaviour and the natural history of the Greek polis.” In E. Olshausen and H. Sonnabend (eds.), Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur historischen Geographie des Altertums, vol. 4. Amsterdam 1994, 207–249. Published there as Figure 20 on Plate XXXIX, and Figure 36 on Plate LVI.
Settlement-chamber migration of nucleations in the Valley of the Muses. Askra is the sole 219nucleation in Early Bronze Age and Greco-Roman to Byzantine times, site VM4 is the sole village in Middle-Late Bronze Age, Frankish/Crusader, and Early Ottoman times, and the modern village is the only nucleation from Late Ottoman times to today.Author.
Settlement plan of Emborio on the island of Chios in the Early Iron Age.222 A. Snodgrass, An Archaeology of Greece. The Present State and Future Scope of a Discipline. Stanford 1987, Figure 57. Reproduced by permission of University of California Press Books.
Elaboration of houses at Zagora during Late Geometric times.224 F. Lang, Archäische Siedlungen in Griechenland: Struktur und Entwicklung. Berlin 1996, Figures 55–56. © Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Eighth-century wooden temples of apsidal form underlying a later rectangular stone 229temple at Eretria. J. Whitley, The Archaeology of Ancient Greece. Cambridge 2001, Figure 7.6.
Map of the distribution of city-states or poleis in Classical Greece. The remaining areas 235were organized in “ethne” (tribal or confederate states) and/or kingdoms. A. Snodgrass, Archaic Greece. The Age of Experiment. London 1980, Figure 43 (after Kirsten 1956). Courtesy of Professor A. Snodgrass.
Early scene of a hoplite phalanx piped into battle ca. 675 BC.239 Chigi jug, detail of warriors, c. 640 BC. Rome, Museo di Villa Giulia. © 2011. Photo Scala, Florence. Courtesy of the Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali.
Reconstruction of the city of Old Smyrna in the late Archaic period.241 R. Cook, “Old Smyrna, 1948–1951.” Annual of the British School at Athens 53 (1958–1959), 1–181.
Reconstruction of the Panhellenic sanctuary at Delphi in about 160 AD.244 Model by Hans Schleif, scale 1:200. General view showing Temple of Apollo and Theater from the south. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Dodge Fund, 1930 (30.141.2). Photo © 2011 Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence.
Waves of population and urbanization over time in the Aegean, from intensive 246and extensive survey data. J. L. Bintliff, “Regional survey, demography, and the rise of complex societies in the Ancient Aegean: Core–periphery, Neo-Malthusian, and other interpretive models.” Journal of Field Archaeology 24 (1997), 1–38, Figure 10, revised.
Greek colonization in Late Geometric-Archaic times.248 A. A. M. van der Heyden, Atlas van de antieke wereld. Amsterdam 1958, Map 3.
The development of male kouros statues from Early to Late Archaic times. 253Colossal marble kouros from Cape Sounion (left). © De Agostini/SuperStock.Funerary kouros of Kroisos, Paros marble, ca. 525 BC, from Anavyssos (right). © The Art Archive/National Archaeological Museum Athens/Gianni Dagli Orti.
Proto-Corinthian ceramic, fine ware from the final eighth to seventh centuries BC.254 © Trustees of the British Museum.
Black-Figure Attic vase, typical fine ware from the late sixth to early fifth centuries BC.255 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston/Henry Lillie Pierce Fund/The Bridgeman Art Library.
Red-Figure Attic calyx krater depicting Hercules wearing a laurel wreath with 256Athena and other Greek heroes, typical fine ware from the fifth to fourth centuries BC. Niobid Painter (ca. 475–450 BC). Louvre, Paris/The Bridgeman Art Library.
Late Archaic temple of Aphaea on the island of Aegina.258 A. A. M. van der Heyden, Atlas van de antieke wereld. Amsterdam 1958, 30.
The proto-historic dispersed plan of Athens with the later city wall.260 I. Morris, “The early polis as city and state.” In J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill (eds.), City and Country in the Ancient World. London 1991, 25–58, Figure 2. © 1991 Routledge. Reproduced by permission of Taylor & Francis Books UK.
The Athenian Acropolis in Hellenistic times. Key Periclean monuments: immediately 268at the head of the entrance ramp is the Propylaea gate-complex, to its far right on a projecting wing the tiny temple of Athena Nike, then in the raised centre of the citadel is the temple of Athena Parthenos, and to its left adjacent to the perimeter wall the complex temple called the Erechtheion (dedicated to Athena and Poseidon Erechtheios).Reconstruction drawing courtesy of Professor M. Korres.
The site of LSE1. (Top left) Local surface pottery density around the site (gridded in white). 278(Right and lower) Sherd foci for Classical, Roman, and Late Roman times. Elements taken from J. L. Bintliff and P. Howard, “A radical rethink on approaches to surface survey and the rural landscape of Central Greece in Roman times.” In F. Kolb and E. Müller-Luckner (eds.), Chora und Polis. München 2004, 43–78, Figures 11, 22, 23, and 24.
(Upper) Surface survey of Thespiae city shows its maximum extent of 70–100 ha during 280the Classical to Early Hellenistic era. (Lower) Total rural survey south of the city revealed an inner ring of small rural cemeteries (C), then a ring of large to medium-sized farms (MF, LF) and hamlets (H), followed by small farms (F), and finally a large hamlet (Askris Potamos). Upper: author. Lower: J. L. Bintliff et al., Testing the Hinterland: The Work of the Boeotia Survey (1989–1991) in the Southern Approaches to the City of Thespiai. Cambridge 2007, Figure 9.4.
Domestic ceramics of the Classical era.282 B. A. Sparkes, “The Greek kitchen.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 82 (1962), 121–137, composite from Plate IV pots 1, 2, 3, 5; Plate V pots 2, 6, 7; Plate VI pots 2, 5.
The decorative scheme of the Parthenon.288 M. D. Fullerton, Greek Art. Cambridge 2000, Figure 35. © Cambridge University Press.
The Doric architectural order.290 A. W. Lawrence and R. A. Tomlinson, Greek Architecture. New Haven 1996, xiv, unnumbered figures.
The Ionic architectural order.291 A. W. Lawrence and R. A. Tomlinson, Greek Architecture. New Haven 1996, xv, unnumbered figures.
Red-Figure Attic vase showing a household scene.292 © Trustees of the British Museum.
The Cnidos Aphrodite. Marble. Roman, ca. 180 AD. Slightly altered copy of the Aphrodite 293of Cnidos by Praxiteles, ca. 350 BC. Vatican Museums, Rome, inv. no. 474. akg-images/Nimatallah.
The Garlanded Youth (Diadumenos) by Polycleitos. Marble, h. 186 cm. Fifth century BC. 294Ancient copy from Delos.akg-images/De Agostini Picture Library.
A series of house blocks on the North Hill, Olynthus.298 N. Cahill, Household and City Organization at Olynthus. New Haven: Yale University Press 2002, Figure 7.
A typical Olynthus house plan. M. H. Jameson, “Domestic space in the Greek city-state.” In S. Kent (ed.), Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space. © Cambridge University Press 1990, Figure 7.6.
An example of Cahill’s Olynthus house analysis.N. Cahill, Household and City Organization at Olynthus. New Haven: Yale University Press 2002, Figure 16.
Access analysis for the settlement at Trypetos, Crete.304 R. C. Westgate, “House and society in Classical and Hellenistic Crete.” American Journal of Archaeology 111 (2007), 423–457, Figure 12. Reproduced by permission of Archaeological Institute of America (Boston).
Atene deme’s thin eroded soil allows Classical farm foundations to stand on the306modern surface. Three farms, numbered, are shown with circular threshing-floors and estate boundaries. H. Lohmann, Atene. Forschungen zu Siedlungs- und Wirtschaftsstruktur des klassischen Attika. Köln 1993, Figure 36.
(Top) Rural settlement decline in the region of Boeotia, Central Greece belonging 314to the ancient cities of Thespiae and Haliartos (located in the Southeast and Northwest of the maps). Many rural farms and hamlets disappear between Classical-Hellenistic and LH-ER times, many more cease to be flourishing settlements (low ceramic finds indicate site shrinkage or temporary rather than permanent use = “probable/possible” occupation). J. L. Bintliff, “The Roman countryside in Central Greece: Observations and theories from the Boeotia Survey (1978–1987).” In G. Barker and J. Lloyd (eds.), Roman Landscapes. Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region. London 1991, 122–132, Figures 2 and 4. (Below) Surface collections from the small town of Askra show severe contraction between Classical Greek and Early Roman times. Open circles denote sample areas lacking finds of the mapped period, grayscale shading increases in darkness with higher density of dated finds for the mapped phase. J. L. Bintliff and A. M. Snodgrass, “Mediterranean survey and the city.” Antiquity 62 (1988), 57–71, Figures 2b and 2c.
Early Roman Greece, its provinces, colonial foundations by Caesar (colonies césariennes) 316and Augustus (fondations augustéennes), and privileged indigenous cities (libres, pérégrines).R. Étienne et al., Archéologie historique de la Grèce antique. Paris 2000, Figure 137.
Pella: palace/acropolis to north, agora center, and wealthy mansions to its south.320 M. Lilimpaki-Akamati and I. M. Akamatis (eds.), Pella and Its Environs. Athens 2004, Figure 8.
The gridplan of the Roman colony of Corinth was set within the pre-Roman city-walls. 324Also marked is the acropolis (far southwest) and the former Long Walls (to the north running to the coast), together with the Roman agricultural land-division for the colonists around the city. R. Étienne et al., Archéologie historique de la Grèce antique. Paris 2000, Planche XIV.3.
Development of Thessaloniki from a secondary center within the Macedonian Hellenistic 327state, to the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. D. V. Grammenos (ed.), “Roman Thessaloniki.” Thessaloniki, Archaeological Museum Publications, 2003, 124.
Argos: Roman bath complex.328 M. Piérart and G. Touchais, Argos. Une ville grecque de 6000 ans. Paris 1996, 79.
Drawings. A typical assemblage of Hellenistic date. Top: (left to right) table cups, jug, and serving 331bowls. Lower: (left to right) cookpot, unguentaria (oil-flasks), casserole, and amphorae. Courtesy of Mark van der Enden.
Early Roman ceramics. Upper left: tablewares. Upper right: amphorae and cooking ware.332Below, unguentaria, kitchen, and other plain wares. Philip Bes after H. S. Robinson, Pottery of the Roman Period. Chronology (= The Athenian Agora, Vol. 5). Princeton 1959, with permission of Professor J. Camp.
Plan of the Aegai palace.338R. Étienne et al., Archéologie historique de la Grèce antique. Paris 2000, Figure 113.
Access diagram for three houses in Delos. Note the focus on entry toward the 339display courts with adjacent mosaic-floored entertainment rooms and the marginalization of family and service suites. R. C. Westgate, “House and society in Classical and Hellenistic Crete.” American Journal of Archaeology 111 (2007), 423–457, Figure 1. Reproduced by permission of Archaeological Institute of America (Boston).
The Baroque: defeated Barbarians from the Attalid dedication on the Parthenon.344 Left: National Archaeological Museum of Venice. Right: © 2011. DeAgostini Picture Library/Scala, Florence.
A Roman entrepreneur from Delos, first century BC, in Classicizing physique, a 347“pseudo-athlete.” © Erin Babnik/Alamy.
Sequence of landscape change in the countryside of Thespiae, Boeotia 356in MR-LR times. Villas (V) and putative villa-estate hamlets (H) concentrate in the southwest and west districts, with an increase in site area over time. Redrawn from J. L. Bintliff et al., Testing the Hinterland: The Work of the Boeotia Survey (1989–1991) in the Southern Approaches to the City of Thespiai. Cambridge 2007, Figures 9.10 and 9.15.
The fortified hilltop of Aghios Constantinos represents a class of walled 359villages typical for the Balkans in the fifth to seventh centuries AD.
The Late Roman wall of Athens.362 Author.
Marble sarcophagus from Thessaloniki, third century AD.364 Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, inv. no. MΘ 1247. © Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism/Archaeological Receipts Fund.
A Late Roman ceramic assemblage. Upper left: tablewares. Right 365upper and lower: kitchen and other domestic wares. Below left: storage and transport amphorae. Philip Bes after K. W. Slane and G. D. R. Sanders, “Corinth: Late Roman horizons.” Hesperia 74/2 (2005), 243–297. Reproduced with permission of American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
The fifth-century palace in the Old Agora, Athens, lying outside the new city 370wall on its right. J. M. Camp, The Archaeology of Athens. New Haven 2001, Figure 224.
The “Theseion” (Hephaisteion) converted to a church, Athens.372 J. M. Camp, The Archaeology of Athens. New Haven 2001, Figure 231.
Image of the victorious Christian emperor Justinian. Byzantine, early sixth century 374AD ivory diptych relief, made in Constantinople. The Art Archive/Musée du Louvre, Paris/Gianni Dagli Orti.
(Upper) Generalized distribution of major foci of settlement in Byzantine and 386Frankish Boeotia, from extensive and localized intensive survey, compared with (Lower) the distribution of Greco-Roman cities (triangles) and villages (circles) in Boeotia. A high proportion of settlements are in use in both eras, but their names changed in the intervening period. J. Bintliff, “Reconstructing the Byzantine countryside: New approaches from landscape archaeology.” In K. Blelke et al. (eds.), Byzanz als Raum. Wien 2000, 37–63, Figures 11 and 12.
The Byzantine Empire in 1025.389 C. Mango (ed.), Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford 2002, 178 (unnumbered figure). © Oxford University Press.
(a) Deserted medieval villages (black circles) in the region of ancient Tanagra city, 392Boeotia. (b) The chronology of their surface finds. A. Vionis, “Current archaeological research on settlement and provincial life in the Byzantine and Ottoman Aegean.” Medieval Settlement Research 23 (2008), 28–41, Figures 5 and 13.
Chronology of church construction in Messenia.393 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 187.
The fragmented territorial powers of the Aegean in 1402 (Venice, Genoa, Serbia, Bulgaria, 396the Ottomans). Albanian colonization is also indicated. Residual pockets under Byzantine rule are in black. A. Ducellier, Byzance et le monde orthodoxe. Paris 1986, 8, bottom figure. By permission of Éditions Armand Colin.
Saint Demetrius mosaic, Thessaloniki (ca. 620 AD).403 E. Kourkoutidou-Nicolaidou and A. Tourta, Wandering in Byzantine Thessaloniki. Athens 1997, Figure 191. Photo © Kapon Editions.
The center of the town of Corinth in the eleventh to twelfth centuries.410 C. Mango (ed.), Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford 2002, 200 (unnumbered figure). © Oxford University Press.
Mistra: general town plan. Citadel = 16, Upper Town = Kastro, Lower Town = Mesokhorion, 413Extramural Settlement = Katochorion. S. Runciman, Mistra: Byzantine Capital of the Peloponnese. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd 1980, 94. Drawn by Hanni Bailey.
The “Laskaris House,” an aristocratic mansion at Mistra.414 N. V. Georgiades, Mistra, 2nd edn. Athens 1973, Figure 6. Drawn by A. K. Orlandos. The Archaeological Society at Athens.
Distribution of Frankish-era feudal towers and urban centers in Boeotia. The now 420destroyed tower on the Athens’ Acropolis is also marked. P. Lock, “The Frankish towers of Central Greece.” Annual of the British School at Athens 81 (1986), 101–123, Figure 1.
Castle settlement at Geraki, Peloponnese.422 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, 202.
Astypalaia town with its focal Venetian castle.424 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 7.
Plan of the old town on Antiparos centering on the lord’s castle or tower.424 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 12.
The Frankish Athenian Acropolis. Lower right, the Propylaea converted into an impressive 426palace for the Dukes of Athens. The Parthenon, already a Byzantine church, was rededicated as a Catholic cathedral to the Virgin Mary. The entire hill was massively refortified. On the left are the ruins of the older temple of Athena and next to them the Erechtheum. © Dimitris Tsalkanis, .
The Frankish dynastic church of Saint Sophia, Andravida, Elis, Western Peloponnese.427 Photo Tasos D. Zachariou.
Plan from R. Traquair, “Frankish Architecture in Greece.” 427 Journal of the RIBA 31 (1923), 34–48 and 73–83 (also monograph, London 1923).
Boeotian settlements in 1466 by ethnicity and size after the Ottoman tax records 430(translated by Prof. M. Kiel). J. L. Bintliff, “The two transitions: Current research on the origins of the traditional village in Central Greece.” In J. L. Bintliff and H. Hamerow (eds.), Europe Between Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Oxford 1995, 111–130, Figure 11.
Settlement size and ethnicity from the Ottoman tax defter for Boeotia in 1570, locatable 440and approximately-locatable villages only shown (Ottoman texts translated by Prof. M. Kiel). J. L. Bintliff, “The two transitions: Current research on the origins of the traditional village in Central Greece.” In J. L. Bintliff and H. Hamerow (eds.), Europe Between Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Oxford 1995, 111–130, Figure 12.
Maximum expansion of the deserted village of Zaratova (Frankish era)/Panaya (Ottoman era), 442occurs in the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries AD or Early Ottoman phase. The spread of dated finds covers some 11 ha. J. L. Bintliff, “Reconstructing the Byzantine countryside: New approaches from landscape archaeology.” In K. Blelke et al. (eds.), Byzanz als Raum. Wien 2000, 37–63, Figure 16. Table source: ibid., Figure 17.
The decline of Boeotia between 1570 and 1687 is vividly revealed by the shrinking 446number and size of settlements by the latter tax date (Ottoman archives translated by Prof. M. Kiel). J. L. Bintliff, “Reconstructing the Byzantine countryside: New approaches from landscape archaeology.” In K. Blelke et al. (eds.), Byzanz als Raum. Wien 2000, 37–63, Figure 13.
Eighteenth-century Ottoman complex behind the Tower of the Winds, Athens, in the 453early nineteenth century. Painting from Theodore de Moncel, Vues pittoresques des monuments d’Athènes. Paris 1845. © 2011 The British Library Board. All rights reserved. 648.a.28.
Eighteenth-century Ottoman complex behind the Tower of the Winds, Athens, today.453 Author.
Town house in Ioannina.464 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 60.
A ruined overhang-house, main street, Ottoman Livadheia.466 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 167.
The Venetian-era monastic church at Arcadi, Crete.467 Shutterstock Images/Paul Cowan.
Seventeenth-century Venetian palace in Corfu (The Nobles’ Lounge).467 Author.
Ottoman-period painting of a çiftlik with peasant houses, towerhouse, and church.468 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 137.
Ottoman-period rural elite mansion: towerhouse type, Lesbos.469 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 18.
Rural elite mansion: archontiko type, Epiros. Historic photograph.469 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 58.
Aalen’s model for rural farm evolution on Kephallenia, developing through phases A to C.470 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 31.
Middle Period (Late Ottoman) wealthy house in Mount Pelion.471 E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 50.
Interior of a peasant single-story longhouse (makrinari) in early nineteenth-century Attica 474(by Stackelberg). The house form is a longhouse variant with a central semi-division wall along its length (kamara). Note the limited possessions and the dining mode of low table and central large shared dish, and the absence of high chairs or benches. A. Dimitsantou-Kremezi, Attiki. Elliniki paradosiaki architektoniki. Athens 1984, Figure 49.
Historic photograph of Thespies-Erimokastro longhouse-village, Boeotia, ca. 1890.483 © EFA/P. Jamot.
Deserted village of Rhadon. House ruins and two churches. Late Ottoman 483to mid-nineteenth century. E. Sigalos, Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. Oxford 2004, Figure 43.
Neoclassical village house in Messenia.485 Courtesy E. Sigalos.
Neoclassical Main Building of Athens University, late nineteenth century.489 Wikipedia image.
Surviving remains from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries 492of the Lake Copais Company’s establishment, Haliartos. Offices and barns for the produce of the drained lake. Author.
Surviving remains from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries of the 492Lake Copais Company’s establishment, Haliartos. The “bungalow villas” for the clerical-supervisor class of expatriates. Author.

Tables

Hypothetical food-sustaining radii for Bronze and Iron Age towns in the 131dry-farming Mediterranean.
Residual Analysis for site LSE1. Actual = recorded density, Predicted = expected 279density from surrounding fields for this district of the chora. 500-sherd sample.
Changing site sizes (ha) and functions in the south chora of Thespiae city, Boeotia, 279together with the size of the contemporary city of Thespiae.
Better-quality tableware on typical Italian rural sites (after Blake), for comparison 428with the Greek evidence.
Economic and demographic records from the Ottoman defters for the village 443of Panaya (site VM4). M. Kiel, “The rise and decline of Turkish Boeotia, 15th–19th century.” In J. L. Bintliff (ed.), Recent Developments in the History and Archaeology of Central Greece. Oxford 1997, 315–358.

List of Color Plates

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