Philosophers and Their Critics

General Editor: Ernest Lepore

Philosophy is an interactive enterprise. Much of it is carried out in dialogue as theories and ideas are presented and subsequently refined in the crucible of close scrutiny. The purpose of this series is to reconstruct this vital interplay among thinkers. Each book consists of a temporary assessment of an important living philosopher's work. A collection of essays written by an interdisciplinary group of critics addressing the substantial theses of the philosopher's corpus opens each volume. In the last section, the philosopher responds to his or her critics, clarifies crucial points of the discussion, or updates his or her doctrines

1 Dretske and His Critics

Edited by Brian McLaughlin

2 John Searle and His Critics

Edited by Ernest Lepore and Robert van Gulick

3 Meaning in Mind: Fodor and His Critics

Edited by Barry Loewer and Georges Rey

4 Dennett and His Critics

Edited by Bo Dahlbom

5 Danto and His Critics

Edited by Mark Rollins

6 Perspectives on Quine

Edited by Robert B. Barrett and Roger F. Gibson

7 The Churchlands and Their Critics

Edited by Robert N. McCauley

8 Singer and His Critics

Edited by Dale Jamieson

9 Rorty and His Critcs

Edited by Robert B. Brandom

10 Chomsky and His Critics

Edited by Louise M. Antony and Norbert Hornstein

11 Dworkin and His Critics

Edited by Justine Burley

12 McDowell and His Critics

Edited by Cynthia Macdonald and Graham Macdonald

13 Stich and His Critics

Edited by Dominic Murphy and Michael Bishop

14 Danto and His Critics, 2nd Edition

Edited by Mark Rollins

Title Page

For my daughter, Alison

Notes on Contributors

Myles Brand (1942–2009) was President of the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association), of Indiana University, and of the University of Oregon. He authored many books in action theory, e.g., Intending and Acting, and later advocated for academic reform on behalf of student-athletes.

Peg Brand is an artist and Associate Professor of Philosophy and Women's Studies at Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianapolis, whose specialty in aesthetics is feminist art and theory. She is editor of Beauty Matters and Beauty Revisited.

David Carrier is Champney Family Professor at Case Western University/Cleveland Institute of Art. He has been a Getty Scholar and contributing editor at Arts Magazine. His books include Artwriting, Principles of Art History Writing, and Poussin's Paintings.

Noël Carroll is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the CUNY Graduate Center. His books include Beyond Aesthetics, The Philosophy of Motion Pictures, The Philosophy of Art, and The Philosophy of Horror. He is past president of the American Society for Aesthetics.

Diarmuid Costello is in the Department of Philosophy, University of Warwick. He is editor or co-editor of The Life and Death of Images: Ethics and Aesthetics, Art: Key Contemporary Thinkers, and special issues of Critical Inquiry, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Art History, as well as a number of articles and papers in aesthetics. He is on the executive committee of the British Society for Aesthetics.

George Dickie is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Illinois, Chicago. He is the author of Art and the Aesthetic, The Art Circle, The Century of Taste, Art and Value, and Evaluating Art.

Jerry A. Fodor is the State of New Jersey Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University. Among his many publications are A Theory of Content, Psychosemantics, The Modularity of Mind, RePresentations, The Language of Thought, The Mind Doesn't Work That Way, and What Darwin Got Wrong.

Lydia Goehr is Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University. She is the author of The Imaginary Museum of Musical Works, The Quest for Voice: Music, Politics, and the Limits of Philosophy, and Elective Affinities: Musical Essays on the History of Aesthetic Theory.

Daniel Herwitz is Director of the Institute for Humanities, Mary Faire Croushoe Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Art History at the University of Michigan. He is the author of Marking Theory/Constructing Art: On the Authority of the Avant-Garde and Race and Reconciliation.

Kathleen M. Higgins is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas. She is the author of The Music of Our Lives and Nietzsche's Zarathustra.

Mark Rollins is Professor of Philosophy and Professor in the Philosophy-Neuroscience-Psychology Program and the Sam Fox School of Visual Design and the Arts at Washington University. He is the author of Mental Imagery: On the Limits of Cognitive Science and co-editor of Begetting Images: Studies in the Art and Science of Image Production. He is completing The Strategic Eye: Perception and the Pictorial Arts.

Carlin Romano, literary critic for the Philadelphia Inquirer and critic-at-large for The Chronicle of Higher Education, has taught philosophy at Yale, Yeshiva University, and the University of Pennsylvania.

Gary Shapiro, Tucker Boatwright Professor in the Humanities at the University of Richmond, has written Nietzschean Narratives, Archaeologies of Vision: Foucault and Nietzsche on Seeing and Saying, and Alcyone: Nietzsche on Gifts. He edited After the Future: Postmodern Times and Places. He has authored articles on the history of philosophy, among other topics.

Richard Shusterman, author of The Object of Literary Criticism, T. S. Eliot and the Philosophy of Criticism, and Pragmatist Aesthetics: Living Beauty, Rethinking Art, is also editor of Analytic Aesthetics and co-editor of The Interpretive Turn: Philosophy, Science, and Culture. He is currently Dorothy F. Schmidt Eminent Scholar in the Humanities and Professor of Philosophy at Florida Atlantic University.

Robert C. Solomon (1942–2003) was Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas. His works include In the Spirit of Hegel, From Hegel to Existentialism, and About Love.

Richard Wollheim (1923–2003) was Mills Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy and Civil Polity at the University of California, Berkeley; and Professor of Philosophy and the Humanities at the University of California, Davis. His books include Painting as an Art, The Thread of Life, Art and its Objects, On Art and the Mind, Freud, and The Mind and its Depths.


I would like to thank Ernie Lepore, who originally suggested the first edition of this book for the Philosophers and Their Critics series, and Jeff Dean, philosophy editor for Wiley-Blackwell, for his support and advice for this second edition. I am grateful to Washington University, College of Arts and Sciences, for funding during a leave for the completion of this project. I am particularly indebted to my research assistant, MaryEllen VanDerHeyden, for her excellent help in the preparation of the manuscript.

Mark Rollins

The editor and publishers gratefully acknowledge the permission granted to reproduce the following material in this book:

Table 6.1: “The Enraged Musician.” Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY.

Chapter 3: Originally published as “The Invisible Content of Visual Art,” by Mark Rollins, in The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 59/1, 2001: 19–27. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The American Society for Aesthetics.

Chapter 9: “Danto's New Definition of Art and the Problem of Art Theories,” by Noel Carroll, in The British Journal of Aesthetics, 37/4, 1997. Reprinted with permission of Oxford University Press.

Chapter 10: Diarmuid Costello, “Danto and Kant: Together at Last?” In Kathleen Stock and Katherine Thomson-Jones, eds., New Waves in Aesthetics, 2008. Reproduced with permission of Palgrave Macmillan.

Selected Bibliography of the Works of Arthur Danto

“The Artworld,” The Journal of Philosophy 61, October 15, 1964.

Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965).

Analytical Philosophy of History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968).

Analytical Philosophy of Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968).

What Philosophy Is: A Guide to the Elements (York: Harper & Row, 1968).

Analytical Philosophy of Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973).

“The Transfiguration of the Commonplace,” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 33, 1974.

Jean-Paul Sartre (New York: Viking, 1975).

“Moving Pictures,” Quarterly Review of Film Studies, Winter 1979, 20–21.

The Transfiguration of the Commonplace (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981).

Narration and Knowledge (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985).

The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986).

“Munakata in New York: A Memory of the '5Os,” New Observations, 47, 1987, 3–10.

Mysticism and Morality: Oriental Thought and Moral Philosophy (New York: Basic Books, 1987).

The State of the Art (New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1987).

“Artifact and Art,” in Art/Artifact: African Art in Anthropology Collections (Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1988).

“Beautiful Science and the Future of Criticism,” in The Future of Literary Criticism, ed. Ralph Cohen (New York: Routledge, 1988).

“Some Remarks on The Genealogy of Morals,” in Reading Nietzsche, ed. Robert C. Solomon and Kathleen M. Higgins (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).

“Andy Warhol,” The Nation, April 3, 1989.

“Anselm Keifer,” The Nation, January 2, 1989, 26–28.

Connections to the World (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1989).

La Transfiguration du banal, trans. C. Harry-Schaeffer (Paris, 1989).

“Ming and Qng Paintings,” The Nation, October 23, 1989, 469–472.

Encounters and Reflections: Art in the Historical Present (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1990).

“The Artworld Revisited: Comedies of Similarity,” The Nation, October 18, 1991.

“Description and the Phenomenology of Perception,” in Visual Theory: Painting and Interpretation, ed. Norman Bryson, Michael Ann Holly, & Keith Moxey (London and New York: Harper-Collins, 1991).

“The Sacred Art of Tibet,” The Nation, December 16, 1991, 788–792.

“The Shape of Artistic Pasts, East and West,” in Culture and Modernity, ed. E. Deutsch (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991).

Beyond the Brillo Box: The Visual Arts in Post-Historical Perspective (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1992).

“Narrative and Style,” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 49/3, Summer, 1992.

“What Happened to Beauty?” The Nation, March 30, 1992, 418–421.

After the End of Art (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997).

The Abuse of Beauty (Chicago: Open Court, 2003).