Cover Page

Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

About the Editors

About the Contributors

Part One: Setting the Context

Chapter One: Transformative Learning Theory

THE CONTEXT: ADULT LEARNING

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THEORY: PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERPINNINGS

TENSIONS AND ISSUES IN THE FIELD

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS

Chapter Two: Themes and Variations of Transformational Learning

ADULT EDUCATION AND TRANSFORMATIONAL AND EMANCIPATORY LEARNING

INTERLUDE

NEW VARIATIONS ON TRANSFORMATION LEARNING: INFLUENCES FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES

CODA AND CONCLUSION

Chapter Three: A Critical Review of Research on Transformative Learning Theory, 2006–2010

METHODOLOGIES AND GENERAL TRENDS

MULTIPLE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS

CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH

GROWING SIGNIFICANCE OF RELATIONSHIPS

FOSTERING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS

CONCLUSION

Chapter Four: Studying Transformative Learning

FACTORS IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH ON TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

CHALLENGES IN STUDYING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

Chapter Five: Learning to Think Like an Adult

MAKING MEANING AS A LEARNING PROCESS

MEANING STRUCTURES

TRANSFORMATIONS

ADULTHOOD

TOWARD A PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT EDUCATION

Part Two: Exploring the Theory of Transformative Learning: Diverse Perspectives

Chapter Six: Mezirow's Theory of Transformative Learning from 1975 to Present

PUBLICATIONS PRIOR TO TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING: INKLINGS OF FUTURE THEORY DEVELOPMENT

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THEORY: THE BEGINNING

THE 1980S: EXPANSION AND REFINEMENT

THE 1990S: OF MEANING PERSPECTIVES, REFLECTION, AND PHASE REVISION

THE 2000s: A THEORY-IN-PROGRESS

REFLECTIONS ON THE PAST AND PREDICTIONS FOR THE FUTURE

Chapter Seven: Nurturing Soul Work

A MAP OF THE SOUL

NURTURING SOUL IN ADULT LEARNING

IMPLICATIONS FOR A TRANSFORMATIVE EDUCATION

Chapter Eight: Critical Theory and Transformative Learning

WHAT IS CRITICAL THEORY?

WHAT IS LEARNING?

WHAT IS THE ADULT LEARNING PROJECT EMBEDDED IN CRITICAL THEORY?

HOW IS THIS LEARNING TRANSFORMATIVE?

Chapter Nine: Transformative Learning

ILLUSTRATION

ANALYSIS

APPLICATION

INVOCATION

Chapter Ten: Deep Transformation

THE GREAT TURNING AND THE GREAT WORK: A TIMELINE FOR DEEP TRANSFORMATION

INTEGRAL MODES OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING: THE TRIPARTITE DISTINCTION OF SURVIVE, CRITIQUE, AND CREATE

THE DYNAMISM OF TRANSFORMATION AT THE PERSONAL LEVEL

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING AT THE LEVEL OF EMERGENT PRACTICES

INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

Chapter Eleven: Transformative Learning and the Challenges of Complexity

INTRODUCING THE PARADIGM OF COMPLEXITY

REVISITING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THROUGH THE PARADIGM OF COMPLEXITY

THE CHALLENGES OF COMPLEXITY AS SOURCES OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING: OBJECT OF STUDY, DIMENSION OF RESEARCH

Chapter Twelve: Transforming Transformative Learning Through Sustainability and the New Science

CONTESTED VISIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY

SHEDDING THE MODERNIST CLOTHING

TRANSFORMING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

CONCLUSION

Chapter Thirteen: An Existential Approach to Transformative Learning

THE EXISTENTIAL PERSPECTIVE

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING AS AN EXISTENTIAL PROCESS

NARRATIVE DIMENSIONS OF EXISTENTIAL TRANSFORMATION

JOHN HOWARD GRIFFIN'S EXISTENTIAL NARRATIVE OF TRANSFORMATION

BLACK LIKE ME

EXISTENTIAL PEDAGOGY AND TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

CONCLUSION

Part Three: Transformative Learning: Culture, Positionality, and International Perspectives

Chapter Fourteen: Cultural-Spiritual Perspective of Transformative Learning

BEGINNING THE JOURNEY

CONDITIONS FOR TRANSFORMATION

WHAT TRANS-FORMS

IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADULT EDUCATOR

CONCLUSION

Chapter Fifteen: Women and Transformative Learning

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE

OBSERVATIONS ON THE LITERATURE

ENGAGEMENT OF WOMEN'S LEARNING WITH THE THEORY

CONNECTION TO RACE, CLASS, AND OPPRESSION

SILENCE ON TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THEORY

FACILITATING WOMEN'S TRANSFORMATION

DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH AND PRACTICE

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Chapter Sixteen: Positionality and Transformative Learning

THE COMPLEXITY OF POSITIONALITY

TWO PERSPECTIVES OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING AND SOCIAL LOCATIONS

THE COEXISTENCE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEARNING AND POSITIONALITY

Chapter Seventeen: Transformative Learning Theory

AFRICAN WORLDVIEWS THAT INFORM TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING IN BOTSWANA: EVIDENCE FROM THE FIELD

CONCLUSION

Chapter Eighteen: Transformative Learning in Europe

DEFINING THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

LITERATURE REVIEW METHODOLOGY

FINDINGS

A CASE STUDY: GREECE

Chapter Nineteen: International and Community-Based Transformative Learning

SOME COMMUNITY-BASED TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES

COMMON THEMES

ISSUES THAT ARE YET UNRESOLVED

DIALOGUE, REFLECTIVE DISCOURSE, AND THE CASE FOR COUNTER-DISCOURSE

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND FUTURE RESEARCH

Part Four: Transformative Learning: Central Concepts and Settings

Chapter Twenty: Critical Reflection and Transformative Learning

WHAT IS “CRITICAL” ABOUT CRITICAL REFLECTION?

OTHER THEORETICAL INFLUENCES

THE THEORY OF COMMUNICATIVE ACTION AND CRITICAL REFLECTION

FOSTERING CRITICAL REFLECTION

CRITICAL REFLECTION AND EMOTIONS

RESEARCHING CRITICAL REFLECTION

CRITICAL REFLECTION: AN IMPERATIVE IN OUR TIMES?

Chapter Twenty-One: The Role of Experience in Transformative Learning

A DEFINITION OF EXPERIENCE

A CASE STUDY OF A TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNER

ANALYSIS OF MY TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING EVENTS

RELATIONSHIP OF ANALYSIS TO EXISTING THEORY

CONCLUSION

Chapter Twenty-Two: Group Work and Dialogue

GROUPS AS THE CONTAINER FOR TRANSFORMATIVE DIALOGUE

TYPES OF TRANSFORMATIVE GROUPS

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE

CONCLUSION

Chapter Twenty-Three: Transformative Learning in the Workplace

A CHANGING WORKPLACE CONTEXT

DIFFERING, DUELING FOCI OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

UNDERSTANDING TRANSFORMATION IN ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING

THE ROLE OF THE LEADER IN TRANSFORMING ORGANIZATIONS

TOWARD A MODEL OF FACILITATING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

CONCLUSION

Chapter Twenty-Four: Fostering Transformative Learning in Higher Education Settings

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

HIGHER EDUCATION AS A NATURALISTIC LANDSCAPE

INTENTIONAL INTERVENTIONS FOSTERING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

HIGHER EDUCATION LEADERSHIP PROGRAMS AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

TOWARD AN EMERGENT TRANSFORMATIVE FRAMEWORK IN HIGHER EDUCATION

DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH AND PRACTICE

Chapter Twenty-Five: Fostering Transformative Learning Online

A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

PEDAGOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS TO FOSTER TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING ONLINE

FOSTERING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THROUGH DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

FACILITATING LEARNING TO FOSTER TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING ONLINE

IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

Part Five: Fostering Transformative Learning: Practices and Ethics

Chapter Twenty-Six: Transformation as Embodied Narrative

ONE NARRATIVE TO MAKE SENSE OF ANOTHER

LIFE WITH DAISY

CONCEPTUALIZING TRANSFORMATION AS AN EMBODIED NARRATIVE

Chapter Twenty-Seven: Learner-Centered Teaching and Transformative Learning

DEFINITIONS: HOW IS LEARNER-CENTERED TEACHING DEFINED?

RELATIONSHIPS: WHAT CONNECTS LEARNER-CENTERED TEACHING AND TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING?

DO SOME LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACHES PROMOTE TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING BETTER THAN OTHERS?

CAN LEARNING EXPERIENCES BE DESIGNED TO PROMOTE TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING?

WHAT SEQUENCE OF LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACHES BEST PROMOTES TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING?

IS LEARNER-CENTERED TEACHING A VIABLE WAY TO DEVELOP COMMITMENT TO TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING?

Chapter Twenty-Eight: Storytelling and Transformative Learning

A CASE STORY

THREE STRANDS OF THEORY

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE IN HIGHER EDUCATION

REFLECTIONS

Chapter Twenty-Nine: Transformative Learning Through Artistic Expression

TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING AS AN EXTRARATIONAL PROCESS

ART BREAKS US OUT OF BOUNDARIES THAT CONSTRAIN

ART AS A MEANS FOR REFLECTION AND HEALING

TRANSFORMING COMMUNITIES THROUGH THE ARTS

REFLECTION AND SYNTHESIS

Chapter Thirty: Fiction and Film and Transformative Learning

EMPATHY AND IDENTIFICATION

OUTSIDERS

UNCONSCIOUS OR SEMICONSCIOUS FEARS AND DESIRES

CREATING CRITICAL DISTANCE

RECOGNIZING DISCOURSE

READING AGAINST THE GRAIN

INTERTEXTUALITY AND THE ROLE OF THE READER OR VIEWER

CONCLUSION

Chapter Thirty-One: Learning to Be What We Know

THE RELATIONSHIP OF HOLISTIC EPISTEMOLOGY TO TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

MODES OF PSYCHE AND WAYS OF KNOWING

COHERENCE, CRITICAL SUBJECTIVITY, AND TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

IMPORTANCE OF PRESENTATIONAL KNOWING FOR HOLISTIC EPISTEMOLOGY

HOW PRESENTATIONAL KNOWING CONTRIBUTES TO LEARNING IN HUMAN SYSTEMS

THE BRIDGING PATHWAYS PROVIDED BY PRESENTATIONAL KNOWING

COHERENCE AMONG WAYS OF KNOWING AND TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

Chapter Thirty-Two: Evaluating Transformative Learning

KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE AND EVALUATION STRATEGIES

HOLISTIC APPROACH TO TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND EVALUATION STRATEGIES

EVALUATION METHODS RELEVANT TO TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

CONTEXTS IN WHICH EVALUATION OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING TAKES PLACE

SIGNIFICANCE AND CONCLUDING THOUGHTS

Chapter Thirty-Three: Educator as Change Agent

ETHICS OF PRACTICE

EDUCATING FOR CHANGE?

WALKING AN ETHICAL PATH

Part Six: Reflecting on the Future of Transformative Learning

Chapter Thirty-Four: Reflecting Back and Looking Forward

THEORETICAL TENSIONS

IMPOSING, COERCING, AND SUPPORTING

COMMUNITY-BASED AND COLLABORATIVE TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

CULTURE, GENDER, AND POSITIONALITY

EMOTION AND RATIONALITY

RESEARCHING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

THE TRANSFORMATIVE TEACHER AND LEARNER: AN EMPATHIC RELATIONSHIP

CONCLUSION

Name Index

Subject Index

Title Page

ABOUT THE EDITORS

Edward W. Taylor is a professor of adult education at the Pennsylvania State University-Harrisburg. He received his Ed.D. in adult education from the University of Georgia. Research interests include adult cognition and learning (transformative learning), nonformal education, and medical education. His work has appeared in the Adult Education Quarterly, International Journal of Lifelong Education, Studies in the Education of Adults, and other scholarly journals. He has previously published two coedited books, Transformative Learning in Practice and Adult Education in Cultural Institutions: Aquariums, Libraries, Museums, Parks, and Zoos. He has been a coeditor of the Adult Education Quarterly and an active member of the planning committee for several international transformative learning conferences. Prior to joining the faculty at Penn State, he was a faculty member at Antioch University in Seattle.

Patricia Cranton is a retired professor of adult education, currently affiliated with the University of New Brunswick in Canada. She has been professor of adult education at St. Francis Xavier University, University of New Brunswick, and Brock University in Canada, and associate professor at McGill University. Patricia Cranton's previous books include Planning Instruction for Adult Learners (second edition, 2000, with a third edition currently in press), Becoming an Authentic Teacher (2001), Finding Our Way: A Guide for Adult Educators (2003), and Understanding and Promoting Transformative Learning (second edition, 2006). Patricia has edited five volumes of New Directions in Adult and Continuing Education, most recently Authenticity in Teaching (2006) and Reaching Out Across the Border: Canadian Perspectives in Adult Education (with Leona English, 2009).

ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS

Michel Alhadeff-Jones is an adjunct assistant professor at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City, New York, and an independent researcher associated with the Laboratoire EXPERICE at the University of Paris 8 in Paris, France.

Lisa M. Baumgartner is an associate professor of adult and higher education at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois.

Tuere A. Bowles is an assistant professor in the Department of Leadership, Policy, Adult and Higher Education at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina.

Stephen D. Brookfield is a distinguished professor at the University of St. Thomas in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Nadira K. Charaniya is assistant dean and campus director at Springfield College School of Human Services in Los Angeles, California.

M. Carolyn Clark is an associate professor and program chair of adult education in the College of Education and Human Development at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas.

John M. Dirkx is a professor of higher, adult, and lifelong education at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan.

Dean Elias is a professor in the School of Education at St. Mary's College of California in Moraga, California.

Leona M. English is a professor of adult education at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Dorothy Ettling is a professor in the Dreeben School of Education at the University of the Incarnate Word in San Antonio, Texas.

Pierre G. Faller is a doctoral candidate in adult learning and leadership at Teachers College, Columbia University. He currently oversees marketing activities for degree and nondegree programs at Columbia Business School in New York City, New York.

Placida V. Gallegos is a principal with ICW Consulting Group in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania.

Chad Hoggan is an instructor of organizational leadership in the Department of Leadership Studies in Education and Organizations at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio.

Catherine J. Irving is a library specialist in the Coady Institute at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Christine Jarvis is dean of education and professional development at the University of Huddersfield in Huddersfield, England, United Kingdom.

Juanita Johnson-Bailey holds the Josiah Meigs Distinguished Teaching Professorship, is the director of the Institute for Women's Studies, and is a professor in the Department of Lifelong Education, Administration, and Policy at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia.

Elizabeth Kasl is a retired professor of transformative learning and lives in California.

Carol E. Kasworm is the W. Dallas Herring Professor in the Department of Leadership, Policy, Adult and Higher Education at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina.

SeonJoo Kim is a Ph.D. candidate and graduate assistant in adult education at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia.

Alexis Kokkos is a professor of adult education at the Hellenic Open University in Patras, Greece.

Carolin Kreber is a professor of higher education at the University of Edinburgh in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Elizabeth Ann Lange is an assistant professor at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Randee Lipson Lawrence is an associate professor at National-Louis University in Chicago, Illinois.

Dorothy MacKeracher is a professor emerita in education at the University of New Brunswick in New Brunswick, Canada.

Victoria J. Marsick is a professor of education/co-director of the J. M. Huber Institute at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City, New York.

Olutoyin Mejiuni is a professor at Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Sharan B. Merriam is a professor emeritus in the Department of Lifelong Education, Administration, and Policy at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia.

Jack Mezirow is a professor emeritus of adult and continuing education; former chairman, Department of Higher and Adult Education; and former director for adult education at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City, New York.

Peggy Gabo Ntseane is the head of adult education at the University of Botswana in Gaborone, Botswana.

Edmund O’Sullivan is a retired professor of education, most recently from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Steven A. Schapiro is a professor in the School of Human and Organizational Development at Fielding Graduate University in Santa Barbara, California.

Regina O. Smith is an associate professor at University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Melissa J. Snyder is a D.Ed. candidate in adult education at the Pennsylvania State University, the Capital College in Middletown, Pennsylvania.

Ann L. Swartz is an instructor of nursing at the Pennsylvania State University, the Capital College in Middletown, Pennsylvania.

Kathleen Taylor is a professor in the School of Education at St. Mary's College of California in Moraga, California.

Elizabeth J. Tisdell is a professor of adult education at the Pennsylvania State University, the Capital College in Middletown, Pennsylvania.

Jo A. Tyler is an associate professor of training and development at the Pennsylvania State University, the Capital College in Middletown, Pennsylvania.

Ilene L. Wasserman is a managing principal of ICW Consulting Group in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania.

Karen E. Watkins is a professor of adult education and human resource and organizational development in the College of Education at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia.

Maryellen Weimer is a professor emerita in teaching and learning at the Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus in Reading, Pennsylvania.

Peter Willis is a senior lecturer in the School of Education at the University of South Australia in Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Lyle Yorks is an associate professor of adult and continuing education and AEGIS program coordinator at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City, New York.

PART ONE

SETTING THE CONTEXT