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Introduction

The rising power of hedge funds has continued to reshape both Wall Street and the City of London during the past several years. While hedge fund returns generally disappointed investors in 2004 and 2005, their movement into the energy complex has not. It now seems likely that their advance into energy is primed to follow throughout the world as the globalization of financial markets accelerates. Rapid economic growth in China and India, coupled with rising energy demand, is leading a sustained thrust into the energy hedge fund universe. This financial model is now changing to include more equity investment, as well as commodity trading, and begins to blur the line with investment banking, venture capital, and hedge funds. The second thrust of this powerful financial change will be the emerging environmental financial markets as drivers of both change and investment opportunities. The environment now overlays the energy value chain, as the recent emergence of “green” hedge funds attest to this investment opportunity.

Hedge funds seek new areas of investment where returns may be stronger, and that opportunity is in the global energy business and emerging environmental financial markets. This book is envisioned as a road map to identify investment opportunities in these new and volatile markets. It is a primer for investors and other hedge fund managers to take a hard look at this complex sector, which is now rife with both investment opportunities and risk. The relative immaturity of both energy and environmental financial markets point to much opportunity in this sector than is currently realized, but it does not fit tidily into the macro models and more sophisticated trading of foreign exchange and corporate debt trading, which is the traditional realm of hedge funds.

Today, there are more than 8,700 hedge funds with over $1 trillion at work, which could be levered to at least $2 trillion. This is double the number of hedge funds that existed in 1999.1 The flat or sideways trading of global equity markets for the past several years since the dot com crash has not shown the rates of return that investors have become accustomed to. Meanwhile, the energy complex is volatile, capital intensive, and just plain interesting. You can't put down the newspaper or watch television today without every angle of the energy complex being under intense scrutiny and investor interest.

Our research has revealed that there are over 450 energy hedge funds and perhaps that number could be as high as 600, with many new funds emerging on a daily basis. These funds run the gamut of strategies from energy equities, commodities, distressed assets, debt, and alternative energy (environmental) such as renewable energy and emissions trading, and increasingly, funds of hedge funds. Investors are looking for better returns every year as they abandon one financial sector for another, and they have now turned to the energy patch for those financial rewards - but energy is a risky and physical business that cannot readily be compared with other investment opportunities.

In this book we make the case for energy and later the environment, as it relates to energy, as the place to invest. It is an area where hedge funds in particular offer investors exposure to a wide variety of innovative and profitable opportunities. Our thesis is that a lack of investment in the entire energy complex over the last 20 years since the price collapse in 1986 has now teed up a sustained period of supply-demand tightness in all energy commodities. We argue that there will be no mean reversion in energy prices, and offer the view that energy markets are behaving differently this time around. Something has fundamentally changed in energy.

For the last couple of decades, energy commodity prices moved sideways within a narrow range, but then suddenly began an inexorable rise about two years ago. We feel that many in the industry were lulled into a false sense of security around market fundamentals, while many skills simply left the industry altogether during the past two decades. Many in the industry today, including Wall Street and other analysts, have no experience of anything but low and relatively stable energy prices. Indeed, after the collapse of Enron in late 2001 and the energy merchants in 2002, many predicted the demise of energy commodity trading and markets altogether. But, it was this event that accentuated opportunities in energy and even provided many of the trading skills that allowed the new energy speculators to enter these complex and risky markets. And so we have seen the new triangle of trading emerge these past two years, which includes investment banks, hedge funds, and multinational oil companies. We have not seen the predicted globalization of electric utilities, but instead foreign utilities retreated from American power markets. We have also witnessed the Wall Street power companies rise as they bought distressed assets and began to trade those assets through various asset optimization strategies. We have seen the resurfacing of the financial institution/utility joint ventures such as Calpine and Bear Stearns, as well as Merrill Lynch's purchase of Entergy/Koch, and more recently we have seen the entrance of financial hedge funds focusing on the energy industry for a variety of reasons, including acquiring and trading distressed generation assets.

It has been the rise in energy commodity prices and volatilities, the lack of investment in infrastructure, and the credit and debt issues of the collapsed merchants that have uniquely combined to create today's opportunities. Somewhat simplistically, the lack of investment in infrastructure across the complex this last 20 years, combined with the surge in global demand for energy, has resulted in a rapid rise in energy commodity prices and volatilities. In turn, this has created a situation where energy companies across the complex have seen profits rise. This is now resulting in increased spending on long overdue projects and activities. Meanwhile, the abundance of relatively cheap assets for sale, and the need for various energy companies to restructure debt, has created a variety of other opportunities. Finally, higher energy prices and the tightness in supply-demand dynamics across all energy markets is driving increased interest in alternative forms of energy and energy efficiency investment.

Although a small number of hedge funds have specialized in energy equities for several years, and many more general equity funds had a component of energy in their portfolios, it was the entrance of hedge funds into energy commodity trading that really spurred the interest on the part of investors in hedge funds. These early energy commodity funds, staffed with expert energy traders from the old merchant segment, produced extraordinary returns in 2003 and 2004. As a result, investor interest increased and many ex-traders and investment bankers created new hedge funds across the space. Existing funds, especially larger macro funds, also exposed more of their assets under management to the energy complex. Of course,itwasn'tjusthedgefundsthatgotintoenergy-itwasallofthe investment banks as well.

While many hedge funds concentrate mostly on price risk, there are almost unlimited risks in the physically oriented energy business. There is operational risk, geopolitical risk, event risk, regulatory risk, weather risk, tax risk, and others that add multiple additional dimensions to the more linear and traditional thinking of hedge fund operations. These externalities are also about to be overwhelmed by ''environmental risk,'' which is the wave beyond the current energy hedge fund euphoria. Therefore, trying to put the traditional hedge fund financial overlay into the energy complex is really putting the proverbial square peg into the round hole. Why? Because energy is the world's largest business with over $4 trillion in annual trade, but it is also a very immature financial market.

The notional value of the financial energy market is $2.2 trillion according to our estimates. Since commodities traditionally trade six to 20 times the physical market, we still have a long way to grow toward market maturation. Moreover, the Enron and energy merchant debacle set back natural gas and power trading a good three years. Today, the natural gas market is over $400 billion - where it was when Enron went down in December 2001. Oil trading still predominates energy trading and is the most liquid financial business. It also predominates in the energy commodity hedge fund business as it is still the only global energy market today.

Energy is a business that hedge funds really have just entered in large numbers during the past two years. Of course, it can be argued that commodity pool operators (CPOs) and commodity trading advisors (CTAs) have been around for decades, but the movement into energy trading by hedge funds has really accelerated in the more recent time period. In our Energy Hedge Fund Center (www.energyhedgefunds.com), we have counted more than 120 energy commodity trading hedge funds with over $50 billion or more in assets under management in our universe of over 450 energy hedge funds. Just 18 months ago there were less than 20 commodity trading hedge funds.

Energy trading activities such as electric power trading look attractive and bold, but they are fraught with unexpected risks - especially for those used to more mature financial markets. And that's the problem with energy for people and organizations more used to such markets. It's a very complex physical market. Superficially, it seems straightforward enough, but the more you probe into the business transactions required to make the industry work, the more complex and risky it becomes. Even crude oil markets are not as simple as just supply and demand. One has to consider transportation issues, crude quality issues, storage levels, refining capabilities, weather risks, and so on.

Certainly, there is a rapidly developing investor appetite for energy, but energy doesn't neatly fit the hedge fund business model and we observe some issues around that fact, particularly with respect to funds in energy and the institutional investor. However, we see an ongoing bull market for energy for some time to come and the results speak for themselves. Where there is a will, there is a way.

WHAT'S ON THE HORIZON?

Today, the energy hedge fund arena is ramping up, due to the need for higher returns for hedge fund investors. Our book attempts to frame this financial opportunity for them, but energy hedge funds are still only about 5% of the hedge fund universe - and growing. New York and London continue to be the twin capitals of both energy trading and energy hedge funds. Houston, Calgary, Chicago, Singapore, and Switzerland play second fiddle. More hedge funds and fund of hedge funds are in formation as the energy bull market continues with rocky price spikes and collapses.

After this investment window begins to close, watch out for the surge of environmental hedge funds coming into play that is just now surfacing. While carbon trading is the current focus of attention, there are also markets for sulfur dioxide (SO2), which causes acid rain, nitrous oxides (NOx), which cause urban ozone, and renewable energy credit trading (as it is called in the United States). There are also opportunities in alternative energy market caps, ethanol trading, and alternative energy project equity plays. The emissions market formation is global as we recently learned of emissions credit trading for sulfur dioxide in China, which burns a lot of coal. Thus, the energy wave is superceded by a ''green wave'' of environmental hedge fund trading. Its genesis is still the United States, but now it is spreading globally. Watch this space expand, contract, and mature.

The energy hedge funds have the trading talent, better credit, and risk-taking acumen to really roil markets. They already have in day trading in both West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Henry Hub Natural gas on the NYMEX, and Brent on the International Petroleum Exchange (IPE), making more traditional energy traders squeamish about all that intra-day price volatility. More is coming. The energy hedge funds are a double-edge sword for energy trading, since while they bring more liquidity to markets they also bring more price volatility. They also bring in more speed in day trading that traditional energy traders are not used to. Our belief is that more traditional players will have to live with the new market dynamics of what we dub the ''trading triangle'' of multinational oils, investment banks, and the funds. What is really occurring is a rising financialization process in the energy complex. This transition is not without risks and market changes are seldom greeted with open arms.

In this book, we will also disclose our thinking on what is driving energy markets and the attendant investment opportunities, picking apart myth from reality as we see it. The media and politicians try to simplify energy to a sound bite, but it is far more complex than that. There are a multitude of views as to where energy is headed from the apocalyptic theory of''peak oil'' to the idea that this is just another dot com bubble. To us, it is about the fundamentals. Fundamentals have driven energy commodity prices these last two years, and the evidence suggests nothing much has changed as we reached the end of 2005. We hope to demonstrate that in this book.

For many years, the floor traders on the NYMEX have complained about hedge funds entering energy markets. For the most part they were wrong. Today, the funds have really arrived. They are looking for greater returns on equity for their investors than the flat trading of stock market equities. The missing ingredient is the understanding of energy markets and its complexity. Funds like to ''move money in and move money out,'' as one experienced energy trader commented to us recently. However, what they are missing is that there are now fewer opportunities for that type of trading. Second, there are greater risks in the market because they have arrived to trade. A seasoned energy trader we know commented that ''there is a billion fund with three traders, the oldest is 29 years old.'' The funds often lack knowledge and experience in energy markets, but they are gaining it. Energy trading is the most volatile and complex of any commodity. Energy prices are driven by supply-demand fundamentals, technical trading, weather, events, geopolitical issues, and regulatory issues. Credit risk is still an important risk to manage in the energy industry, particularly since this industry has less creditworthiness. The funds have better credit but less knowledge. They also sometimes have a ''know-it-all'' attitude. These factors bode for more impending energy trading disasters, and some have already occurred during 2005. Expect more to come.

Energy and the environment provide both opportunity and risks for hedge funds, fund of hedge funds, and investors to show much better than average returns. This book is an attempt to decode this new market. This is the beginning of a ramping up of energy and environmental hedge funds. It is sustained due to market uncertainty, supply constraints, and just plain old risk factors. We think it's a good thing as hedge funds are starting to provide the risk capital for investment in new technology that the venture funds are used to. This book should provide some insights into how these markets operate, where the hedge funds are entering, and where this all might ultimately lead us.

Peter C. Fusaro and Dr. Gary M. Vasey

April 2006

NOTE

1 Vann Hedge Fund Advisors, LLC website.

Contents

Introduction

Acknowledgements

Abbreviated Terms used in this Book

Chapter 1: The New Investors in Energy

NEW ENERGY INVESTORS

WHY NOW?

WHAT IS A HEDGE FUND?

US HEDGE FUND REGULATION — A BRIEF UPDATE

WHO INVESTS IN HEDGE FUNDS?

THE BASICS OF HEDGE FUND INVESTING

TYPES OF FUNDS

AN INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEDGE FUNDS

NOTES

Chapter 2: What are Energy and Environmental Hedge Funds?

WHY NOW?

DIVERSIFICATION OF RISK AND HEDGE FUND COMPOSITION

A QUICK GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY FUNDS

TECHNICAL ANALYSIS AND ITS ROLE IN ENERGY TRADING

NOTES

TYPES OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEDGE FUNDS

ENERGY COMMODITY FUNDS

EQUITY FUNDS

DEBT, DISTRESSED ASSETS AND OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE STRATEGIES

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OR GREEN HEDGE FUNDS

FUND OF HEDGE FUNDS

WHERE THIS IS ALL GOING

MANAGED FUTURES AND COMMODITY POOLS

Chapter 3: Why are Hedge Funds Attracted to Energy and the Environment?

FACTORS IMPACTING ON OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES

THE ATTRACTION OF POWER TRADING

MIDSTREAM ASSETS

ENERGY TRADING GROWING

NEW FUND PLAYS IN THE ENERGY PATCH

SUMMARY

NOTES

Chapter 4: The Energy Complex and Investment Opportunities

ENERGY INDUSTRY VALUE CHAINS

THE ENVIRONMENTAL OVERLAY

INTRA-ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

SUMMARY

Chapter 5: Energy Hedge Funds

THE UNIVERSE OF ENERGY HEDGE FUNDS

EQUITY FUNDS

COMMODITY FUNDS

DEBT AND DISTRESSED ASSETS

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY FUNDS

ENERGY HEDGE FUND PERFORMANCE

HYBRID FUNDS

Chapter 6: Impacts and Evidence of Hedge Fund Activity in Energy

NYMEX'S CLEARPORT: POSITIONED FOR THE FUND BUSINESS

WHAT DOES THE EVIDENCE SHOW?

THE “COMMITMENTS OF TRADERS” REPORT

IMPACT OF HEDGE FUNDS ON ENERGY TRADING FUTURES EXCHANGES

NOTES

Chapter 7: Green Hedge Funds: Trading the Environment

WHY NOW?

ENVIRONMENT BECOMING A BOARD ISSUE

WHY GREEN TRADING MARKETS ARE RIPE FOR INVESTMENT NOW

HOW THESE MARKETS WORK

HEDGE FUND TRADING

WHY ARE THE HEDGE FUNDS HERE?

WHAT'S AHEAD?

Chapter 8: Weather Hedge Funds

WHY WEATHER DERIVATIVES NOW?

NOTE

WHAT IS WEATHER DERIVATIVES TRADING?

SPECIFICS OF WEATHER OPTIONS

COMPONENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL WEATHER MARKET

TYPES OF INDICES FOR WEATHER CONTRACTS

HDDs AND CDDs ARE THE MOST ACTIVELY TRADED PRODUCTS

WEATHER DERIVATIVE STRUCTURES

CUSTOMIZED DERIVATIVE STRUCTURES

THE HEDGE FUND OPPORTUNITY

Chapter 9: Energy and Natural Resources Fund of Hedge Funds

FUND OF HEDGE FUNDS

BENEFITS OF FUNDS OF HEDGE FUNDS

THE EMERGENCE OF NATURAL RESOURCE FUND OF HEDGE FUNDS

FUND OF HEDGE FUND PORTFOLIO CONSTRUCTION

ISSUES WITH ENERGY FUND OF FUNDS

WHAT'S UP NEXT?

NOTES

Chapter 10: Energy Indexes

COMMODITY TRADING INDEXES

WHAT'S COMING UP

DOW JONES - AIG COMMODITY INDEX (DJ-AIGCI®)

THE GARDNER MACROINDEX® (GEMI )

ROGERS INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY INDEX

INDICES' RELATIONSHIP TO HEDGE FUND TRADING

EXCHANGE TRADED FUNDS (ETFs)

GOLDMAN SACHS COMMODITY INDEX (GSCI®)

REUTERS-CRB® TOTAL RETURN INDEX

DEUTSCHE BANK LIQUID COMMODITY INDICES (DBLCI)

Chapter 11: A Five-year Bull Market in Energy?

THE FUTURE OF ENERGY SUPPLY AND DEMAND

WHAT DOES THIS ALL MEAN FOR INVESTORS?

THE FUTURE FOR ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEDGE FUNDS

SUMMARY

NOTES

ENVIRONMENT - THE NEXT WRINKLE IN ENERGY MARKETS

Glossary

Index

Acknowledgements

It is said that behind every good man is an even better woman. In this instance that would be Carmen and Maureen-who constantly ask us to strive for greater things but complain at the hours we put in! Love and thanks for their tolerance and patience.

Peter C. Fusaro and Dr. Gary M. Vasey

Abbreviated Terms used in this Book

ANWR Arctic national wildlife refuge
CAT Cumulative average temperature
CBOT Chicago Board ofTrade
CCX Chicago Climate Exchange
CDDs Cooling degree days
CFTC US Commodity Futures Trading Commission
CME Chicago Mercantile Exchange
COT Commitment oftraders
CPO Commodity pool operator
CTA Commodity trading advisor
E&P Exploration and Production
EHFC Energy Hedge Fund Center (www.energyhedgefunds.com)
EIA US Energy Information Administration
EPRI Electric Power Research Institute
ETF Exchange traded fund
EU ETS European Union Emissions Trading Scheme
FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FoF Fund of hedge funds
GDDs Growing degree days
GHG Greenhouse gas
HDDs Heating degree days
HNW High net worth
IEA International Energy Agency
IGCC Integrated gas combined cycle
IPE International Petroleum Exchange
IPO Initial public offering
IPP Independent power producer
LCH London Clearinghouse
LME London Metals Exchange
LNG Liquefied natural gas
M&A Merger and acquisition
MLP Master limited partnership
NAV Net asset value
NWS National Weather Service
NYMEX New York Mercantile Exchange
OTC Over the counter
PAI Palo Alto Investors
REC Renewable energy credit
ROI Return on investment
RPS Renewable portfolio standard
SEC Securities and Exchange Commission
SUV Sports utility vehicle
WTI West Texas intermediate
WRMA Weather Risk Management Association