cover

Contents

Cover

Praise for Programs and Interventions for Maltreated Children and Families at Risk

Title Page

Copyright

Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practice Series

Dedication

Series Introduction

Preface

References

Acknowledgements

About the Editor

About the Contributors

Part I: Introduction

Chapter 1: Introduction: Overview of Child Welfare Services and Empirical Support

Introduction

References

Part II: Programs for Treating Parents and Children Referred to Child Protective Services (CPS)

Chapter 2: The Incredible Years: Evidence-Based Parenting and Child Programs for Families Involved in the Child Welfare System

The Basic Parent Program

The Advanced Parent Program

Summary

References

Chapter 3: Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect

Support for a Social Ecological Model

Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect

Empirical Support and Dissemination

Summary

References

Chapter 4: Implementing Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC)

Background

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Adolescents (MTFC-A)

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Middle Childhood (MTFC-C)

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P)

Implementation Support for MTFC Programs

References

Part III: Interventions for Maltreated Children and Their Parents who May be in or Out of the CPS System

Chapter 5: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Implementing and Sustaining a Treatment Program for Families of Young Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Treatment Overview

Implementing and Sustaining PCIT in the Community

PCIT International

Summary

References

Chapter 6: The Coping Power Program: Child Welfare Applications

Overview

Coping Power Child Component

Coping Power Parent Component

Considerations for Implementing Coping Power in Child Welfare Settings

Summary

References

Chapter 7: Coping Cat: A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

Introduction and Background

Case Example

The Coping Cat Program

Chapter 8: The Theraplay Treatment Program: Description and Implementation of Attachment-Based Play for Children and Caregivers

Introduction

The Basic Assumptions of Theraplay

Basic Treatment Plan

The Theraplay Dimensions

Phases of Treatment

Sequence of a Theraplay Session

Working With Parents: Training Parents to Be Co-Therapists

How Theraplay Can Be Adapted for Traumatized Children

References

Part IV: Trauma-Focused Interventions

Chapter 9: Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children

The TFCBT Model

Contraindications

Conclusion

References

Chapter 10: EMDR for the Treatment of Children in the Child Welfare System Who Have Been Traumatized by Abuse and Neglect

What Is EMDR?

Adaptive Information Processing and EMDR in Child Psychotherapy

The Phases of the EMDR Treatment Protocol

The Impact of Child Welfare Involvement on EMDR With Children

Summary

References

Part V: Interventions for Parents or Children with Intimate Partner Violence Involvement

Chapter 11: Project Support: Reducing Conduct Problems of Children in Violent Families

Overview

Project Support Services

Conclusion

References

Chapter 12: Dissemination and Implementation of Child-Parent Psychotherapy: Collaboration With Community Programs

Introduction

Treatment Model

Dissemination of CPP Through Practitioner Training

Dissemination of CPP in Community Systems

Implementation of CPP in Clinical Practice

Conclusion

References

Part VI: Interventions for Substance-Abusing Parents

Chapter 13: Global Goals and Specific Skills: Integrating Motivational Interviewing Into Child Welfare Practice

Why MI in CPS Work?

The Spirit and Skills of MI

Training and Learning MI

Summary

References

Chapter 14: Maternal Alcohol and Drug Abuse: Effective Case Management With High-Risk Mothers and Their Children

Introduction

A Profile of the Mothers

PCAP Basics

Theoretical Foundations

A Two-Pronged Intervention Approach: Working With Clients, Working With Community Service Providers

Strategies for Preventing Future Alcohol- and Drug-Exposed Births

Conclusion

References

Part VII: Other Programs for CPS and Other High-Risk Parents

Chapter 15: The HOMEBUILDERS® Model of Intensive Family-Preservation Services

Introduction

Populations Served

Program Philosophy

A “Whole Cloth” Model

Program Values and Beliefs

Structural Components

Intervention Components

The Homebuilders Model in Action

Case Example: Motivating Clients

Resources

References

Chapter 16: Using 1–2–3 Magic in Child Welfare

Goals of the Program

Who Is the Program For?

History of 1–2–3 Magic

Orientation to Training

How to Implement 1–2–3 Magic

The Training Content

Learning More About 1–2–3 Magic

Chapter 17: SafeCare: Application of an Evidence-Based Program to Prevent Child Maltreatment

SafeCare Structure

Common Challenges in Conducting SafeCare

Implementing Evidenced-Based Practice Within Community Settings

Conclusion

References

Chapter 18: Parenting Wisely: Enhancing Wise Practice for Service Providers

Practitioner Strategies

Attribution of Change and Program Sustainability

Program Integrity

Accessing Additional Program Support

References

Chapter 19: The Nurturing Parenting Programs: Preventing and Treating Child Abuse and Neglect

Introduction

Identification of Abusive and Neglecting Parenting Patterns

Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2)

Philosophy of Nurturing Parenting

Implementation of Program Formats

Levels of Prevention, Dosage of Lessons, and Nurturing Program Format Descriptions

Program Assessment and Evaluation

References

Part VIII: An Evidence-Based Public Health Approach

Chapter 20: Parenting and Child Maltreatment as Public Health Issues: Implications From the Triple P System of Intervention

Why Adopt a Public Health Approach?

Need for Blending Universal and Targeted Interventions

Description of the Triple P System

Distinguishing Features of the Triple P System

Components of the Intervention

Implementation Issues: Lessons Learned From Large-Scale Trials

Policy-Level Implications and Conclusions

References

Appendix A: Empirical Support for the Programs and Interventions in This Volume

Chapter-by-Chapter Empirical Support

References

Appendix B: The Evidence-Based Practice Process

Step 1. Formulate a Question

Step 2. Search for Evidence

Step 3. Critically Appraise the Evidence

Step 4. Integration, Selection, and Implementation

Step 5. Monitor/Evaluate Outcome

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Praise for Programs and Interventions for Maltreated Children and Families at Risk

“A useful handbook for new and experienced practitioners who work with child welfare clients and for those who refer child welfare clients to therapists. It is simultaneously practical and thought-provoking.”

—Sherrill Clark, Ph.D.
Program Evaluation Specialist
California Social Work Education Center
University of California School of Social Welfare

“At long last, a welcome and timely resource is available that identifies effective evidence-based intervention programs for at-risk and abusing and neglecting families. It is well written and organized to inform child welfare practitioners, therapists, and mental health professionals about prevention and intervention programs specific to problems and needs of individuals, families, and communities. This book should become a standard reference and resource for students, agency administrators, and practicing professionals.”

—Alberta J. Ellett, Ph.D.
Director & Principal Investigator
Child Welfare Education Program
University of Georgia School of Social Work

“This volume represents an important step in the diffusion of evidence-based practices and programs to child welfare stakeholders. Although child maltreatment has serious deleterious consequences for children, families, and society, the child welfare system has been slow to embrace evidence-based practices. Dr. Rubin is commended for compiling a comprehensive collection, with chapters authored by many leading treatment developers and researchers, of those interventions and programs that have demonstrated effectiveness or are among the most promising in the field.”

—Scott Henggeler, Ph.D.
Director, Family Services Research Center
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Medical University of South Carolina

“Allen Rubin has edited an impressive collection of original chapters authored by experts in the field of child maltreatment into a comprehensive summary of empirically supported interventions. Topics are exceptionally diverse, ranging from directly treating abused children, family work, therapy with children exposed to parental domestic violence and substance abuse, and parent training programs. All the structured programs with high levels of empirical support are included, making this an invaluable resource for all providers of services in the area of child maltreatment. This would also make an excellent primary textbook for courses focused on child maltreatment.”

—Bruce A. Thyer, Ph.D., LCSW, BCBA
Editor, Research on Social Work Practice
College of Social Work
Florida State University

Title Page

Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practice Series

Treatment of Traumatized Adults and Children
Allen Rubin and David W. Springer, Editors

Substance Abuse Treatment for Youth and Adults
David W. Springer and Allen Rubin, Editors

Psychosocial Treatment of Schizophrenia
Allen Rubin, David W. Springer, and Kathi Trawver, Editors

Treatment of Depression in Adolescents and Adults
David W. Springer, Allen Rubin, and Christopher G. Beevers, Editors

Programs and Interventions for Maltreated Children and Families at Risk
Allen Rubin, Editor

To Chris, who is my tennis coach, best friend, and beloved wife.

Series Introduction

One of the most daunting challenges to the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement is the fact that busy clinicians who learn of evidence-based interventions are often unable to implement them because they lack expertise in the intervention and lack the time and resources to obtain the needed expertise. This is the fifth in a series of edited volumes that attempt to alleviate that problem and thus make learning how to provide evidence-based interventions more feasible for such clinicians.

Each volume will be a how-to guide for practitioners—not a research-focused review. Each will contain chapters detailing how to provide interventions whose effectiveness is being supported by the best scientific evidence. Instead of emphasizing the research support in the chapters, that support will be summarized in an Appendix. Each chapter will focus on helping practitioners learn how to begin providing an evidence-based intervention that they are being urged by managed care companies (and others) to provide, but with which they may be inexperienced. The chapters will also identify resources for gaining more advanced expertise in the interventions.

We believe that this series will be unique in its focus on the needs of practitioners and in making empirically supported interventions more feasible for them to learn about and provide. We hope that you will agree and that you will find this volume and this series to be of value in guiding your practice and in maximizing your effectiveness as an evidence-based practitioner.

Allen Rubin, Ph.D.
David W. Springer, Ph.D.

Preface

Allen Rubin

Social workers and other human service practitioners are under increasing pressure to provide programs and services that are evidence-based. This pressure is occurring across all fields of practice, and the field of child welfare certainly is no exception. Nor should it be. Child maltreatment is a heartbreaking problem, and practitioners should not need the pressure of third-party payers to spur them to seek to provide the most effective services possible. Compassion for the current and future victims of child maltreatment should be motivation enough. Moreover, seeking to provide the most effective services to clients is a hallmark of professional ethics across all of the helping professions.

It is understandable, however, that some practitioners resent the pressure for evidence-based practice (EBP), in that they misperceive it as demanding that they mechanistically implement interventions that have been given a “seal of approval” by some funding body or prestigious panel without regard to their professional expertise and knowledge about the idiosyncratic attributes, values, and preferences of their clients. I used the term misperceive because in its original conception, and as it has been described by its most expert and avid proponents (Gibbs & Gambrill, 2002; Sackett, Straus, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2000; Thyer, 2004), EBP is a process that gives practitioners flexibility in deciding how to intervene in light of the evidence base for alternative approaches. Thus, if in light of their professional expertise and knowledge about their client they think that an intervention with less empirical support is a better fit for that client than an intervention with more empirical support, the EBP process encourages them to choose the former intervention.

The chapters in this book provide child welfare practitioners, including those working at both the macro level and the micro level, an assortment of empirically supported programs and interventions for preventing child maltreatment, alleviating the damage it inflicts on its victims, and intervening with its perpetrators. Although all of the programs and interventions described in this book have some degree of empirical support, they vary in their degree of such support, as readers can see in Appendix A, which summarizes the best research providing the empirical support for the programs and interventions covered in each chapter. Readers can decide whether to implement any particular program or intervention in light of its degree of empirical support as well as other factors, such as whether the program or intervention will be feasible for them to implement and whether it is a good fit for their client or practice context.

The programs and interventions described in this book are divided into eight parts. In the first part, I provide an overview of child welfare services and elaborate on the issue of empirical support. Part II contains three chapters describing programs for treating parents, as well as their children, who have been referred for child maltreatment to Child Protective Services (CPS) systems. Part III contains four chapters that describe interventions for alleviating the impact of maltreatment on children—interventions that treat the parents as well as the children in families that may or may not be in a CPS system. Part IV also deals with alleviating the impact of maltreatment on children that may or may not be in the CPS system, but its two chapters describe interventions that focus primarily on processing the traumatic events. Part V contains two chapters that describe interventions for parents or children with intimate partner violence involvement. Part VI describes two interventions for treating substance-abusing parents. Part VII contains five chapters that describe additional programs for CPS or other parents at high-risk for child maltreatment. Part VIII departs from the preceding sections by describing an evidence-based public health approach for preventing child maltreatment.

I hope you will find this book to be useful. I would appreciate any feedback you can provide as to the ways it has been helpful to you or any suggestions you might have for improving it. You can email your feedback to me at arubin@mail.utexas.edu.

References

Gibbs, L., & Gambrill, E. (2002). Evidence-based practice: Counterarguments to objections. Research on Social Work Practice, 12(3), 452–476.

Sackett, D. L., Straus, S. E., Richardson, W. S., Rosenberg, W.M.C., & Haynes, R. B. (2000). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.

Thyer, B. A. (2004). What is evidence-based practice? Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(2), 167–176.

Acknowledgements

Special thanks go to four Wiley staff members who helped make this volume possible. In alphabetical order they are: Peggy Alexander, vice president and publisher; Rachel Livsey; senior editor; Kim Nir, senior production editor; and Amanda Orenstein, editorial assistant. Thanks also go to this volume's chapter authors for their fine work and timely submissions.

About the Editor

Allen Rubin, PhD, is the Bert Kruger Smith Centennial Professor in the School of Social Work at The University of Texas at Austin, where he has been a faculty member since 1979. While there, he worked as a therapist in a child guidance center and he developed and taught a course on the assessment and treatment of traumatized populations. Earlier in his career he worked in a community mental health program providing services to adolescents and their families. He is internationally known for his many publications pertaining to research and evidence-based practice. In 1997 he was a co-recipient of the Society for Social Work and Research Award for Outstanding Examples of Published Research for a study on the treatment of male batterers and their spouses. His most recent studies have been on the effectiveness of EMDR and on practitioners' views of evidence-based practice. Among his 12 books, his most recent is Practitioner's Guide to Using Research for Evidence-Based Practice. He has served as a consulting editor for seven professional journals. He was a founding member of the Society for Social Work and Research and served as its president from 1998 to 2000. In 1993 he received the University of Pittsburgh, School of Social Work's Distinguished Alumnus Award. In 2007 he received the Council on Social Work Education's Significant Lifetime Achievement in Social Work Education Award. In 2010 he was inducted as a Fellow in the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare.

About the Contributors

Robbie Adler-Tapia, PhD, has worked as a psychologist, educator, researcher, and writer for 25 years regarding the treatment of trauma in young children and their families. She has extensive experience in child welfare, in the forensic arena, and as a mental health consultant for the National Fallen Firefighters' Foundation. Dr. Adler-Tapia is co-author of EMDR and the Art of Psychotherapy With Children, has presented internationally on EMDR including using EMDR for attachment and dissociation, and has taught graduate level course work. Her volunteer work includes promoting EMDR HAPKIDS, while working internationally to train therapists working with children orphaned by AIDS.

Rachel E. Baden, MA, is a doctoral student in clinical psychology at the University of Alabama. She has worked as an interventionist for the Coping Power program, in which she has delivered an empirically supported, cognitive behavioral intervention to youth at risk for aggression. She has special interests in the transmission of conflict from the marital relationship to the parent-child relationship, the mechanisms that might explain this transmission of conflict, and how family systems variables influence children's behavioral outcomes.

Stephen J. Bavolek, PhD, is the president of Family Development Resources, Inc. and the executive director of the Family Nurturing Centers, International. He is also the principal author of the Nurturing Parenting Programs and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory. During the past 40 years, Dr. Bavolek has conducted hundreds of workshops and won numerous international, national, state, and local awards for his work in the prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect.

Charlotte L. Booth, MSW, is the executive director of the Institute for Family Development. Along with two colleagues, Charlotte founded the institute in 1982 to form a base for the development, evaluation, and dissemination of in-home service models for high-risk families. She is a founding board member of the National Family Preservation Network. She is co-author of Keeping Families Together: The Homebuilders Model, and co-editor of Reaching High Risk Families: Intensive Family Preservation in Human Services.

Phyllis B. Booth, MA, is clinical director emeritus of the Theraplay Institute in Chicago. She collaborated with Ann Jernberg in developing the Theraplay method for helping children and families with attachment and relationship problems. She is the primary author of the third edition of Theraplay: Helping Parents and Children Build Better Relationships Through Attachment-Based Play, Jossey-Bass, 2010. She has conducted workshops and training in the Theraplay method throughout the United States, Canada, England, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and South Korea.

Caroline L. Boxmeyer, PhD, is a research scientist in the Center for the Prevention of Youth Behavior Problems and the Department of Psychology at the University of Alabama. She studies prevention and early intervention of children's disruptive behavior problems and implementation and dissemination of evidence-based programs. Dr. Boxmeyer is an expert trainer in the Coping Power program, a cognitive behavioral intervention for at-risk aggressive children and their parents.

Rhea M. Chase, PhD, is a clinical associate faculty member in Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at Duke University Medical Center. She has extensive experience in the implementation of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) and is a master trainer endorsed by PCIT International. She currently serves as lead clinical faculty for PCIT of the Carolinas, the nation's first Learning Collaborative focused on the spread of PCIT. Her research interests are in effective psychosocial treatments for children and the translation of evidence-based practices to community settings. She has published numerous articles and chapters related to the treatment of child disruptive behavior and anxiety disorders.

Miriam Hernandez Dimmler, PhD, is a licensed clinical psychologist at the Child Trauma Research Program (CTRP) at the University of California, San Francisco. She coordinates and evaluates a partnership between CTRP and Tipping Point Community (TPC) as part of the TPC mental health initiative. The overarching goal of this initiative is to increase access to evidence-based interventions to low-income families at community-based agencies while building capacity in the area of mental health among the staff within these organizations.

Anna Edwards-Guara, PhD, is clinical assistant professor and associate director at the National SafeCare® Training and Research Center at Georgia State University. Her clinical and research interests center on prevention of and intervention for child maltreatment, including the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based parenting programs. She has published multiple articles related to the implementation of evidence-based parenting programs and prevention of child maltreatment and its negative effects on children. She currently participates in a number of ongoing grant activities and coordinates efforts with partners around the United States to implement the evidence-based SafeCare parenting program.

Sheila Eyberg, PhD, is Distinguished Professor of Clinical and Health Psychology at the University of Florida. She developed Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and its related assessment instruments, the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, and Therapy Attitude Inventory, and has published over 150 related research articles and papers. She is past president of three American Psychological Association divisions and was recipient of APA's Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training Award in 2007.

Rena Gold, MSW, is the vice president of Implementations, a consultant at TFC Consultants Inc., and has 16 years of experience working with children and families in child welfare, mental health, and juvenile justice. She currently provides administrative support to Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) implementation agencies, supervises MTFC consultants, and is the clinical consultant for a number of developing MTFC programs. Prior to her current positions she worked as a clinician in MTFC for seven years and a manager for two years at OSLC Community programs. She has experience in each clinical role in MTFC and has developed numerous manuals and training programs in the model.

Donald A. Gordon, PhD, is currently employed by Family Works Inc. as its president, and is executive director of the Center for Divorce Education. He is an emeritus professor of psychology from Ohio University where he was employed for 23 years training doctoral students in family interventions and conducting research evaluating family and parenting interventions that he refined or developed. The programs Dr. Gordon refined were Functional Family Therapy, and he developed the Children in the Middle program (with Dr. Jack Arbuthnot) and the Parenting Wisely interactive CD-ROM parent-training program.

Therese Grant, PhD, is associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and director of the Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit at the University of Washington School of Medicine. She is the Ann Streissguth Endowed Professor in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and directs the Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP), a multisite, evidence-based intervention working with mothers who abuse alcohol and drugs during pregnancy. Dr. Grant has published and spoken widely on intervention with high-risk mothers and their children, effects of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Cynthia V. Healey, PhD, is an early career scientist at the Oregon Social Learning Center where she is collaborating with the Stress Neurobiology and Prevention lab to develop, implement, and disseminate evidence-based interventions for high-risk children and their caregivers. She has worked as a clinician and trainer in the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care programs for 10 years. Her current work is focused on the development of self-regulation and stress reactivity in early childhood, attention and its role in development, mechanisms of resilience, parenting practices for caregivers of infants and children with intensive needs, and clinical applications of mindfulness practices.

Rhenda Hotard Hodnett, PhD, is the program director of prevention and child protection services for Louisiana's Department of Children and Family Services. Over the past 22 years she has worked in all program areas of the state child welfare agency. She is also an adjunct faculty member of the Louisiana State University School of Social Work where she teaches the child welfare courses required of master-level IV-E stipend students, among others.

Melinda Hohman, PhD, is professor at the School of Social Work, San Diego State University, San Diego. Dr. Hohman teaches courses in substance abuse treatment, research, motivational interviewing (MI), and social work practice. Dr. Hohman's research interests include substance abuse assessment and treatment services and the overlap of substance abuse treatment and child welfare services. She has been a trainer in motivational interviewing since 1999, training community social workers, child welfare workers, probation officers, and addiction counselors across Southern California. She is the author of the upcoming book, Motivational Interviewing in Social Work Practice.

Shannon E. Hourigan, MS, is a clinical psychology doctoral student at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU). Shannon is a chief therapist at VCU's Anxiety Clinic where she supervises other students in the delivery of cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety. Her research interests include dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments in community and pediatric medical settings.

Bill James, LCSW, is a protective services supervisor for the County of San Diego and has worked in child welfare since 1993. Since 2001, his focus has been on foster youth with mental health challenges and their families. He started working to integrate motivational interviewing into child welfare practice in 2006.

Ernest N. Jouriles, PhD, is professor and chair of the Department of Psychology at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, and co-director of the SMU Family Research Center. He also serves as an associate editor for the Journal of Family Psychology. His research focuses on family violence and child functioning, and together with Renee McDonald has conducted pioneering research on interventions for children in families characterized by frequent and severe intimate partner violence. More recently, he has begun a research program on violence in adolescent romantic relationships.

Philip C. Kendall, PhD, ABPP, distinguished university professor and Laura H. Carnell Professor of Psychology at Temple University, has more than 450 publications. His treatment programs have been translated into dozens of languages, and he has had more than 25 years of grant support. Dr. Kendall was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and recipient of the Research Recognition award from the Anxiety Disorders Association of America. He won a Great Teacher Award and an award for his Outstanding Contribution by an Individual for Educational/Training Activities.

Shelley E. Leavitt, PhD, is associate director of the Institute for Family Development (IFD), where she directs IFD's Training and Dissemination Division and in-home family-counseling programs throughout Washington State. Prior to joining IFD, she designed and evaluated training and dissemination materials for children and families at Father Flanagan's Boys Home (Boys Town, Nebraska). She is the author of Active Parenting and coauthor of Helping Kids Make Friends, and numerous articles on intensive family-preservation services and parenting. She has provided training and consultation on developing, managing, and evaluating programs for children, youth, and families throughout the United States and in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom.

Dafna Lender, LCSW, is the training director at the Theraplay Institute and has worked in the field of children's mental health for 16 years. Dafna is a certified theraplay therapist, supervisor, and trainer. She also is a certified Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapist®. In her previous professional roles, Dafna worked in a range of settings in the child welfare system. She co-authored two chapters, working with traumatized children and working with adoptive/foster children, in the third edition of Theraplay: Helping Children and Parents Build Better Relationships Through Attachment-Based Play. She also wrote “Therapeutic Use of Self in Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy” in Creating Capacity for Attachment.

Ericka Lewis, MSW, is a senior training specialist for National SafeCare Training and Research Center at Georgia State University.

Alicia F. Lieberman, PhD, is Irving B. Harris Endowed Chair of Infant Mental Health, professor and vice chair for academic affairs at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Department of Psychiatry, and director of the Child Trauma Research Program. She is the developer of Child-Parent Psychotherapy, an evidence-based treatment for children ages birth to 5 exposed to trauma or multiple adversities. She is the author of numerous books, articles, and chapters about infancy and therapeutic interventions in the early years, including Psychotherapy With Infants and Young Children: Repairing the Effect of Stress and Trauma on Early Attachment.

Sandra Lindaman, MSW, LCSW, MA, LSLP, is the senior training advisor for the Theraplay Institute in Wilmette, Illinois. She has been with the Theraplay Institute since 1990. She co-authored three chapters in the 2010 third edition of Theraplay: Helping Parents and Children Build Better Relationships Through Attachment-Based Play. Sandra's primary responsibility is the training and supervision of mental health professionals in the Theraplay model internationally.

John E. Lochman, PhD, ABPP, is professor and Doddridge Saxon Chairholder in Clinical Psychology, directs the Center for Prevention of Youth Behavior Problems, and has received the Blackmon-Moody Outstanding Professor and Burnum Distinguished Faculty awards at the University of Alabama. He received the International Collaborative Prevention award from the Society for Prevention Research in 2009, and will receive the 2011 Distinguished Career award from Division 53 of the American Psychological Association. He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Utrecht for his prevention research and has more than 290 publications on risk factors and intervention research with aggressive children.

John R. Lutzker, PhD, is director of the Center for Healthy Development and professor of public health at Georgia State University. He has published 147 professional articles and chapters, six books, and has made 410 professional presentations, nationally and internationally. He is a fellow in five divisions of the American Psychological Association. He received the Outstanding Research Career award from the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. He is on the editorial boards of seven professional journals. His media appearances include Morning Edition of National Public Radio and Good Morning America. He served as a consultant for 60 Minutes.

Renee McDonald, PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Southern Methodist University, where she is also co-founder and co-director of SMU's Family Research Center. She has spearheaded efforts to document the prevalence of children's exposure to intimate partner violence, to understand short- and long-term outcomes of violence exposure, and to develop and evaluate treatments for children exposed to violence. Her research has been funded by NIMH, NIJ, NIAA, the CDC, and the DOJ.

Jessica A. Minney, BA, is a graduate student in clinical child psychology at the University of Alabama and serves as an interventionist for the Coping Power program.

Laura Minze, MA, MSEd, is a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at Southern Methodist University. Her research interests include understanding the consequences of exposure to intimate partner violence to young children as well as the development and evaluation of interventions for young children in violent families. She has served as a therapist and clinical supervisor for clinicians delivering project support, an in-home parenting intervention for children exposed to intimate partner violence, and as director of children's outreach services for an agency serving families affected by domestic violence.

Larissa N. Niec, PhD, is a Professor of Clinical Psychology and the Director of the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Clinic and Research Center at Central Michigan University. She is a Master Trainer of PCIT, disseminating the intervention nationally and internationally, and also serves on the Board of Directors of PCIT International. She has numerous publications in the areas of child maltreatment and childhood conduct problems. She is co-editor of the book Play in Clinical Practice: Evidence-based Approaches.

Thomas W. Phelan, PhD, registered clinical psychologist, has worked with children, adults, and families for more than 30 years. He is a member of the American Psychological Association and the Illinois Psychological Association. He has authored numerous books, DVDs, and audios and maintains an active schedule of international lectures. His articles appear in numerous regional and national publications. He is a frequent guest on radio and television. He has also served on the boards of directors for national organizations for the parents of children with ADD. He was inducted into the CHADD Hall of Fame in 1997.

Nicole P. Powell, PhD, MPH, is a research psychologist at the Center for the Prevention of Youth Behavior Problems at the University of Alabama. She also serves as a consulting psychologist for the Brewer-Porch Children's Center and as an adjunct faculty member in the University of Alabama's Department of Psychology.

Ronald J. Prinz, PhD, ABPP, is a Carolina Distinguished Professor and the director of the Parenting and Family Research Center at the University of South Carolina. He serves as editor (with T. Ollendick) of the journal Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review and also directs the USC Research Consortium on Children and Families. He is an honorary professor at the University of Queensland. Prinz conducts parenting and family research on population-based prevention of child maltreatment and children's mental health problems. He also co-directs an NIH-sponsored research-training program interfacing biomedical and behavioral dimensions of prevention science.

Robert E. Pushak, MTS, is a child and youth mental health clinician who specializes in treating children and their families with disruptive disorders. He developed the group parent–training programs for the young child, adolescent, and foster parent/residential versions of the Parenting Wisely program. He received the British Columbia 2006–2007 Premiers' Innovation and Special Achievement Award for achieving a fundamental shift in the way business is conducted that produces substantial benefits for civil servants and society.

M. Jamila Reid, PhD, is the co-director of the parenting clinic at the University of Washington, where she has worked for the past 13 years. Dr. Reid's research and clinical interests are in preventing and early treatment of children's conduct disorders. She also serves as a trainer and therapist for the Incredible Years programs, working directly with parents, teachers, and children and training other professionals to deliver these interventions.

Matthew R. Sanders, PhD, is a professor of clinical psychology and director of the Parenting and Family Support Centre at the University of Queensland. He is also a visiting professor at Oxford University, Manchester University, University of South Carolina, Glasgow Caledonian University, and the University of Auckland. As the founder of the Triple P-Positive Parenting program, Professor Sanders is considered a world leader in the development, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination of population-based approaches to parenting and family interventions. Triple P is currently in use across 22 countries worldwide, translated into 16 languages, with 58,000 practitioners having delivered the intervention to more than 7 million children.

Cindy M. Schaeffer, PhD, is an associate professor at the Family Services Research Center in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of the Medical University of South Carolina. She is a co-developer of Multisystemic Therapy—Building Stronger Families, an intensive family-based intervention for families involved in the child protective service system due to co-occurring problems of child maltreatment and parental substance abuse. She is an author of numerous journal articles and a book on behavioral treatment for adult substance abuse. Currently she is developing an ecologically based peer intervention for juvenile offending.

Shannon Self-Brown, PhD, is a clinical psychologist who has served on projects testing technology-based parenting programs targeting child maltreatment prevention. She is currently the associate director of research for the National SafeCare Training and Research Center at Georgia State University. She has more than 25 peer-reviewed publications focusing on the impact of youth violence and disaster exposure, as well as the evaluation of child maltreatment prevention programs.

Cara A. Settipani, MA, is a graduate student in clinical psychology at Temple University, where she received her MA in psychology in 2010. Cara's research interests involve the role of social and emotional competencies in the development and maintenance of anxiety in youth, and implications for personalizing anxiety treatment for youth with interpersonal difficulties. Her clinical interests include the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders using cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Cheri Shapiro, PhD, is a research associate professor with the Department of Psychology and a scientist with the Parenting and Family Research Center at the University of South Carolina. She is a licensed clinical psychologist with more than 20 years of experience in practice, administrative, and research settings. Her research focuses on implementing evidence-based parenting interventions for preventing behavioral problems and child maltreatment. She served as project director of the federally funded U.S. Triple P Population Trial and is principal investigator of the Family Networks Project, a federally funded research and demonstration project examining strategies for strengthening families and preventing child maltreatment.

Michael A. Southam-Gerow, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology and pediatrics at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) and is the co-director of the Anxiety Clinic at VCU. Dr. Southam-Gerow's research focuses on identifying factors associated with successful implementation and dissemination of evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents. He also studies measurement of treatment integrity and emotion regulation.

Sara L. Stromeyer, MA, is a doctoral student in clinical child psychology at the University of Alabama. She has worked as an interventionist for the Coping Power program, in which she has delivered an empirically supported, cognitive behavioral intervention to youth at risk for aggression. She is particularly interested in the contextual factors that relate to children's aggression and disruptive behavior, especially the transactional role of maternal depression, the influence of parenting practices, and children's distorted perceptions of their peer relationships.

Cynthia Cupit Swenson, PhD, is professor and associate director at the Family Services Research Center in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of the Medical University of South Carolina. She is developer of the Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect. She has conducted research in the child abuse and neglect area nationally and internationally for 20 years. In addition, Dr. Swenson has authored many journal articles and recent books on treatment for physical abuse, youth substance abuse, and treating community violence and troubled neighborhoods. She is also involved in community development and health projects in Ghana, West Africa.

Patricia Van Horn, JD, PhD, is an associate clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco. She is associate director of the UCSF Child Trauma Research Program and director of the San Francisco General Hospital Division of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychiatry. She is co-author of the books Losing a Parent to Death in the Early Years: Guidelines for the Treatment of Traumatic Bereavement in Infancy and Early Childhood; Don't Hit My Mommy!: A Manual of Child-Parent Psychotherapy With Young Witnesses of Family Violence; and Psychotherapy With Infants and Young Children: Repairing the Effects of Stress and Trauma on Early Attachment.

Lisa Gutiérrez Wang, PhD, is a licensed psychologist and postdoctoral fellow under the mentorship of Dr. Alicia F. Lieberman at the Child Trauma Research Program (CTRP) at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Her current research focuses on evaluating the dissemination and implementation of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) in community-based agencies and clinics, and examining how family factors and exposure to cumulative traumas impact child functioning in families with a history of intimate partner violence.

Carolyn Webster-Stratton, PhD, is professor, licensed clinical psychologist, and director of the Parenting Clinic at the University of Washington. She is the developer of the Incredible Years Parents, Teachers and Children's programs and has done numerous randomized trials evaluating these prevention and treatment programs with high-risk populations and for children with conduct problems and ADHD. She is the author of several books for children, parents, and teachers about promoting children's social, emotional, and academic competence.

Daniel J. Whitaker, PhD, worked as a research scientist and team leader at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1997 to 2007. In 2008, he became a professor of public health at Georgia State University and the director of the National SafeCare Training and Research Center. Whitaker's research focuses on child maltreatment prevention and intimate partner violence. He has published more than 50 peer-reviewed articles and two books.

Part I

Introduction

The chapter in this section provides an overview of child welfare services and discusses the implications of the varying levels of empirical support for the programs and interventions to be described in the remaining sections of this book.