Cover

Contents

Notes on Contributors

Acknowledgments

Part I Introduction

1 Corporate Social Responsibility and Communication

The Literature on CSR Communication

Defining CSR and CSR Communication: Background and History

Criticism of CSR and CSR Communication

The Importance of Communication

Structure of the Book

2 The Paradoxes of Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility

Words and Deeds in an Era of Transparency and Accountability: Mind the Gap

The Communication Paradox: Mind the Gap

Stages of Corporate Citizenship and Communications Strategies

Tough Demands from Stakeholders

Conclusion: Facing the Paradox of Communicating Corporate Responsibility

Part II Field Overviews

3 Management, Communication, and Corporate Social Responsibility

Defining CSR in the Management Literature

Key Strands of Research

Criticisms and Tensions around CSR Communication

Future Research Agenda

Conclusion

4 Public Relations and Corporate Social Responsibility

An Overview of Public Relations

CSR in the Public Relations Literature

Defining CSR in the Public Relations Literature

Three Key Strands of Empirical Research

Tensions in the CSR and Public Relations Literature

Future Research Agenda

Conclusion

5 Organizational Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility

Organizational Communication: Conceptual Foundations

Emergence of CSR Research in Organizational Communication

Literature on Organizational Communication and CSR

Scholarly Tensions and Directions for Future Research

Conclusion

6 Marketing and Corporate Social Responsibility

Marketing’s Role in Society

Marketing and Sustainability

Marketing Thinking and Societal Benefits

Branding and CSR

Marketing Communication and CSR

Skepticism

Present and Future Research

Conclusion

7 Reputation Management and Corporate Social Responsibility

CSR and Reputation: On the Relationship Between Two Concepts

CSR as an Object of Reputation Research

Discussion

8 Rhetoric and Corporate Social Responsibility

The Western Rhetorical Tradition

Literature on Rhetoric and CSR

The Rhetorical Situation

Ethos

Conclusion and Further Research

Part III Corporate Social Responsibility Communication in Action

Concepts and Aspects

9 Ethics

Ethics and CSR

CSR and Public Relations: Ethical Challenges

CSR, Ethics, and Power: A Latin American Perspective

Implications

10 Risk Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility

Risk and Risk Communication

Evolution of Risk and CSR

Stakeholder Expectations, Wise Management, and Risk Communication

Risk Management or Communication and Issues of Power

Discussion and Conclusion

11 Trust and Credibility as the Basis of Corporate Social Responsibility

An Understanding of CSR: Our Perspective

A Theory of Trust and Credibility

CSR against the Background of Trust and Credibility Theory

Conclusion: A Research Agenda

12 Corporate Social Responsibility Communication and Dialogue

Defining Dialogue

Communication Theory and Dialogue

Dialogue in Public Relations Theory and Stakeholder Theory

Dialogue in Corporate Social Responsibility

Determinants of the Effectiveness of Stakeholder Dialogue

The Way Forward

13 Transparency and Neoliberal Logics of Corporate Economic and Social Responsibility

The Problem of Transparency

Transparency: Fiscal History

Conclusion: Transparency and the “Free Market”

14 The Concept of Stakeholders and its Relevance for Corporate Social Responsibility Communication

The Stakeholder Concept

Publics as an Alternative to Stakeholders?

Comparison of the Two Concepts

Suggestions for Further Research

15 Significance of Sector-Specific Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives

Status and Role of CSR in Different Sectors

Role of Setting

Future Research Directions and Conclusion

Tools and Processes

16 Corporate (Social) Responsibility and Issues Management

Strategic Issues Management

CSR: Corporate (Social) Responsibility

CSR as a Cornerstone for Strategic Issues Management

Strategic Business Planning and CSR

Issues Monitoring and CSR

Issues Communication and CSR

Conclusion

17 Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility through Nonfinancial Reports

An Overview of Nonfinancial Reporting Trends

A Deconstruction of Nonfinancial Reporting Strategies

Conclusion and Thoughts on the Future of Nonfinancial Reporting

18 Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility through the Internet and Social Media

The Impact of the Internet on Corporate Communication

The Internet as a Tool of CSR Communication for Organizations

The Use of the Internet and Social Media by Stakeholders

From Persuasion to Responsible Behavior: The Need for Transparency

Future Trends and Suggestions for Further Research

19 Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility through Corporate Image Advertising

Corporate Image Advertising: An Overview

Theoretical Background

Use of Corporate Image Advertising in CSR: A Case in Point

Overcoming the Obstacles to CSR Corporate Image Advertising

Reflections for Other Types of CSR Communication and Stakeholders

Conclusion

20 New Partnerships for a New Generation of Corporate Social Responsibility

A New Generation of CSR

Characterizing Third-Generation CSR Partnerships

Temporal Dimension of Third-Generation CSR

Benefits Associated with Third-Generation CSR Partnerships

Risks Associated with Third-Generation CSR

Network Implications of Third-Generation CSR

Conclusions

21 Media Relations and Corporate Social Responsibility

CSR and the News Media at Three Levels of Analysis

Effects: How News Coverage Influences Corporate CSR Behavior

Future Research

Conclusions

22 NGOs as Communicative Actors within Corporate Social Responsibility Efforts

Defining NGOs

Key Milestones of NGO Influence Within CSR

Situating Contemporary NGO Influence within Global Capitalism

The Boomerang Model of NGO Influence

The Crafting of Public Campaigns

Strategies of Engagement and Confrontation

Assessing NGO Influence

NGOs and Problems Related to Accountability

NGOs and the Ethics of Communicative Labor

Future Research Directions

23 Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility

Telling a CSR Story: Beyond Petroleum

Three Ways of Looking at the Story: Functionalism, Deconstructivism, Constructivism

Narrativity and Storytelling: Unfolding the Constructivist Perspective of the Moralization of Reality

Giving Sense Through CSR Communication: CSR Storytelling

Making Sense of CSR Communicatively: CSR as Societal Narrative

Polyphonic Storytelling: A Way to Enact Reflective Communication Management?

Conclusion and Further Research

Part IV Commentaries and Conclusions

24 Interrogating the Communicative Dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility

Communication as Organization

Differences between Words and Action

Sincerity and the Question of Organizational Intentions and Motivations

Dialogue, Responsiveness and Responsibility

Conclusion

25 A Provocation

Concluding Comments

26 Commentary

Hyperreal Communication: Technology as Liberation

Developing Socially Responsible Communication

Corporate Communication and the Myth versus Ritual Dialectic

Conclusions

27 The View from Organizational Studies

CSR as Discourse

Power

CSR and the Politics of Identity Work

Concluding Comments

28 Conclusions and Take Away Points

Main Conclusions

Missing Pieces

Directions for Future Research

Take Away Points

Name Index

Subject Index

Handbooks in Communication and Media


This series aims to provide theoretically ambitious but accessible volumes devoted to the major fields and subfields within communication and media studies. Each volume sets out to ground and orientate the student through a broad range of specially commissioned chapters, while also providing the more experienced scholar and teacher with a convenient and comprehensive overview of the latest trends and critical directions.


The Handbook of Children, Media, and Development, edited by Sandra L. Calvert and Barbara J. Wilson

The Handbook of Crisis Communication, edited by W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay

The Handbook of Internet Studies, edited by Mia Consalvo and Charles Ess

The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address, edited by Shawn J. Parry-Giles and J. Michael Hogan

The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, edited by Thomas K. Nakayama and Rona Tamiko Halualani

The Handbook of Global Communication and Media Ethics, edited by Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler

The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, edited by Øyvind Ihlen, Jennifer L. Bartlett and Steve May


Forthcoming

The Handbook of Global Research Methods, edited by Ingrid Volkmer

The Handbook of International Advertising Research, edited by Hong Cheng

The Handbook of Gender and Sexualities in the Media, edited by Karen Ross

The Handbook of Global Health Communication and Development, edited by Rafael Obregon and Silvio Waisbord

The Handbook of Global Online Journalism, edited by Eugenia Siapera and Andreas Veglis

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Notes on Contributors

Zeti Azreen Ahmad is a faculty member at the Department of Communication, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). She is currently in the second year of her doctoral degree in public relations at the University of Stirling, Scotland. She is also a member of the Institute of Public Relations Malaysia (IPRM). Her current research interests includes corporate social responsibility, organizational communication, international public relations and ethics.


Güler Aras (PhD) is Professor of Finance, Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences and Director of the Graduate School at the Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey and visiting professor at De Montfort University, UK, as well as various other institutions throughout the world. Her qualifications are in the area of finance where much of her research and teaching is located. She serves as advisor to a number of government bodies and is also a member of a number of international editorial and advisory boards. Güler has published more than 15 books and has contributed over 200 articles to academic, business and professional journals and magazines and to edited book collections. She has also spoken extensively at conferences and seminars and has acted as a consultant to a wide range of government and commercial organisations. Her research is into financial economy and financial markets with particular emphasis on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and a firm’s financial performance. Together with David Crowther she runs the Social Responsibility Research Network an informal network of around 700 scholars (both academic and professional) concerned with issues of social responsibility – and she also edits its official journal, Social Responsibility Journal.


Jennifer L. Bartlett (PhD) is Senior Lecturer in the School of Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations at the Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Jennifer’s research, teaching and practice are in public relations and corporate communication with particular emphasis on public relations, reputation, corporate social responsibility and legitimacy using institutional theory. She has produced more than 30 academic scripts for national and international academic forums and has received a number of best paper awards. Currently, she holds the position of Secretary of the Public Relations Division of ICA, Chair of the ICA Membership Committee and is a Fellow of the Public Relations Institute of Australia (QLD). She worked as Public Affairs Manager in the banking and energy industries and continues her close association with industry practice.


Melissa J. Bator (MCIS, Rutgers University, 2007) is a PhD candidate at the University of California Santa Barbara. Her research focuses on interorganizational relations that cross different sectors of society. She is currently studying knowledge sharing networks among organizations involved in international development.


Günter Bentele is a Full Professor for Public Relations at the University of Leipzig, Germany, since 1994. This chair is a first for any German-speaking country. Prior to this, he was Associate Professor for Communication Science and Journalisms (between 1989 and 1994) at the University of Bamberg, Germany. After his State’s Examination in German Literature, Linguistics and Social Sciences (1974), he became Assistant Professor at the Free University of Berlin (1974–1989). In 1982 he wrote his dissertation about an evolutionary theory of signs. In 1989 he wrote a second dissertation (for the German Habilitation) analyzing problems of journalistic objectivity and media credibility. He has served as a guest professor in several European countries and he has been a visiting research scholar at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio and State University, San Diego. Between 1995 and 1998 he served as the President of the German Association for Communication and Media Studies, in 2004, he was president of EUPRERA, the European organisation for PR Education and PR Research. He is author and coauthor of 18 books, has edited and coedited 21 further books, and written more than 280 scientific articles in the fields of public relations, communication theory, journalism and semiotics. He is editor of two book series. In 2004 he was awarded “PR personality 2004” by the German Association for Public Relations, while in 2007 he was honoured by the German award “professor of the year” out of more than 700 nominees.


Peggy Simcic Brønn is an Associate Professor in the Norwegian School of Management’s Department of Communication, Culture and Languages, and Associate Dean of the school’s undergraduate public relations program. Her research interests are corporate branding, corporate social responsibility, and reputation. Her works are published in European Journal of Marketing, Journal of Communication Management (European editor), Public Relations Review, Corporate Reputation Review (editorial board), Corporate Communications: An International Journal (editorial board), Journal of Business Ethics, and Business and Society Review, among others. She is coeditor of Corporate Communication: A Strategic Approach to Building Reputation (second edition) and is coauthor of the first academic book on reputation in Norwegian. She is Norway’s academic representative to the Reputation Institute and consults in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors in Norway. She holds a DBA (doctor of business administration) from Henley Management College in the United Kingdom.


Paul Capriotti has a PhD in Communication from Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). He is Professor of Public Relations and Corporate Communication at Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona, Spain). Prior to joining the University, he was a consultant in Corporate Communication. He has published four books and different articles in international journals like Public Relations Review, Journal of Communication Management, Business & Society and Corporate Communications. He is guest professor at various Spanish and Latin American Universities.


Craig E. Carroll (PhD, University of Texas at Austin) is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication and Journalism at Lipscomb University in Nashville, TN. He is Chair of the Public Relations division of the International Communication Association. He is editor of Corporate Reputation and the News Media: Agenda-Setting within Business News in Developed, Emerging, and Frontier Markets, a volume with contributors from over 20 countries. His research examines the relationship between corporate reputation and the news media.


George Cheney (PhD, Purdue University, 1985) is the John T. Jones Centennial Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, United States. Also, he is Adjunct Professor of Management Communication at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, NZ. Previously, he held faculty appointments at the universities of Illinois, Colorado, Montana, and Utah. Most recently, he was director of the Tanner Human Rights Center and the Peace and Conflict Studies program at Utah. The coauthor or coeditor of 9 books and 90 articles and chapters, George has lectured in Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, Mexico, and Colombia. His teaching and research interests include power and identity in organizations, quality of worklife and employee participation, globalization and consumerism, professional and organizational ethics, and discourses of dissent and peacemaking. Recognized for teaching, research and service, George has consulted for and assisted organizations in all three major sectors.


Cynthia Clark Williams is the Director of the Harold S. Geneen Institute of Corporate Governance at Bentley University and an Assistant Professor of management. She holds a PhD from the honors program at Boston University and an MA from Northwestern University. Her research interests are primarily in the areas of ethics, corporate disclosures, and governance. Her research has been published in Management Information Systems Quarterly, Business Ethics Quarterly, Business & Society and the Case Research Journal to name but a few.


David Crowther (PhD) is Professor of Corporate Social Responsibility and Head of the Centre for Research into Organisational Governance, De Montfort University, UK, and Visiting Professor at Yildiz Technical University, Turkey, and various other institutions throughout the world. He is a qualified accountant who worked as an accountant, systems specialist and general manager in local government, industry and commerce for 20 years before moving in to the higher education arena. His teaching has been focused upon the use of accounting as a management technique while his research is interdisciplinary. David has published over 30 books and has also contributed more than 350 articles to academic, business and professional journals and to edited book collections. He has also spoken widely at conferences and seminars and acted as a consultant to a wide range of government, professional and commercial organizations. His research is into corporate social responsibility with a particular emphasis on the relationship between social, environmental and financial performance. Together with Güler Aras, he runs the Social Responsibility Research Network, an informal network of around 700 scholars (both academic and professional) concerned with issues of social responsibility – and also edits its official journal, Social Responsibility Journal.


Sarah E. Dempsey (PhD, University of Colorado, Boulder, 2005) is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States, where she teaches organizational communication, communication theory, and critical/cultural approaches to globalization and civil society. She is interested in problems of communication, representation, and voice, especially within nonprofit, community-based, and gendered forms of organizing. Her research appears in Organization, Management Communication Quarterly, Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, Feminist Media Studies, Communication Monographs, and The International and Intercultural Communication Annual.


Bree Devin is a Researcher in the School of Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations at the Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Bree’s research is predominately within public relations and corporate communication, with particular focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR), and the communication of CSR. She has had her research published and has also presented her research at national conferences. Bree was also awarded best paper at the Public Relations Institute of Australia’s Academic Forum in 2009 for her research on the communication of discretionary CSR practices.


Mark Eisenegger (PhD, University of Zürich, 2004) is a Senior Lecturer and Director at the Research Centre for the Public Sphere and Society (fög) at the University of Zürich, Switzerland. He has published in Studies in Communications Sciences and Journal for Communication Research and has edited and published several books on public relations and reputation management in German. Eisenegger is Head of the European Centre for Reputation Studies (ECRS) and serves as the Chair of the Cross-National Research Collaboration Taskforce of ICA’s Public Relations Division.


Urša Golob (PhD, University of Ljubljana, 2006) is Assistant Professor at Marketing Communication and Public Relations Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. Her research interests focus on marketing, corporate social responsibility and corporate communication.


Bradley K. Googins (PhD, Brandeis University) is Executive Director Emeritus of the Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship and Professor in Organizational Studies at the Boston College’s Carroll School of Management. In 1990 Dr Googins founded the Center for Work & Family at Boston University and directed it for six years before moving the center to Boston College. He was selected as a National Kellogg Leadership Fellow from 1989–1992. He has authored dozens of books, monographs, and articles on corporate issues, most recently Beyond Good Company: Next Generation Corporate Citizenship (2007). He sits on the review board of the Journal of Corporate Citizenship and the advisory boards of Corporate Voices for Working Families, the Brazilian research and education center, Uni-Ethos. He is vincular at the Pontifical University in Valparaiso Chile, and the Center for Corporate Citizenship in Berlin Germany. He lectures widely on issues of corporate citizenship and the role of business in society across the globe. He is currently conducting research in the areas of responsible leadership, employee engagement and social innovation and entrepreneurship.


David Grant (PhD, University of London, 1993) is Professor of Organizational Studies, at the Faculty of Economics and Business, the University of Sydney. His research interests focus on organizational discourse theory and analysis especially where these relate to leadership and organizational change. In 2008 he was elected as a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. He is codirector of the International Centre for Research on Organisational Discourse Strategy and Change which links colleagues at the University of Sydney with leading researchers at ten other institutions in North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. His work has been published in a range of management and organization journals including Organization Studies, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Organization, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Human Relations, Discourse and Communication, Text, Management Communication Quarterly, Journal of Management Studies and British Journal of Management. He is also coeditor (with Cynthia Hardy, Cliff Oswick, and Linda Putnam) of the Sage Handbook of Organizational Discourse (Sage, 2004) which in 2005 received the US National Communication Association’s, Organizational Communication’s “Book of the Year” award.


Robert L. Heath (PhD, University of Illinois) is Professor Emeritus at the School of Communication, University of Houston, and academic consultant in the College of Commerce, Faculty of Management and Marketing at the University of Wollongong in Australia. He is one of the academic pioneers in examining the history and theoretical foundations of strategic issues management. He is author or editor of 12 books (and 3 second editions) and more than 100 articles in major journals and leading edited books. In addition to strategic issues management, he has written on rhetorical theory, social movements, communication theory, public relations, organizational communication, crisis communication, risk communication, terrorism, and reputation management. He edited the Encyclopedia of Public Relations and the The SAGE Handbook of Public Relations. He has lectured in many countries, to business and nonprofit groups, and for various professional organizations. In May 2007, he was saluted by the Issue Management Council for his leadership over three decades to foster mutual interests between the corporation and all stakeholders and stakeseekers.


Tatjana M. Hocke (MA, University of Leipzig, 2008; MA, University of Houston, 2006) is a doctoral student in the School of Advertising and Public Relations at the University of Tennessee, and also holds a research appointment with the Risk, Health and Crisis Communication Research Unit at the University of Tennessee. Research interests include public relations, media pedagogy, and risk and crisis communication, with an emphasis on children and families facing disasters. Her research has been published in Public Relations Review, Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture, and merzWissenschaft, and she has given numerous research presentations at regional, national, and international conferences, including International Communication Association and Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.


Øyvind Ihlen (Dr. art., University of Oslo) works at the Department of Media and Communication at the University of Oslo and holds an adjunct position at Hedmark University College. He was previously Professor of Communication and Management at the Norwegian School of Management. Ihlen has edited, written and cowritten seven books, among them Public Relations and Social Theory (Routledge, 2009). He has been Vice Chair of the Public Relations Division of the International Communication Association (ICA), and serves on the editorial board of seven international journals. His research has appeared in numerous anthologies and in journals such as Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Review, Journal of Public Affairs, International Journal of Strategic Communication, Journal of Communication Management, Corporate Communications, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, NORDICOM Review, Environmental Communication, Government Information Quarterly and Business Strategy and the Environment. Ihlen is the winner of the 2008 Pride Award for Best Article from the Public Relations Division of the National Communication Association (NCA), and the Best Paper Award 2008 from Corporate Communications: An International Journal.


Joanne Mui-Hean Lee (B Comm, with First Class Honors, NTU, 2009) is a masters student specializing in public relations in Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. Her area of interest lies in corporate social responsibility, corporate communication and crisis communication. She is currently working on her thesis about corporate social responsibility communication and the media. She spent six months at Mudra Institute of Communications, India, a graduate school where she studied public relations as well as communication campaigns and marketing.


Shirley Leitch is Deputy Vice-Chancellor Academic at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. Over the past two decades, her research work has focused on public communication, particularly on effecting change within public discourses. Professor Leitch has numerous publications including articles in the Public Relations Review, Journal of Management Studies, European Journal of Marketing, Organization Studies, Human Relations, Discourse Studies, Science and Public Policy, Journal of Brand Management, International Studies of Management and Organization, and the Australian Journal of Communication. She is currently part of a major international research collaboration exploring sustainable productivity.


Jacquie L’Etang (PhD, University of Stirling) is based in the Stirling Media Research Institute, University of Stirling, Scotland. She has been researching and publishing about CSR, ethics and public relations since the late 1980s. She has written more than 40 articles and chapters on a range of topics including public diplomacy, public relations history, tourism public relations, sports public relations, rhetoric, propaganda and public relations anthropology. She is author of Public Relations in Britain: A History of Professional Practice in the Twentieth Century (2004), Public Relations: Concepts, Practice and Critique (2008) and coeditor and contributing author of Public relations: Critical debates and contemporary practice (2006) and Critical perspectives in public relations (1996). She has supervised a number of PhDs to completion and examined PhDs in the UK, Norway, France and Australia, and has also supervised more than 100 MSc dissertations. She is currently finishing a book on sports public relations.


Jairo Lugo-Ocando (PhD, University of Stirling) is based in the Stirling Media Research Institute, University of Stirling, Scotland. He worked as a reporter, staff-writer and chief subeditor for several newspapers in Venezuela. He has also been correspondent for newspapers, magazines and radio stations in Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico and the United States. He sits on the advisory board of the Asylum Positive Image Project run by Oxfam GB. His research interests include media and democratization in South America and Digital Technologies in the developing World. He has lectured at the Universidad Catolica Andres Bellos (Venezuela), IQRA University (Pakistan) and the University of Columbia (United States) among other international institutions. He has written several books including ICTS, Democracy and Development (2009), The Media in Latin America (2008) and Statistics for Journalists (in press).


Angela Mak (PhD, University of Oregon, 2004) is an Assistant Professor at Wee Kim Wee School of Communications (WKWSCI) in Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. Dr Mak’s areas of interest include organizational identification, organization-stakeholder relationships, corporate social responsibility, and cancer survivorship. As a cancer survivor, she is currently working on the cancer survivors’ employability issues from the stakeholder perspectives (e.g., employers, cancer survivors, media, government, and the public) with an emphasis on corporate social responsibility.


Steve May (PhD, University of Utah) is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is also currently a Leadership Fellow at the Institute for the Arts and the Humanities and an Ethics Fellow at the Parr Ethics Center. In addition, he serves as an ethics researcher and consultant for the Ethics at Work program at Duke University’s Kenan Institute for Ethics. His research focuses on the relationship between work and identity, as it relates to the boundaries of public/private, work/family, and labor/leisure. Most recently, he has studied the challenges and opportunities for organizational ethics and corporate social responsibility. His most recent books include The Debate Over Corporate Social Responsibility, Case Studies in Organizational Communication: Ethical Perspectives and Practices and Engaging Organizational Communication Theory and Research: Multiple Perspectives. He has received two book awards from the National Communication Association. In addition to his publications in journals, he is also a past Forum Editor of Management Communication Quarterly.


Judy Motion is Professor of Communication in the Journalism and Media Research Centre, University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Her research in public relations has focused on issues of identity, power and public discourse. Professor Motion has published in numerous journals including Public Relations Review, Journal of Public Relations, Discourse Studies, Organization Studies, Journal of Business Research, European Journal of Marketing, Media, Culture & Society, Public Understanding of Science and Political Communication and contributed chapters to the Handbook of Public Relations, the Global Handbook of Public Relations and the Encyclopaedia of Public Relations.


Majia Holmer Nadesan (PhD, Purdue, 1993) is Professor of Communication Studies in Arizona State University’s Social and Behavioral Studies Division. She has published three books, in addition to numerous essays, on the biopolitics and economics of contemporary life: Constructing Autism (Routledge, 2005), Governmentality, Biopower, and Everyday Life (Routledge, 2008), and Governing Childhood (Palgrave, 2010). Her current research focuses on the economics and biopolitics of austerity and looming resource scarcities. This research will appear presently in the journal Media Tropes, the edited book Media Futures, and within an upcoming monograph, Austerity, Scarcity, and the Death of Biopolitics.


Daniel Nyberg (PhD, University of Melbourne) is a Lecturer in the discipline of Work and Organisational Studies at the University of Sydney. His main research interests include organizational control, issues of materiality and discourse, and ethics in organizations. His current research focuses on the implications of climate change for organizations and the construction of sickness in organizations. Daniel has published in international journals, such as Organization Studies, Journal of Business Ethics, Scandinavian Journal of Management, and Personnel Review.


Howard Nothhaft (PhD, University of Leipzig, 2010) is Scientific Assistant at the Department of Public Relations and Communication Management of the University of Leipzig. He is also a senior research consultant advising and cooperating with DAX-30 companies in Germany. In his dissertation thesis, Howard conducted a participatory observation and shadowed eight communication managers during several weeks of work. His research has been published in the Journal of Strategic Communication Management and the Journal of Communication Management, amongst others. He has been awarded the German Public Relation Association’s Albert-Oeckl-Award 2004 for excellence in research and has been awarded the Public Relations division’s best paper award in 2009.


Augustine Pang (PhD, Missouri, 2006) is an Assistant Professor in the Division of Public and Promotional Communication, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. Dr Pang’s research interests include crisis management and communication, image management and repair, public relations, journalism, and media sociology and systems. Besides contributing book chapters to leading public relations and communication textbooks, his works have appeared in the Journal of Contingency and Crisis Management, Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, Journal of Communication Management, Journal of International Communication, Asia Pacific Media Educator, Sphera Publica, and the International Encyclopedia of Communication. He has received top paper awards at leading international conferences including the Corporate Communications International Conference (2008); the Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) Conference (2007), and the International Public Relations Research Conference (2004 and 2005).


Michael J. Palenchar (PhD, University of Florida, 2005) is an Assistant Professor and Codirector of the Risk, Health and Crisis Communication Research Unit at the University of Tennessee and also holds a research affiliation with the National Center for Food Protection and Defense. Research interests include risk communication, issues management, and crisis communication, and he is also a research consultant for clients ranging from Fortune 500 companies to government and nongovernmental organizations. His research has been published in the Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Review, Public Relations Journal, Environmental Communication, and Communication Research Reports. He is coauthor (with Robert L. Heath) of Strategic Issues Management (second edition, 2008). He won the National Communication Association, Public Relations Division’s Pride Award for top published article in the field of public relations in 2000 and 2007.


Elise Perrault Crawford is a PhD candidate at Bentley University. She holds a MBA from McGill University. Her research interests center on firms’ responses to stakeholder demands from a contingency approach, and the communication strategies that firms use to manage their relationships with stakeholders.


Klement Podnar (PhD, University of Ljubljana, 2004) is Assistant Professor at Marketing Communication and Public Relations Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. His research interests lie in corporate identity, organizational identification, marketing and corporate communication.


Alan A. Pomering (PhD, University of Wollongong) lectures in marketing communication and advertising and creative strategy for advertising at the University of Wollongong, Australia. His recent doctoral study investigated the opportunity for inhibiting consumer skepticism to corporate social responsibility advertising claims through the manipulation of message diagnosticity. Current research interests include the effectiveness of different emotional appeals in transformational sustainability advertising, and the role of appropriated national identity in tourism advertising.


Juliana Raupp (PhD, Free University of Berlin, 2000) is Professor of Organizational Communication at the Institute for Media and Communication Studies, Free University of Berlin. Research interests include strategic political communication, crisis communication, and social network analysis. She is the author and editor of several books, and her research has been published in German and English-language anthologies and academic journals. She is coeditor (with S. Jarolimek and F. Schultz) of Handbuch Corporate Social Responsibility (Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility, Wiesbaden, 2010).


Mario Schranz (PhD, University of Zürich, 2007) is a Senior Lecturer and Director at the Research Centre for the Public Sphere and Society (fög) at the University of Zürich, Switzerland. He has published in the field of corporate social responsibility and corporate reputation.


Friederike Schultz is an Assistant Professor at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Research interests include: Organizational communication and public relations, corporate social responsibility, crisis communication, new media and history of communication. Her research has been published in journals such as Public Relations Review and Corporate Communications: An International Journal. She is coauthor (with Juliana Raupp and Stefan Jarolimek) of the German Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility (2010).


Cynthia Stohl (PhD, Purdue University, 1982) is Professor of Communication at the University of California Santa Barbara and a faculty affiliate of the Center for Information, Technology and Society. For the past 25 years she has focused on communication network processes as they are manifest in local and global collaborations. The author of over 80 articles and one book, Organizational Communication: Connectedness in Action, Professor Stohl has been the recipient of several research awards, including the 1995 National Communication Association’s Organizational Communication Division’s Best Book Award. In 2007 and 2008 Professor Stohl received the International Communication Association’s Outstanding Article Awards for her work on collective action and terrorist networks.


Lars Thøger Christensen (PhD, Odense University, 1993) is Professor of Communication at the Department of Marketing and Management, The University of Southern Denmark, and adjunct professor at the Copenhagen Business School. Previously he was Research Professor at The Copenhagen Business School where he established the CBS Center for Corporate Communication. His research interests include critical and postmodern approaches to organizational and corporate communications, including issues such as identity, integration, and accountability. In addition to six books, his research appears in Organization Studies, European Journal of Marketing, The New Handbook of Organizational Communication, and elsewhere. Currently, he is leading a large-scale research project on organizational transparency.


Sandra Waddock is the Galligan Chair of Strategy and Professor of Management at Boston College’s Carroll School of Management. Her forthcoming book with Malcolm McIntosh is on SEE Change: The Great Transformation to the Sustainable Enterprise Economy (Greenleaf, 2010). Other recent books include The Difference Makers: How Social and Institutional Entrepreneurs Build the Corporate Responsibility Movement, Leading Corporate Citizens, and Total Responsibility Management: The Manual (with Charles Bodwell). Holding MBA and DBA degrees from Boston University, she has published over 100 articles and book chapters on corporate responsibility and citizenship, and intersector collaboration in a wide array of journals. Waddock is a founding faculty member of the Boston College Leadership for Change Program, and cofounder of the Institute for Responsible Investing, initiated Business Ethics’ 100 Best Corporate Citizens ranking with coauthor Samuel Graves and then editor Marjorie Kelly. She edited the Journal of Corporate Citizenship from 2003–2004. She received the 2004 Sumner Marcus Award for Distinguished Service from the Social Issues in Management Division of the Academy of Management, and the 2005 Faculty Pioneer Award for External Impact by the Aspen Institute Business in Society Program and the World Resources Institute. She has been a visiting scholar at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government (2006–2007) and University of Virginia Darden Graduate School of Business (2000).


Stefan Wehmeier is Foundational Professor of Strategic Communication Management and New Media at the FHWien University of Applied Sciences (Department of Communication Management). His dissertation focused on the structural change of the German television market after the liberalization in the 1980s. His habilitation is about the current status and the future of the academic discipline of public relations. Current research interests include the application of general social theories to public relations, mapping the academic discipline of public relations, corporate social responsibility, transparency, new media and exploring alternative, nonpositivist research methods. His research is published in Public Relations Review, International Journal of Strategic Communication, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, and Canadian Journal of Communication.

Acknowledgments

Sitting on three different continents makes it fairly safe to say that work on this book has been conducted around the clock. Since spring 2009 when the idea was first launched, we have been attempting to put together the definitive collection on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication. Our basic interest, which we discussed while meeting on the conference circuit, was to pull together insights from the communication disciplines on how to approach CSR. It was an area we felt was not adequately and methodically dealt with in the vast array of CSR literature in which we were mutually immersed. This book, as other authors would have noted, both satisfied our initial desires and opened up a world of new questions and lines of enquiry to pursue.

A project such as a relatively weighty edited volume is, of course, more than just a single line of thought. The varied interests and insights of our contributors have created a synergy around our initial questions. We would like to thank all the contributors who have enthusiastically responded to our invitations and feedback, and graciously shared their views on the chosen subjects. This volume would, of course, not be the same without you.

We would also like to thank senior editor, Elizabeth P. Swayze and her team at Wiley-Blackwell, for a very pleasant and speedy production process. Elizabeth shared our vision for the potential contribution of this volume to both the communication and management disciplines.

We also have thanks for the attention to detail of our research assistants – Fiona Schrier and Anahita Yousefi – who helped out and tackled style issues on opposite sides of the world.

Øyvind thanks his partner Hilde for her constant cheerleading and relentless support, and their sunshine and soon-to-be big sister, Ina. Working life has to take a backseat faced with a three-year-old’s invitation of “let’s play around and be silly daddy!”

Jennifer thanks her wonderful husband Bren who keeps her grounded and her darling children Bru, Mardi and George who continue to delight and amaze her. And of course to Edwyn who is by her side through it all!

Steve thanks Geriel for her generous spirit of inquiry and critique that has shaped all of his work. He also thanks Arcadia for her enduring passion and joy and for her ability to find wonder in so many realms of life, both great and small.

And ultimately, we hope this book contributes to the thinking and aspirations of those people who believe in corporate social responsibility as part of the way that businesses operate in society and are working daily to turn ideas into reality.

Øyvind Ihlen, Jennifer L. Bartlett and Steve May

Part I

Introduction