001

Table of Contents
 
THE WILEY GUIDES TO TH E MANAGEMENT OF PROJECTS
Title Page
Copyright Page
Introduction
Project Management
The Management of Projects
Structure of The Wiley Guide to Project Organization & Project Management Competencies
About the Authors
References
 
CHAPTER ONE - AN OVERVIEW OF BEHAVIORAL ISSUES IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
 
A 12-Factor Model
Key Comments from Practitioners
Conclusions
Acknowledgment
References
 
CHAPTER TWO - PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES
 
Organizing Projects within the Functional Organization
Organizing Projects as Dedicated Teams
Organizing Projects within a Matrix Arrangement
Different Matrix Forms
Organizing Projects within Network Organizations
Choice of Project Management Structure
Summary
References
 
CHAPTER THREE - CONTEMPORARY VIEWS ON SHAPING, DEVELOPING, AND MANAGING TEAMS
 
Part I: Teams and Forces Shaping Teams
Part II: Team Development
Part III: Team Management
Summary
References
 
CHAPTER FOUR - LEADERSHIP OF PROJECT TEAMS
 
Leadership Theories
Project Vision
Creating a Project Vision
Project Leadership and Time Orientation
Applications to Project Leadership
Summary
References
 
CHAPTER FIVE - POWER, INFLUENCE, AND NEGOTIATION IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
 
Sources of Power
Power versus Influence
Forms of Influence
Developing Influence Skills
Block’s Framework
Negotiation Skills
What Is Negotiation?
Preparation for Negotiation
Team Organization
Negotiating Strategies
Choosing a Strategy
The Feasibility of Problem Solving
The Feasibility of Contending
The Feasibility of Inaction and Withdrawing
The Feasibility of Concession Making
The Feasibility of Compromising
Summary
References
 
CHAPTER SIX - MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE PROJECT-ORIENTED COMPANY
 
Human Resource Management in the Context of the Project-Oriented Society
Project Management Personnel
Processes of Human Resource Management
The Role of the PM Office in HRM
Summary
References and Further Reading
 
CHAPTER SEVEN - COMPETENCIES:ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONAL
 
Competence
Some Recent Research
Project Management Competencies, Standards, and Bodies of Knowledge
Measuring Competence
Return on Investment from Education and Training
Summary
Websites
References and Bibliography
 
CHAPTER EIGHT - PROJECTS: LEARNING AT THE EDGE OF ORGANIZATION
 
Introduction: some Conceptual Issues to Knowledge and Learning in Project ...
Knowledge Management: Overview, Key Issues - A Brief History of Knowledge ...
Organizational Learning: Mapping the Domain, Considerations
From Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning to Learning Organization
Project Management, Knowledge Management, and Organizational Learning: A ...
Summary
References
 
CHAPTER NINE - THE VALIDITY OF KNOWLEDGE IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND THE ...
 
What Is Project Management?
Defining Our Knowledge about Managing Projects
Project Learning
Implications for Project Management Competence Development
Summary
References
 
CHAPTER TEN - GLOBAL BODY OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AND STANDARDS
 
Project Management Standards and Guides
Project Management Knowledge Standards
Performance-Based Competency Standards for Project Management
Content and Coverage of Knowledge Guides and Performance-Based Competency Standards
Competency Models and Personal Competence
Project Management Qualifications
Demand for Global Project Management Standards
SUMMARY
References
 
CHAPTER ELEVEN - LESSONS LEARNED: PROJECT EVALUATION
 
The Process of Project Evaluation
Basic Principles Governing Evaluative Efforts
Converting Lessons Learned into Action
Conducting Friendly Post-Project Evaluations
Customer Acceptance Tests: Built-in Post-Project Evaluation
Post-Project Evaluation and the Learning Organization Perspective
Post-Project Evaluation and the Human Resource Management Perspective
The Bottom Line: Dealing with the Realities of Post-Project Evaluation
References
 
CHAPTER TWELVE - DEVELOPING PROJECT MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY: BENCHMARKING, ...
 
The Importance Of PMM in Today’s Marketplace
PMM: Concepts and Quantification
PMM’S Relationship to Business Results
Bringing It to Closure: The Virtuous Cycle of Project Management
Summary
References
 
CHAPTER THIRTEEN - PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY MODELS
 
A Brief Survey of the Literature on Project Management Maturity
OGC’s PMMM and PMI’s OPM3
Untangling the Vocabulary and Distinguishing Relevant Concepts
Maturity Models: The “State of Play” Reviewed
Maturity Models: Silver Bullets or Unhelpful Distractions?
Summary
References
 
CHAPTER FOURTEEN - PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND GLOBAL INITIATIVES
 
From Local to Global
The Professional Associations
Global Initiatives
Summary
References
 
INDEX

THE WILEY GUIDES TO TH E MANAGEMENT OF PROJECTS
Edited by
Peter W. G. Morris and Jeffrey K. Pinto
 
 
 
 
 
The Wiley Guide to Project, Program & Portfolio Management
978-0-470-22685-8
 
The Wiley Guide to Project Control
978-0-470-22684-1
 
The Wiley Guide to Project Organization & Project Management Competencies
978-0-470-22683-4
 
The Wiley Guide to Project Technology, Supply Chain & Procurement Management
978-0-470-22682-7

001

THE WILEY GUIDE TO PROJECT ORGANIZATION & PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES: PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION
Peter W. G. Morris and Jeffrey Pinto
 
 
 
 
In 1983, Dave Cleland and William King produced for Van Nostrand Reinhold (now John Wiley & Sons) the Project Management Handbook, a book that rapidly became a classic. Now over twenty years later, Wiley is bringing this landmark publication up to date with a new series The Wiley Guides to the Management of Projects, comprising four separate, but linked, books.
Why the new title—indeed, why the need to update the original work?
That is a big question, one that goes to the heart of much of the debate in project management today and which is central to the architecture and content of these books. First, why “the management of projects” instead of “project management”?
Project management has moved a long way since 1983. If we mark the founding of project management to be somewhere between about 1955 (when the first uses of modern project management terms and techniques began being applied in the management of the U.S. missile programs) and 1969/70 (when project management professional associations were established in the United States and Europe) (Morris, 1997), then Cleland and King’s book reflected the thinking that had been developed in the field for about the first twenty years of this young discipline’s life. Well, over another twenty years has since elapsed. During this time there has been an explosive growth in project management. The professional project management associations around the world now have thousands of members—the Project Management Institute (PMI) itself having well over 200,000—and membership continues to grow! Every year there are dozens of conferences; books, journals, and electronic publications abound; companies continue to recognize project management as a core business discipline and work to improve company performance through it; and, increasingly, there is more formal educational work carried out in university teaching and research programs, both at the undergraduate and, particularly, graduate, levels.
Yet, in many ways, all this activity has led to some confusion over concepts and applications. For example, the basic American, European, and Japanese professional models of project management are different. The most influential, PMI, not least due to its size, is the most limiting, reflecting an essentially execution, or delivery, orientation, evident both in its Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMBOK Guide, 3rd Edition (PMI, 2004) and its Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, OPM3 (PMI, 2003). This approach tends to under-emphasize the front-end, definitional stages of the project, the stages that are so crucial to successful accomplishment (the European and Japanese models, as we shall see, give much greater prominence to these stages). An execution emphasis is obviously essential, but managing the definition of the project, in a way that best fits with the business, technical, and other organizational needs of the sponsors, is critical in determining how well the project will deliver business benefits and in establishing the overall strategy for the project.
It was this insight, developed through research conducted independently by the current authors shortly after the publication of the Cleland and King Handbook (Morris and Hough, 1987; Pinto and Slevin, 1988), that led to Morris coining the term “the management of projects” in 1994 to reflect the need to focus on managing the definition and delivery of the project itself to deliver a successful outcome.
These at any rate are the themes that we shall be exploring in this book (and to which we shall revert in a moment). Our aim, frankly, is to better center the discipline by defining more clearly what is involved in managing projects successfully and, in doing so, to expand the discipline’s focus.
So, why is this endeavor so big that it takes four books? Well, first, it was both the publisher’s desire and our own to produce something substantial—something that could be used by both practitioners and scholars, hopefully for the next 10 to 20 years, like the Cleland and King book—as a reference for the best-thinking in the discipline. But why are there so many chapters that it needs four books? Quite simply, the size reflects the growth of knowledge within the field. The “management of projects” philosophy forces us (i.e., members of the discipline) to expand our frame of reference regarding what projects truly are beyond of the traditional PMBOK /OPM3 model.
These, then, are not a set of short “how to” management books, but very intentionally, resource books. We see our readership not as casual business readers, but as people who are genuinely interested in the discipline, and who is seek further insight and information—the thinking managers of projects. Specifically, the books are intended for both the general practitioner and the student (typically working at the graduate level). For both, we seek to show where and how practice and innovative thinking is shaping the discipline. We are deliberately pushing the envelope, giving practical examples, and providing references to others’ work. The books should, in short, be a real resource, allowing the reader to understand how the key “management of projects” practices are being applied in different contexts and pointing to where further information can be obtained.
To achieve this aim, we have assembled and worked, at times intensively, with a group of authors who collectively provide truly outstanding experience and insight. Some are, by any standard, among the leading researchers, writers, and speakers in the field, whether as academics or consultants. Others write directly from senior positions in industry, offering their practical experience. In every case, each has worked hard with us to furnish the relevance, the references, and the examples that the books, as a whole, aim to provide.
What one undoubtedly gets as a result is a range that is far greater than any individual alone can bring (one simply cannot be working in all these different areas so deeply as all these authors, combined, are). What one does not always get, though, are all the angles that any one mind might think is important. This is inevitable, if a little regrettable. But to a larger extent, we feel, it is beneficial for two reasons. One, this is not a discipline that is now done and finished—far from it. There are many examples where there is need and opportunity for further research and for alternative ways of looking at things. Rodney Turner and Anne Keegan, for example, in their chapter on managing innovation (The Wiley Guide to Project Technology, Supply Chain & Procurement Management, Chapter 8) ended up positioning the discussion very much in terms of learning and maturity. If we had gone to Harvard, to Wheelwright and Clark (1992) or Christensen (1999) for example, we would almost certainly have received something that focused more on the structural processes linking technology, innovation, and strategy. This divergence is healthy for the discipline, and is, in fact, inevitable in a subject that is so context-dependent as management. Second, it is also beneficial, because seeing a topic from a different viewpoint can be stimulating and lead the reader to fresh insights. Hence we have Steve Simister giving an outstandingly lucid and comprehensive treatment in The Wiley Guide to Project Control, Chapter 5 on risk management; but later we have Stephen Ward and Chris Chapman coming at the same subject (The Wiley Guide to Project Control, Chapter 6) from a different perspective and offering a penetrating treatment of it. There are many similar instances, particularly where the topic is complicated, or may vary in application, as in strategy, program management, finance, procurement, knowledge management, performance management, scheduling, competence, quality, and maturity.
In short, the breadth and diversity of this collection of work (and authors) is, we believe, one of the books’ most fertile qualities. Together, they represent a set of approximately sixty authors from different discipline perspectives (e.g., construction, new product development, information technology, defense / aerospace) whose common bond is their commitment to improving the management of projects, and who provide a range of insights from around the globe. Thus, the North American reader can gain insight into processes that, while common in Europe, have yet to make significant inroads in other locations, and vice versa. IT project managers can likewise gather information from the wealth of knowledge built up through decades of practice in the construction industry, and vice versa. The settings may change; the key principals are remarkably resilient.
But these are big topics, and it is perhaps time to return to the question of what we mean by project management and the management of projects, and to the structure of the book.

Project Management

There are several levels at which the subject of project management can be approached. We have already indicated one of them in reference to the PMI model. As we and several other of the Guides’ authors indicate later, this is a wholly valid, but essentially delivery, or execution-oriented perspective of the discipline: what the project manager needs to do in order to deliver the project “on time, in budget, to scope.” If project management professionals cannot do this effectively, they are failing at the first fence. Mastering these skills is the sine qua non—the ‘without which nothing’—of the discipline. Volume 1 addresses this basic view of the discipline—though by no means exhaustively (there are dozens of other books on the market that do this excellently—including some outstanding textbooks: Meredith and Mantel, 2003; Gray and Larson, 2003; Pinto, 2004).
PROJECT MANAGEMENT:
“On time, in budget, to scope” execution/delivery
003
The overriding paradigm of project management at this level is a control one (in the cybernetic sense of control involving planning, measuring, comparing, and then adjusting performance to meet planned objectives, or adjusting the plans). Interestingly, even this model—for us, the foundation stone of the discipline—is often more than many in other disciplines think of as project management: many, for example, see it as predominantly oriented around scheduling (or even as a subset, in some management textbooks, of operations management). In fact, even in some sectors of industry, this has only recently begun to change, as can be seen towards the end of the book in the chapter on project management in the pharmaceutical industry. It is more than just scheduling of course: there is a whole range of cost, scope, quality and other control activities. But there are other important topics too.
Managing project risks, for example, is an absolutely fundamental skill even at this basic level of project management. Projects, by definition, are unique: doing the work necessary to initiate, plan, execute, control, and close-out the project will inevitably entail risks. These need to be managed.
Both these areas are mainstream and generally pretty well understood within the traditional project management community (as represented by the PMI PMBOK ®Guide’ (PMI, 2004) for example). What is less well covered, perhaps, is the people-side of managing projects. Clearly people are absolutely central to effective project management; without people projects simply could not be managed. There is a huge amount of work that has been done on how organizations and people behave and perform, and much that has been written on this within a project management context (that so little of this finds its way into PMBOK is almost certainly due to its concentration on material that is said in PMBOK to be “unique” to project management). A lot of this information we have positioned in Volume 3, which deals more with the area of competencies, but some we have kept in the other volumes, deliberately to make the point that people issues are essential in project delivery.
It is thus important to provide the necessary balance to our building blocks of the discipline. For example, among the key contextual elements that set the stage for future activity is the organization’s structure—so pivotal in influencing how effectively projects may be run. But organizational structure has to fit within the larger social context of the organization—its culture, values, and operating philosophy; stakeholder expectations, socioeconomic, and business context; behavioural norms, power, and informal influence processes, and so on. This takes us to our larger theme: looking at the project in its environment and managing its definition and delivery for stakeholder success: “the management of projects.”

The Management of Projects

The thrust of the books is, as we have said, to expand the field of project management. This is quite deliberate. For as Morris and Hough showed in The Anatomy of Major Projects (1987), in a survey of the then-existing data on project overruns (drawing on over 3,600 projects as well as eight specially prepared case studies), neither poor scheduling nor even lack of teamwork figured crucially among the factors leading to the large number of unsuccessful projects in this data set. What instead were typically important were items such as client changes, poor technology management, and poor change control; changing social, economic, and environmental factors; labor issues, poor contract management, etc. Basically, the message was that while traditional project management skills are important, they are often not sufficient to ensure project success: what is needed is to broaden the focus to cover the management of external and front-end issues, not least technology. Similarly, at about the same time, and subsequently, Pinto and his coauthors, in their studies on project success (Pinto and Slevin, 1988; Kharbanda and Pinto, 1997), showed the importance of client issues and technology, as well as the more traditional areas of project control and people.
The result of both works has been to change the way we look at the discipline. No longer is the focus so much just on the processes and practices needed to deliver projects “to scope, in budget, on schedule,” but rather on how we set up and define the project to deliver stakeholder success—on how to manage projects. In one sense, this almost makes the subject impossibly large, for now the only thing differentiating this form of management from other sorts is “the project.” We need, therefore, to understand the characteristics of the project development life cycle, but also the nature of projects in organizations. This becomes the kernel of the new discipline, and there is much in this book on this.
Morris articulated this idea in The Management of Projects (1994, 97), and it significantly influenced the development of the Association for Project Management’s Body of Knowledge as well as the International Project Management Association’s Competence Baseline (Morris, 2001; Morris, Jamieson, and Shepherd, 2006; Morris, Crawford, Hodgson, Shepherd, and Thomas, 2006). As a generic term, we feel “the management of projects” still works, but it is interesting to note how the rising interest in program management and portfolio management fits comfortably into this schema. Program management is now strongly seen as the management of multiple projects connected to a shared business objective—see, for example, the chapter by Michel Thiry (The Wiley Guide to Project, Program & Portfolio Management, Chapter 6.) The emphasis on managing for business benefit, and on managing projects, is exactly the same as in “the management of projects.” Similarly, the recently launched Japanese Body of Knowledge, P2M (Program and Project Management), discussed inter alia in Lynn Crawford’s chapter on project management standards (The Wiley Guide to Project Organization & Project Management Competencies, Chapter 10), is explicitly oriented around managing programs and projects to create, and optimize, business value. Systems management, strategy, value management, finance, and relations management for example are all major elements in P2M: few, if any, appear in PMBOK.
THE MANAGEMENT OF PROJECTS involves managing the definition and delivery of the project for stakeholder success. The focus is on the project in its context. Project and program management - and portfolio management, though this is less managerial - sit within this framework.
004
(“The management of projects” model is also more relevant to the single project situation than PMBOK incidentally, not just because of the emphasis on value, but via the inclusion of design, technology, and definition. There are many single project management situations, such as Design & Build contracts for example, where the project management team has responsibility for elements of the project design and definition).

Structure of The Wiley Guide to Project Organization & Project Management Competencies

The Wiley Guides to the Management of Projects series is consists of four distinct, but interrelated, books:
The Wiley Guide to Project, Program & Portfolio Management
The Wiley Guide to Project Control
The Wiley Guide to Project Organization & Project Management Competencies
The Wiley Guide to Project Technology, Supply Chain & Procurement Management
This book, The Wiley Guide to Project Organization & Project Management Competencies, looks both at some familiar basics of project organization as well as new thinking, for example on organizational networks, knowledge management and project-based learning, and the whole area of competencies.
At bottom, project management represents a “people” challenge; that is, the ability to successfully manage a project from inception through delivery is predicated on our ability to appreciate and effectively employ the competencies of all those who are associated with the project development and delivery process. This volume covers a range of organizational and people-based topics that are occupying the project management world today. Foremost among these are issues to do with knowledge, learning, and maturity. Before addressing these topics, however, we look at structure, teams, leadership, power and negotiation, and competencies.
1. But first, in Chapter 1, Dennis Slevin and Jeff Pinto provide a broad overview of some key behavioral factors impacting successful project management. Drawing on original research on practicing project managers specially carried out for this book, they summarize these into twelve critical issues that impact on the performance of the project manager, ranging from the personal (“micro”) to the organizational (“macro”).
2. In order to effectively mobilize the resources needed to manage the project, a great deal needs to be understood about the organizational structures and systems, and roles and responsibilities that must be harnessed to undertake the project. Erik Larson, in Chapter 2, provides a solid overview of the principal forms of organization structure found in project management. Erik concentrates particularly on the matrix form, but shows the types of factors that will affect the choice of organization structure. Each of these choices, deliberate or otherwise, will have a tremendous impact on the resulting likelihood for successful project management.
3. Connie DeLisle, in Chapter 3, brings us up to date with her chapter on “Contemporary Views on Shaping, Developing and Managing Teams.” Connie begins in a characteristically arresting manner: “We have knowledge and wisdom to change, but why do we not do so, or even act in ways contradictory to successful team building and management?” She looks at team working in three sections: first, the forces shaping teams (crisis management, globalization, donated time, organizational anorexia, senior exec priorities); then team development (team characteristics, key responsibilities, knowledge competencies, personalities, resource negotiation, development itself, nature / nuture, and virtual working); and, finally, team management, where her focus is particularly on addressing team pathologies.
4. Peg Thoms and John Kerwin look in Chapter 4 at leadership in projects. They begin by reviewing some of the key concepts, particularly around the so-called charismatic and transformational schools of leadership theory. Then they focus on the importance of vision-creation as a key activity in leadership—not just having one but being able to communicate it (imaging). Visioning reflects personality, but also in part reflects one’s future-looking orientation. Techniques are presented for helping create a vision and time orientation—past, present, and future—which are discussed in terms of project leadership. Finally, these ideas are illustrated by two cases, one a highway project, one a film production. Peg and John end by summarizing: “We can learn a great deal from leadership theories, but even more by observing effective leaders. Paying attention to how problems are solved, how innovative strategies are developed, and how great project leaders communicate and motivate are the best ways to improve our leadership ability.”
5. Few project managers have much formal power. Much is informal and has to be negotiated. Influencing skills are very important. In Chapter 5, Jeff Pinto and John Magenau review the different sources of power and forms of influence. Then they look at developing influencing and negotiating skills and how to prepare for, and conduct, negotiations.
6. Martina Huemann, Rodney Turner, and Anne Keegan broaden the discussion in Chapter 6 of human resource management challenges in project-based organizations. Beginning with a review of the specific challenges posed by projects—essentially the lack of certainty over future work and career development—they move on to a central discussion of the importance of competences in project management, something that will now occupy much of the rest of this volume.
7. In Chapter 7, Andrew Gale looks in depth at organizational and personal competencies. He goes over our definitions of competencies, noting the basic normative idea that they are what are required to fulfill a specific role and concluding that “competence is concerned with the capacity to undertake specific types of action and can be considered as an holistic concept involving the integration of attitudes, skills, knowledge, performance and quality of application.” Becoming, and even remaining, competent clearly involves learning and learning thus is important in any discussion of competency (hence Chapters 8 and 9). Andrew then looks at the idea of project management (professional) competency frameworks which he sees as predominantly normative, reductionist, deterministic, and restricting. He looks at alternative models (for example, actor network theory) and at studies on organizational competencies. He concludes by looking at experience in trying to measure competency: no one has yet found it possible to generate hard measures.
8. Knowledge management and organizational learning became subjects of considerable interest from the late 1990s onwards. In Chapter 8, Christophe Bredillet offers a stimulating tour d’horizon of the field applied to the management of projects. All the key ideas in both fields, KM and OL, are presented before looking at projects, which, in his view, are specially good places for “learning at the edge of organization.”
9. In Chapter 9, Peter Morris poses the question, how do we know what is what in project management—how valid are the rules, practices, insights, and other knowledge that we may wish to pass on to, or even impose on, others? First, we have to define our frame of reference—this tells us at least what the ballpark looks like. Undoubtedly at some level there are insights that can be generalized. The question is, at what point do they become inapplicable or not useful? Much of the most valuable project management knowledge is process-based rather than substantive in a context-specific way. Risk management is a good example: the process rules are relatively straightforward, the substantive judgments often quite difficult. Best practice rules on project-based learning suggest that while it ought to be possible to support real role-specific learning (at a price), general competency standards and accreditation is more questionable.
10. Lynn Crawford, in Chapter 10’s comprehensive review of global project management knowledge and standards, probably agrees. Lynn thoroughly surveys all the international project management professional standards as well as related national and international standards. She addresses first what she calls project-based standards—essentially the four major Bodies of Knowledge (PMI, APM, IPMA, ENAA); then people-based standards (the Australian, UK, and South African competency standards); and finally organizational standards—basically the maturity models and methodologies (OPM3, PRINCE2, etc.). Lynn then goes on to compare the contents of the different BOKs before revisiting the issue of competency assessment, noting, quite rightly, the lack of evidence on the attitudes and behaviors that several pm competency assessing bodies quite understandably rate as so important, as well as at pm qualifications. Touching briefly on international initiatives to form a global perspective on a PM BOK and standards, Lynn concludes on a cautionary note, pointing to the difficulties many feel (a) in translating ‘hard’ engineering-base project management to ‘soft’ organizational projects, and (b) the differences between program and project management. Also, “the process for standards development, which is largely a process of making explicit and codifying through consensus the tacit knowledge of experienced practitioners, ensures that standards will remain conservative and will lag behind the cutting edge of both research and practice.”
11. In Chapter 11, David Frame brings us back to the world of real projects with his discussion of project evaluation (pre-, mid-, and post-project) and, in doing so, touches on many of the issues addressed above. David covers the basic principles of evaluation and what is needed to convert learning into action. He deals in particular with structured walkthroughs, EISA, and Customer Acceptance Tests. He concludes by tying all this back to the learning organization and HR management.
12. Bill Ibbs, Justin Reginato, and Young Hoon Kwak in Chapter 12 extend the discussion of how the organization can extract value from project management by discussing the program of research they have been doing for several years on the Return on Investment of project management. Their method is heavily based around the concept of organizational maturity: data on project management practices is benchmarked against other organizations’, and the different levels of maturity are assessed against the organizations’ abilities to achieve projects “on time and to cost.”
13. Organizations are indeed now looking closely at how they can leverage value from project management, and to many the maturity concept is an appealing way to tackle this challenge. Terry Cooke-Davies in Chapter 13 carefully explains the difficulties with the concept, however. He traces the origins of maturity work from the Quality movement through software (SEI’s CMM) into project management. He reviews the OPM3 and PMMM models before moving on to “untangle the vocabulary and distinguish the relevant concepts.” As in several of the previous chapters, he also notes the importance of what is being measured, and the challenge of distinguishing between the maturity of processes and practices (in various different types of projects the organization might undertake) and its overall ability to perform. Project management maturity models make a lot of assumptions here. Like Lynn Crawford, Andy Gale, and Peter Morris, Terry is skeptical that uniform approaches of assessment will work for all project situations. In short, the approach needs applying with care, tailored to the organization’s specific circumstances.
14. Finally, in Chapter 14, Lynn Crawford briefly reviews the rise and role of project management associations around the world since the mid 1960s. She looks at the various international initiatives that are now working in parallel with these and concludes by looking at the future. She pulls no punches: there is still much debate as to whether or not it is a practice or a discipline, and how it fits with other subjects and disciplines. Nevertheless, many now recognize—indeed, demand—that standards exist for the discipline. Defining these at national and international levels is an important responsibility for us all.

About the Authors

Dennis P. Slevin

Dennis P. Slevin is Professor of Business Administration at the Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh. He received his education in a variety of university settings, starting with a B.A. in Mathematics at St. Vincent College and continuing with a B.S. in Physics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an M.S. in Industrial Administration at Carnegie Mellon University, and a Ph.D. in Business Administration at Stanford University in 1969. Dr. Slevin’s research interests focus on entrepreneurship, project management, and corporate governance. He has co-authored the Total Competitiveness Audit and the Project Implementation Profile; each instrument proposes a conceptual model and a diagnostic tool. He has published widely in a variety of professional journals including Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Management Science, Sloan Management Review, Project Management Journal, and numerous other journals and proceedings. His book, The Whole Manager: How to Increase Your Professional and Personal Effectiveness, New York, AMACOM, 1989, (paperback, 1991) provides concrete tools for use by practicing managers. He was co-chair of PMI Research Conference 2000, Paris, France. This conference gathered project management researchers from around the world and resulted in the book, The Frontiers of Project Management Research, PMI 2002, of which he is co-editor. He was co-chair of PMI Research Conference 2002, Seattle, July, 2002. Since 1972, he has also been president of Innodyne, Inc., a management consulting firm specializing in the design and implementation of specially targeted management development programs. He has worked with numerous companies and organizations such as PPG Industries, General Electric, Alcoa, Westinghouse, GKN plc, IBM, and many other large and small firms.

Jeff Pinto

Dr. Jeffrey K. Pinto is the Samuel A. and Elizabeth B. Breene Professor of Management in the Sam and Irene Black School of Business at Penn State Erie. His major research focus has been in the areas of Project Management, Implementation of New Technologies, and the Diffusion of Innovations in Organizations. Professor Pinto is the author or editor of seventeen books and over one hundred and twenty scientific papers that have appeared in a variety of academic and practitioner journals, books, conference proceedings, and technical reports. Dr. Pinto’s work has been translated into French, Dutch, German, Finnish, Russian, and Spanish, among other languages. He is also a frequent presenter at national and international conferences and has served as keynote speaker and as a member of organizing committees for a number of international conferences. Dr. Pinto served as Editor of the Project Management Journal from 1990 to 1996 and is a two-time recipient of the Project Management Institute’s Distinguished Contribution Award. He has consulted widely with a number of firms, both domestic and international, on a variety of topics, including project management, new product development, information system implementation, organization development, leadership, and conflict resolution. A recent book, Building Customer-Based Project Organizations, was published in 2001 by Wiley. He is also the co-developer of SimProject™, a project management simulation for classroom instruction.

Erik Larson

Erik Larson is professor and chair of the management, marketing, and international business department at the College of Business, Oregon State University. He teaches executive, graduate, and undergraduate courses on project management and leadership. His research and consulting activities focus on project management. He has published numerous articles on matrix management, product development, and project partnering. He is co-author of a popular textbook, Project Management: The Managerial Process, 2nd Ed, as well as a professional book, Project Management: The Complete Guide for Every Manager. He has been a member of the Portland, Oregon chapter of the Project Management Institute since 1984. In 1995, he worked as a Fulbright scholar with faculty at the Krakow Academy of Economics on modernizing Polish business education. He received a B.A. in psychology from Claremont Mc-Kenna College and a Ph.D. in management from State University of New York at Buffalo.

Connie Delisle

Connie Delisle completed a Ph.D. in the Department of Civil Engineering in the Project Management Specialization, a M.Sc. in resource management at the University of Calgary, and two bachelors’ degrees from the University of Victoria. The study of the psychology of human behavior and teamwork has been an integral part of her educational studies for the past fifteen years. Her recent practical work experience in the area of e-learning includes course design and delivery of online learning to executive MBAs working in virtual teams. Earlier roles include working as an environmental advisor and project team leader for local government in BC, and senior oil and gas companies in Alberta. Experience as a Canadian national team rower and triathlete provide Connie with a solid understanding of the principles and practical aspects of creating winning team experiences. She has published over thirty articles in the area of success, teams and communication, as well as a recent joint publication with Dr. Janice Thomas and Dr. Kam Jugdev that represents a three-year international research effort in the area of selling project management to senior executives. Connie recently moved to Ottawa, Ontario Canada and is currently employed as a Senior Consultant with Consulting and Audit Canada, a cost recovery based branch of Public Works and Government Services Canada.

Peg Thoms

Peg Thoms earned her Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior from the Fisher School of Business at The Ohio State University. She is currently an Associate Professor of Management and the Director of the MBA Program at Penn State Erie, The Behrend College. She also recently served as a visiting professor of project management at Umeå University in Umeå, Sweden. In addition, Dr. Thoms has sixteen years of business management experience. She conducts research and has published in the areas of leadership vision, time orientation, leadership development, and self-managed work teams. She has published articles in a number of journals including Human Resource Development Quarterly, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Management Inquiry, as well as a chapter on the motivation of project teams in the Project Management Handbook (ed. J. Pinto). She co-authored a book entitled Project Leadership from Theory to Practice. Her new book, Driven by Time: A Guide to Time Orientation and Leadership, is published by Greenwood / Praeger (2003). She has consulted with various organizations in the manufacturing, health care, insurance, and banking industries. She has also worked with many not-for-profit groups. Dr. Thoms has won numerous teaching and research awards including The Walter F. Ulmer, Jr. Applied Research Award from the Center for Creative Leadership for her work on leadership vision and Project Management Journal’s Paper of the Year for her article, “Project Leadership: A Question of Timing.” She teaches management, human resources, and leadership.

John Kerwin

John Kerwin received his master’s degree from the Edward R. Morrow School of Communications at Washington State University. Previously, he was producer, director, and writer at his production company in Los Angeles, California, Kerwin Communications, Inc. In that capacity, his company produced programs and commercials for NBC, CBS, ABC, and ESPN; he had his own show on ESPN for four years. Kerwin started in the production business with NBC and worked on Super Bowls, World Series, Wimbledon Tennis, the Nightly News, political campaign coverage, elections, and prime time news specials, one of which was honored with an Emmy. His company also worked on movies and theatrical productions. Kerwin’s area of research is the application of visual production technology to creative and practical concepts in communications. He is currently assistant professor of communications at Penn State University and has produced and published several works for the marketing and public awareness of services and resources in the educational and corporate sectors. His latest work will be “The First Year Experience,” a thirty-minute production which will be distributed internationally on the subject of the freshman experience in higher education.

John Magenau

John Magenau holds a Ph.D. from the State University of New York-Buffalo (1981). His research and teaching interests are in the areas of labor-management relations and negotiation. He is director of the Sam and Irene Black School of Business and serves as a trustee on the board of Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine and as president of the board of the Enterprise Development Center of Erie County and as secretary of board of directors for The Center for eBusiness and Advanced Information Technology.

Martina Huemann

Dr. Martina Huemann holds a doctorate in project management of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration. She also studied business administration and economics at the University Lund, Sweden, and the Economic University Prague, Tech Republic. Currently, she is assistant professor in the Project Management Group of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration. There she teaches project management to graduate and postgraduate students. In research, she focuses on individual and organizational competences in project-oriented organizations and project-oriented societies. She is visiting fellow of The University of Technology Sydney. Martina has project management experience in organizational development, research, and marketing projects. She is certified Project Manager according to the IPMA—International Project Management Association—certification. Martina organizes the annual PM days research conference and the annual PM days student paper award to promote project management research. She contributed to the development of the pm baseline—the Austrian project management body of knowledge and is board member of Project Management Austria—the Austrian project management association. She is assessor of the IPMA Award and trainer of the IPMA advanced courses. Martina is trainer and consultant of Roland Gareis Consulting. She has experience with project-oriented organizations of different industries and the public sector. Martina is specialised in management audits and reviews of projects and programs, and human resource management issues like project management assessment centers for project and program managers.

Rodney Turner

Rodney Turner is Professor of Project Management at Erasmus University Rotterdam, in the Faculty of Economics. He is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of Technology Sydney, and Visiting Professor at Henley Management College, where he was previously Professor of Project Management, and Director of the Masters program in Project Management. He studied engineering at Auckland University and did his doctorate at Oxford University, where he was also for two years a post-doctoral research fellow. He worked for six years for ICI as a mechanical engineer and project manager, on the design, construction, and maintenance of heavy process plant, and for three years with Coopers and Lybrand as a management consultant. He joined Henley in 1989 and Erasmus in 1997. Rodney Turner is the author or editor of seven books, including The Handbook of Project-based Management, the best-selling book published by McGraw-Hill, and the Gower Handbook of Project Management. He is editor of The International Journal of Project Management, and has written articles for journals, conferences and magazines. He lectures on and teaches project management world wide. From 1999 and 2000, he was President of the International Project Management Association, and Chairman for 2001-2002. He has also helped to establish the Benelux Region of the European Construction Institute as foundation Operations Director. He is also a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the Association for Project Management.

Anne Keegan

Anne Keegan is a University Lecturer in the Department of Marketing and Organisation, Rotterdam School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam. She delivers courses in Human Resource Management, Organisation Theory, and Behavioural Science in undergraduate, postgraduate and executive-level courses. She has been a member of ERIM (Erasmus Research Institute for Management) since 2002. In addition, she undertakes research into the Project Based Organisation and is a partner in a European Wide Study into the Versatile Project Based Organisation. Her other research interests include HRM in Knowledge Intensive Firms, New Forms of Organising and Critical Management Theory. Dr. Keegan has published in Long Range Planning and Management Learning and is a reviewer for journals including the Journal of Management Studies and the International Journal of Project Management. She is a member of the American Academy of Management, the European Group for Organisation Studies (EGOS) and the Dutch HRM Network. Dr. Keegan studied management and business at the Department of Business Studies, Trinity College Dublin, and did her doctorate there on the topic of Management Practices in Knowledge Intensive Firms. Following three years post-doctoral research, she now works as a university lecturer and researcher. Dr. Keegan has also worked as a consultant in the areas of Human Resource Management and Organizational Change to firms in the computer, food, export and voluntary sectors in Ireland and the Netherlands.

Andrew W. Gale

Andrew Gale is Senior Lecturer in Project Management and Program Director for the MSc Project Management Professional Development Program in the Manchester Centre for Civil & Construction Engineering UMIST. He is a Chartered Civil Engineer and Chartered Builder specializing in construction project management. He teaches project management with emphasis on people and culture, equality and diversity and group and team process. He is actively involved in joint collaborative teaching of art and civil engineering students. He is leading the introduction of project management curriculum in the new British University in Dubai. He has managed many research and consultancy grants since 1990 and published over ninety papers and articles. He has extensive experience in working with Russian construction firms and academic institutions and led development training programs, distance learning and curriculum development in Russia, funded by UK and EU government agencies. He has over eighteen years experience in research on construction organization and project culture, with specific interests in diversity, equality and inclusion. Currently, he is developing a collaborative research program (with the Art and Design Faculty at The Manchester Metropolitan University) investigating how civil engineers and artists can learn from each other in the context of project management. He is an active member of the European sub-group of the ICE International Policy Committee with special responsibility for Russia.

Christophe Bredillet