cover

Table of Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Publisher's Note

Acknowledgments

About the Author

Introduction

What Does This Book Cover?

How to Use This Book

What’s on the CD?

Where Do You Take the Exams?

Tips for Taking Your CCNA Wireless Exam

How to Contact the Author

Assessment Test

Answers to Assessment Test

Chapter 1: Wireless Networks and Topologies

Wireless Networks

Basic Wireless Devices

Wireless Topologies

Switching

VLAN Memberships

Configuring VLANs

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 2: WLAN RF Fundamentals

Introducing Radio Frequency (RF)

RF Math

WLAN Antennas

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 3: Spread Spectrum Technologies and Modulations

Transmission Methods: An Overview

Spread Spectrum

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 4: Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications

Wireless Regulations

IEEE Wireless

Wireless Frames

Nonstandard Wireless Technologies

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 5: Introduction to Wireless Security

Wireless Threats

Security Measures

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 6: Wireless Clients and Cisco Extension (CCX)

Wireless Clients

Cisco’s Supplicants

Cisco Secure Services Client

Cisco-Compatible Extensions

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Hands-on Labs

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 7: Introduction to the Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN)

WLAN Deployment Models

Cisco Unified Network Devices

Lightweight AP Operation and Maintenance

Roaming

Radio Resource Management

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 8: Introduction to the Cisco Mobility Express Wireless Architecture

Cisco Mobility Express

Using the Cisco Configuration Assistant

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Hands-On Labs

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 9: Installing the Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN)

Understanding Controller Interfaces

WLC Management

Managing Stand-alone APs

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Hands-On Labs

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 10: Configuring Wireless Security on the CUWN

Security and the Connection Process

Configuring Security on the WLC

Configuring the Clients

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Hands-On Labs

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 11: Wireless Control System (WCS)

Basics of WCS

Cisco WCS Navigator

Installing and Upgrading WCS

Basic WCS Setup

Administration Tasks

Configuring Maps

Monitoring the CUWN with WCS

Locating Devices

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Hands-On Labs

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Chapter 12: WLAN Maintenance and Troubleshooting

Basic Troubleshooting Methods

Troubleshooting Tools

WLC CLI Troubleshooting

RF Deployment Considerations

WLC and WCS Configuration and OS Files

WLC Access Methods

Summary

Exam Essentials

Written Lab

Hands-On Labs

Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Written Lab

Appendix: About the Companion CD

What You’ll Find on the CD

System Requirements

Using the CD

Troubleshooting

Glossary

Index

End-User License Agreement

The Best CCNA Wireless Book/CD Package on the Market!

Perforated Card Insert

CCNA Wireless Study Guide

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Title Page

Acquisitions Editor: Jeff Kellum

Development Editor: Amy Breguet

Technical Editors: Keith Parsons, Benjamin Miller, Patrick Conlan, and George Stefanick

Production Editor: Christine O’Connor

Copy Editor: Elizabeth Welch

Editorial Manager: Pete Gaughan

Production Manager: Tim Tate

Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley

Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde

Media Project Manager 1: Laura Moss-Hollister

Media Associate Producer: Marilyn Hummel

Media Quality Assurance: Josh Frank

Book Designer: Judy Fung, Bill Gibson

Compositor: Craig Johnson, Happenstance Type-O-Rama

Proofreader: Beth Prouty, Word One New York

Indexer: Robert Swanson

Project Coordinator, Cover: Lynsey Stanford

Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed

Copyright © 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana

Published simultaneously in Canada

ISBN: 978-0-470-52765-8

Dear Reader,

Thank you for choosing CCNA Wireless Study Guide. This book is part of a family of premium-quality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching.

Sybex was founded in 1976. More than 30 years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently exceptional books. With each of our titles, we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on, to the authors we work with, our goal is to bring you the best books available.

I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde@wiley.com. If you think you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex.

Best regards,

Edde_sig.tif

Neil Edde
Vice President and Publisher
Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley

Acknowledgments

I’d like to thank the entire team Sybex assembled for their hard work and dedication in putting this book together, but especially my acquisitions editor Jeff Kellum as well as Christine O’Connor, my production editor, for hanging with me, yet once again, during this sometimes daunting project. I can’t thank you both enough for continuing to work with me, book after book—and yet I still can’t figure out why you both don’t go screaming from the room when you see my name pop up on the radar of each new book!

Monica Lammle’s writing style, encouragement, and dedication to ensuring that this book is concise yet highly readable has been invaluable to my success of this and many other projects.

Also, a big thank you to Troy Mcmillan, who helped me personally lay out almost every chapter in this book from end to end. He was indispensable when it came to writing this book, and I can’t say enough how much his help and support kept me sane during the writing of this book. Troy was dependable and was very timely with his work. I look forward to hopefully working with him again in the future.

Big thanks to my development editor, Amy Breguet. Amy’s tireless effort helped to shape the book into a much more readable format, although I am sure I’ve aged her some in the last few months! But she was a real trouper throughout this project.

I’d also like to thank my technical editors, Keith Parsons, Ben Miller, Patrick Conlan, and George Stefanick, who found all the little but all-so-important issues that needed to be clarified—their importance to this project can’t be overstated. Also, thanks to Liz Welch, my copy editor, who kept me in my favorite coffee shop way more than I wanted to be, but who worked and reworked every sentence in this book. Last, but absolutely not least, my best friend Patrick Conlan was instrumental in helping me at all hours of the day and night understanding the smallest of details that I struggled with as I was trying to finish this book. Thanks once again, Pat, for your continued support, amazing technical advice, and encouragement.

About the Author

Todd Lammle CCSI, CCNA/CCNA Wireless/CCNP/CCSP/CCVP, MCSE, CEH/CHFI, FCC RF Licensed, is the authority on Cisco certification Wireless and Internetworking. He is a world renowned author, speaker, trainer, and consultant. Todd has over 29 years of experience working with LANs, WANs, and large licensed and unlicensed wireless networks, and has published over 50 books, including the very popular CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide, and this book, CCNA Wireless Study Guide (640-721). He runs an international training and consulting company based in Colorado and Texas. You can reach Todd through his forum and blog at www.lammle.com.

Introduction

Welcome to CCNA Wireless Study Guide, a comprehensive guide that covers everything you need for Cisco’s new exam 640-721. For readers who are new to Cisco certifications, there is a well-defined structure to the different levels that network administrators can achieve.

Cisco’s current certification structure has the following five levels of certification:

This book is written for the associate level of certification. Cisco considers this level to be the “apprentice or foundation level” for network administrators.

Cisco has recently broadened its associate-level certifications to include not only a certification for routing and switching (CCNA) and design (CCDA) but also more targeted associate-level certifications for security (CCNA Security), wireless (CCNA Wireless), and voice (CCNA Voice). These new certifications target specific areas of Cisco technology and are to be used as stepping-stones for the professional and expert levels of certification that Cisco offers.

Cisco’s Wireless Certifications

Cisco offers three distinct levels of Wireless certifications. The following diagram shows that the CCNA Wireless certification is a building block to the professional- and expert-level wireless certifications:

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This book covers the CCNA Wireless certification exam 640-721. As of the writing of this book, the exam costs $250 USD. The exam tests your knowledge a great deal in areas both theoretical and technically specific to Cisco hardware and software.

Once you achieve your CCNA Wireless certification, you can choose to continue on the wireless path and achieve higher certifications, such as the CCNP Wireless or the ultimate CCIE Wireless Expert. But even if you stop after achieving your CCNA Wireless certification, you will have demonstrated to your current or prospective employers that you have a sound knowledge of the interoperations of wireless and Cisco wireless technologies. This assurance to employers will make it easier for you to land that dream job you’ve always wanted!

What Skills Do You Need to Become a CCNA Wireless?

Cisco Certified Network Associate Wireless (CCNA® Wireless) validates associate-level knowledge and skills to configure, implement, and support wireless LANs, specifically those networks using Cisco equipment. With a CCNA Wireless certification, network professionals can support a basic wireless network on a Cisco WLAN in a small to medium-sized business (SMB) to enterprise network. This CCNA Wireless study guide includes written and hands-on labs to prepare you for configuring, monitoring, and troubleshooting basic tasks of a Cisco WLAN in SMB and enterprise networks.

The 640-721 exam tests your knowledge of installing, configuring, operating, and troubleshooting small to medium-sized WLANs utilizing skills that enable you to:

note.eps

Be sure to check my and/or Cisco’s website for the latest Cisco CCNA objectives and other Cisco exams, objectives, and certifications—they can change at a moment’s notice.

How Do You Become a CCNA Wireless?

The way to become a CCNA Wireless is to pass two tests, the CCNA 640-802 and then the CCNA Wireless 640-721, each at $250 a pop, although the path may vary depending on your experience.

I can’t stress this enough: it’s critical that you have some hands-on experience with Cisco devices. If you can get a hold of some Cisco wireless gear, you’re set. But if you can’t, I’ve worked hard to provide hundreds of configuration examples throughout this book to help network administrators (or people who want to become network wireless administrators) learn what they need to know to pass the CCNA Wireless exam (although I can’t think of anyone who’s passed the CCNA or the CCNA Wireless exams without some type of hands-on experience).

note.eps

For Cisco Authorized hands-on training, please see www.lammle.com. Each student will get hands-on experience by configuring their own controller and lightweight access points, as well as experience with WCS software, a wireless analyzer, and other tools.

What Does This Book Cover?

This book covers everything you need to know in order to pass the CCNA Wireless (640-721) exam. However, taking the time to study and practice with Cisco’s new wireless gear is the real key to success.

You will learn the following information in this book:

How to Use This Book

If you want a solid foundation for the serious effort of preparing for the Cisco Certified Network Associate Wireless (640-721) exam, then look no further. I have spent hundreds of hours putting together this book with the sole intention of helping you to pass the CCNA Wireless exam and learn how to configure Cisco controllers and lightweight access points (among hundreds of other things!).

This book is loaded with valuable information, and you will get the most out of your studying time if you understand how I put the book together.

To best benefit from this book, I recommend the following study method:

1. Take the assessment test immediately following this introduction. (The answers are at the end of the test.) It’s okay if you don’t know any of the answers; that’s why you bought this book! Carefully read over the explanations for any question you get wrong. This information should help you plan your study strategy. My recommendation is to just start reading from Chapter 1 and don’t stop until you’re all the way through Chapter 12.

2. Study each chapter carefully, making sure that you fully understand the information and the test objectives listed at the beginning of each one. Pay extra-close attention to any chapter that includes material covered in questions you missed in the assessment test.

3. Complete each written lab at the end of each chapter. Do not skip these written exercises because they directly relate to the CCNA Wireless objectives and what you must glean from the chapters in which they appear. Do not just skim these labs! Make sure you understand completely the reason for each answer.

4. Complete all hands-on labs in the chapter (not all chapters have hands-on labs), referring to the text of the chapter so that you understand the reason for each step you take. If you do not have Cisco equipment available, either buy some from eBay or your local Cisco reseller, or rent some Cisco Wireless pods from a Cisco Authorized training center.

5. Answer all the review questions related to each chapter. (The answers appear at the end of the chapters.) Note the questions that confuse you and study those sections of the book again. Do not just skim these questions! Make sure you understand completely the reason for each answer. Remember that these will not be the exact questions you find on the exam; they are written to help you understand the chapter material.

6. Try your hand at the two bonus exams that are included on the companion CD. The questions in these exams appear only on the CD. Check out www.lammle.com for more Cisco exam prep questions. The questions found at my website will be updated at least monthly, if not weekly or even daily! Before you take your test, be sure to visit my website for questions, videos, audios, and other useful information that might be available.

7. Test yourself using all the flashcards on the CD. This is a brand-new updated flashcard program to help you prepare for the CCNA Wireless exam. It is a great study tool!

To learn every bit of the material covered in this book, you’ll have to apply yourself regularly, and with discipline. Try to set aside the same time period every day to study, and select a comfortable and quiet place to do so. If you work hard, you will be surprised at how quickly you learn this material.

If you follow the steps listed here and study and practice the review questions, bonus exams, and the electronic flashcards, as well as all the written and hands-on labs, it would be hard to fail the CCNA Wireless exam. However, studying for the CCNA Wireless exam is like trying to get in shape—if you do not go to the gym every day, you won’t get in shape.

Recommended Home Lab Setup

It is critical to get some hands-on experience with both Cisco controllers and lightweight access points. The following is a list of equipment I recommend you try to acquire (at a minimum) for your home lab studies. If you are concerned about the high cost of purchasing the equipment, keep in mind that Cisco hardware can be easily resold on used markets such as Craigslist or eBay. Combine that fact with adding an extremely hot certification to your resume, and it’s an investment well worth the initial cost.

Qty Item
1 Cisco 1140 or 1242 Access Point
1 Cisco 2100 Series Controller
1 Wireless laptop
1 Switch and Ethernet cables
1 Bonus: Wireless Analyzer software on wireless laptop
1 Bonus: Fast PC with WCS Software

This equipment should give you the ability to practice configuring Cisco Unified Wireless Networks (CUWNs) using the command line, web GUI, and CCA methods detailed in this book. There are various combinations of controllers and lightweight APs that you can use that will get the same results as the products I listed here. Keep in mind that the CUWN 500 series devices can also be used, but I don’t recommend them because of their limited upgrade path, and they do not cover all the exam objectives.

Todd Lammle Videos and Audios

I have created a full CCNA series of videos and audios that can be purchased in either DVD or iPod downloadable format. These can be found at www.lammlepress.com. While you’re there, be sure and check out my forum and blog, which is updated weekly at www.lammle.com.

What’s on the CD?

We worked hard to provide some great tools to help you with your certification process. All of the following tools should be loaded on your workstation when you’re studying for the test.

The Sybex Test Preparation Software

The test preparation software prepares you to pass the CCNA Wireless exam. In this test engine, you will find all the review and assessment questions from the book, plus two additional bonus exams that appear exclusively on the CD.

Electronic Flashcards for the PC

To prepare for the exam, you can read this book, study the review questions at the end of each chapter, and work through the practice exams included in the book and on the companion CD. But wait, there’s more! You can also test yourself with the flashcards included on the CD. If you can get through these difficult questions and understand the answers, you’ll know you’re ready for the CCNA exam.

The flashcards include over 100 questions specifically written to hit you hard and make sure you are ready for the exam. Between the review questions, bonus exams, and flashcards on the CD, you’ll be more than prepared for the exam.

CCNA Wireless Study Guide (640-721) in PDF

Sybex offers the CCNA Wireless Study Guide (640-721) in PDF on the CD so you can read the book on your PC or laptop. (Acrobat Reader is also included on the CD.)

Where Do You Take the Exams?

You may take the CCNA Wireless exam at any of the Pearson VUE authorized centers (www.vue.com) or call (877) 404-EXAM (3926).

To register for a Cisco Certified Network Associate exam:

1. Determine the number of the exam you want to take. (The CCNA Wireless exam number is 640-721.)

2. Register with the nearest Pearson VUE testing center. At this point, you will be asked to pay in advance for the exam. As of this writing, the exam is $250 and must be taken within one year of payment. You can schedule exams up to six weeks in advance or as late as the same day you want to take it—but if you fail a Cisco exam, you must wait five days before you will be allowed to retake it. If something comes up and you need to cancel or reschedule your exam appointment, contact Pearson VUE at least 24 hours in advance.

3. When you schedule the exam, you’ll get instructions regarding all appointment and cancellation procedures, the ID requirements, and information about the testing center location.

Tips for Taking Your CCNA Wireless Exam

The CCNA Wireless exam contains about 75–85 questions and must be completed in 90 minutes or less. This information can change per exam. You must get a score of about 85 percent to pass this exam, but again, each exam can be different.

Many questions on the exam have answer choices that at first glance look identical—especially the syntax questions! Remember to read through the choices carefully because close doesn’t cut it. If you get commands in the wrong order or forget one measly character, you’ll get the question wrong. So, to practice, do the hands-on exercises at the end of this book’s chapters over and over again until they feel natural to you.

Also, never forget that the right answer is the Cisco answer. In many cases, more than one appropriate answer is presented, but the correct answer is the one that Cisco recommends. On the exam, you’re always instructed to pick one, two, or three, never “choose all that apply.” The CCNA Wireless 640-721 exam may include the following test formats:

In addition to multiple choice and fill-in response questions, Cisco Career Certification exams may include performance simulation exam items, which makes hands-on experience even more important before taking the exam.

Here are some general tips for exam success:

After you complete an exam, you’ll get immediate, online notification of your pass or fail status, a printed Examination Score Report that indicates your pass or fail status, and your exam results by section. (The test administrator will give you the printed score report.) Test scores are automatically forwarded to Cisco within five working days after you take the test, so you don’t need to send your score to them. If you pass the exam, you’ll receive confirmation from Cisco, typically within two to four weeks, sometimes longer.

How to Contact the Author

You can reach Todd Lammle through his forum at www.lammle.com.

Assessment Test

1. You need to change the native VLAN on a switched trunk link. Which IOS command and prompt is correct?

A. switch(config)#switchport trunk native vlan 500

B. switch(config-if)#switchport native vlan 400

C. switch(config-if)#switchport trunk native vlan 300

D. switch(config)#switchport trunk-access native vlan 200

2. When a station is roaming through an ESS network, how is the station informed that it has roamed?

A. The station will not know it has roamed because the SSID is the same on all APs.

B. The MAC address of each station is stored in the MAC Address Table on the AP.

C. The AP assigns a derived MAC address for each SSID on the AP.

D. The Trunk link connected to the AP uses frame tagging to identify each frame using only 802.1q.

3. If you have an AP with an output of 20dB, connected to a 21dBi antenna and a 50-foot cable, what is your EIRP?

A. 200mW

B. 500mw

C. 2.5W

D. 5W

E. 10W

4. You have connected an antenna that radiates perfectly in all directions. What is the name of the value used for reference?

A. dBi

B. dBm

C. dBd

D. dB

5. What is the encoding used to achieve 1 and 2Mbps when DSSS with DBPSK and DQPSK is used to encode data in the RF signal?

A. CCK

B. DSSS

C. QAM

D. Barker 11

6. Which of the following techniques helps reduce multipath issues by using subcarriers to carry data, which in turn increases bandwidth?

A. QAM

B. DSSS

C. QPSK

D. OFDM

7. An AP, when using the RTS/CTS CSMA/CA timing in a DSSS CCK wireless network, uses what protocol to provide high priority to an ACK?

A. DCF

B. PCF

C. SIFS

D. DIFS

8. Which 5GHz band allows an EIRP of up to 36dBm?

A. UNII-1

B. UNII-2

C. UNII-2 Extended

D. UNII-3

9. You are a consultant at a large company and an entry-level wireless technician asks you in which protocol PACs are used. Which answer do you give this person?

A. EAP-MD5

B. EAP-TLS

C. EAP-Fast

D. PEAP

10. WPA authentication establishes the PTK during what process?

A. The four-way handshake

B. The exchange of nonces

C. The distribution of the group transient key

D. The exchange of the broadcast keys

11. In the CSSC, which two of the following security types allow choosing AES or TKIP?

A. WPA Personal

B. WPA Enterprise

C. 802.1X

D. Shared WEP

12. Linux has built-in tools. Which of the wireless tools allows scripting or automating actions when the computer boots up or when a particular SSID is encountered?

A. NetworkManager

B. NetworkManagerDispatcher

C. iwconfig

D. AirPort Extreme

13. An AP cycles through many states before it can work with a WLC and it is important that the states are remembered in order. Which would be the last state that an AP cycles through to locate the WLC and to become fully functional?

A. Join

B. Config

C. Image Data

D. Run

14. When a single WLAN is operating in symmetric roaming mode while the others are in asymmetric roaming mode, those clients will use what as their WLC regardless of where they roam?

A. Anchor

B. Master controller

C. Mobility anchor

D. Secondary controller

15. You boot a Cisco 521 AP and need to know the IP address set by default. What did Cisco set the address to when configured at the factory?

A. No configuration; it is set as a DHCP client.

B. 192.168.1.100

C. 192.168.1.1

D. You must statically configure the AP IP address each time.

16. If you are using the CCA and your APs are in standalone mode, how many APs are supported in the Cisco Mobility Express solution?

A. Two

B. Three

C. Four

D. Five

17. You need to provide 802.1X authentication. How many TACACS+ servers can be defined for override on the WLAN?

A. Two

B. Three

C. Four

D. Five

18. You have two physical ports, and you can see in the WLC that logical interfaces are available as well. Which of the followings statements are true about the ports and interfaces on the WLC?

A. Multiple ports can be mapped to an interface.

B. Multiple interfaces can be mapped to a port.

C. An interface is a physical connection.

D. A port is a logical connection.

19. When configuring Local EAP-Fast on the controller, four parameters must be set. Which four of the following are the parameters?

A. Authority ID

B. Server Key

C. Time To Live For The PAC

D. Certificate Authority

E. Authority ID Information

20. You have an older WLAN that still uses static WEP for some reason. This older WLAN has security configured to use static WEP as well as 802.1X. How does the system know which process to invoke when a client is attempting to connect on this WLAN?

A. If the client starts with an EAPoL hello, the 802.1X process starts.

B. If the client starts with an EAPoW hello, the 802.1X process starts.

C. If the client fails the WEP process, the 802.1X process begins.

D. If the client fails the 802.1 process, the static WEP process begins.

21. You need to maintain consistency between the WLC configuration and the configuration in the WCS database. Which three of the following functions are not used?

A. Audit

B. Replicate

C. Synchronize

D. Transfer

22. You want to gather information on your WCS system from your 12 distributed Cisco Spectrum Experts; however, you cannot get information from all the devices. What could the problem be?

A. You don’t have enough licenses to support 12 instances of Cisco Spectrum Experts.

B. WCS cannot import data from Cisco Spectrum Experts—only from AirMagnet.

C. WCS can only gather information from 10 Cisco Spectrum Experts at a time.

D. You don’t have a clue as to how to do any of this.

23. You want to achieve the best fidelity for your clients from your APs. What is the best distance that is recommended?

A. 30 to 50 feet

B. 50 to 70 feet

C. 75 to 125 feet

D. 900 to 1100 feet

24. The Sales AP cannot associate to the WLC. What approach should you take when troubleshooting? (Choose two.)

A. Reset and reload the AP.

B. Telnet to the AP.

C. SSH to the WLC.

D. Execute debug lwapp events enable on the WLC.

E. Execute debug lwapp events enable on the AP.

F. Reboot the AP and the controller.

Answers to Assessment Test

1. C. To change the native VLAN on a switch trunk link, from the switch interface configured as a trunk, use the switchport trunk native vlan vlan#, in this example, vlan 300. For more information, please see Chapter 1.

2. C. Stations are associated to an AP using a MAC address that the APs derive from their base MAC address. The stations, when handed off to another AP, see the new address they are receiving from the new AP they roamed to. For more information, please see Chapter 1.

3. D. To begin, 20dB is 100mW. We’ll start by adding a tenfold increase in power twice for the 21dB passive antenna, which first is 1000mW, or 30dB and then tenfold again to 10,000mW (10W). But wait, we still need to take the loss of the 50 feet of cable, which is a 3.5dB loss. This cuts the power in half, so our answer is 5W—which is illegal in most, if not all, places. For more information, please see Chapter 2.

4. A. An isotropic radiator is a perfect antenna that radiates in all directions. The value that references an antenna’s gain against this antenna is dBi. For more information, please see Chapter 2.

5. D. DBPSK and DQPSK use barker 11 to achieve only 1 and 2Mbps throughput. To get the 5.5 and 11Mbps speeds of DSSS, CCK is used to encode the data in the RF signal. For more information, please see Chapter 3.

6. D. OFDM uses 52 subcarriers that are used to help reduce and resist multiple issues. For more information, please see Chapter 3.

7. C. DIFS is normal priority whereas SIFS is high priority. For more information, please see Chapter 4.

8. D. The UNII-3 band was intended for outdoor bridge products and permitted the use of external antennas. Output power should not exceed 1W (30dBm), with no more than 36dBm EIRP. For more information, please see Chapter 4.

9. C. EAP-Fast is the only method that creates and uses PACs. For more information, please see Chapter 5.

10. A. The purpose of the four-way handshake is to establish the pairwise transient key (PTK). For more information, please see Chapter 5.

11. A, B. Shared WEP and WEP options do not allow for choosing AES or TKIP, but both versions of WPA do. For more information, please see Chapter 6.

12. B. NetworkManagerDispatcher allows scripting or automating actions when the computer boots up or when a particular SSID is encountered. For more information, please see Chapter 6.

13. D. The order of states is Discovery, Join, Image Data, Config, and Run. For more information, please see Chapter 7.

14. C. When a single WLAN is operating in symmetric roaming mode while the others are in asymmetric roaming mode, those clients will use a mobility anchor WLC regardless of where they roam. For more information, please see Chapter 7.

15. A. The 521 is set as a DHCP client as the default. For more information, please see Chapter 8.

16. B. In standalone mode only three APs are supported by the CCA. For more information, please see Chapter 8.

17. B. Three TACACS+ servers can be defined in the WLC. For more information, please see Chapter 9.

18. B. Ports are physical interfaces. Interfaces are logical, and multiple interfaces can be mapped to a port. For more information, please see Chapter 9.

19. A, B, C, E. The four parameters to be set are Authority ID, Authority ID Information, Server Key, and Time To Live For The PAC. For more information, please see Chapter 10.

20. B. If the client starts with an EAPoW hello (EAP over wireless), the 802.1X process starts. An EAPoL (EAP over LAN) frame would not originate from the wireless network. For more information, please see Chapter 10.

21. B, C, D. The Audit function is used to maintain consistency between the WLC configuration and the configuration in the WCS database. For more information, please see Chapter 11.

22. C. Up to 10 Cisco Spectrum Experts can send information to the WCS. For more information, please see Chapter 11.

23. B. For good location fidelity, the APs should be within 50 to 70 feet of one another, but each situation will vary. For more information, please see Chapter 12.

24. C, D. To troubleshoot an AP that cannot associate with the WLC, you could either SSH to the WLC and use the GUI to observe the message logs or you could execute debug lwapp events enable on the WLC. For more information, please see Chapter 12.