Cover Page

Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL AESTHETICS

THE INTENTIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN

CONCLUSION

Chapter 2: LIGHTING PRINCIPLES

VISUAL PHENOMENA

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF LIGHTING

PURPOSE OF ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING

PHYSICAL NATURE OF LIGHT

LIGHT SOURCES

BASIC SOURCES OF INTERIOR LIGHTING

ILLUMINATION

Chapter 3: LIGHTING CALCULATIONS

LIGHTING CALCULATION PROCEDURES

POINT-TO-POINT CALCULATIONS

ZONAL CAVITY CALCULATIONS

LIGHTING CALCULATIONS EXAMPLES

Chapter 4: DAYLIGHTING

INTRODUCTION

DESIGN INTENTIONS FOR DAYLIGHTING

DAYLIGHT CALCULATIONS

DAYLIGHTING DIAGRAMS

Chapter 5: ACOUSTICS

INTRODUCTION

PHYSICS OF SOUND

ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS

SOUND DISTRIBUTION

SOUND ISOLATION

Chapter 6: THE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT

THEORY OF HEAT: AN HISTORIC REVIEW

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

THERMAL TRANSFER

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT

CLIMATE

Chapter 7: THERMAL CALCULATIONS

HEAT LOSS

CODE COMPLIANCE

ANNUAL HEATING DEMAND

HEAT GAIN

Chapter 8: HISTORIC REVIEW

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY OF HEATING

CENTRAL HEATING

HISTORY OF COOLING

Chapter 9: ECS DESIGN INTENTIONS

ARCHITECTURAL VERSUS MECHANICAL CONTROL OF THE ENVIRONMENT

ECS ZONING

THE BEST ECS

Chapter 10: ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

CATEGORIES OF ECS

HEAT GENERATION PROCESS

REFRIGERATION PROCESS

PSYCHROMETRICS

HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

HYDRONIC TRANSFER UNITS

AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

AIR SYSTEM SUBZONE CONTROL

OVERALL SYSTEM SIZING AND SELECTION

PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM

Chapter 11: PLUMBING

INTRODUCTION

WATER SUPPLY

RAINWATER CONTROL

WATER DISTRIBUTION

PLUMBING SUPPLY FIXTURES

WATER REMOVAL

WATER DRAINAGE

SEWAGE TREATMENT

Chapter 12: ELECTRICITY

INTRODUCTION

BASIC PRINCIPLES

SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER

ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

BUILDING DISTRIBUTION

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS

Chapter 13: FIRE PROTECTION AND EGRESS

FIRE SAFETY EGRESS

STAIRS

FIRE EGRESS

FIRE CONTROL−PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION

Chapter 14: ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS

ELEVATORS

ELEVATOR SYSTEM DESIGN

ELEVATORING

ESCALATORS

MOVING WALKWAYS

INDEX

Title Page

PREFACE

Since the beginning of time, living species have had to find ways to adapt to the natural environment. While some adaptation can be achieved physiologically or the need for it can be reduced through migration, many species, particularly humans, have also developed physical structures to help adjust the natural conditions to form an environment that can not only support life but also provide comfort. These constructions are the beginning of architecture, but for building to achieve this status, it must also embrace an emotional expression of intention or, as some would say, a sense of poetry.

Over time, designs intended merely as a way of providing functional adaptation to the natural environment often acquired an aesthetic quality that transcended their initial purpose. At times, perhaps when the intentions of these designs were no longer understood, the designs were applied to conditions for which they were not applicable or no longer relevant. As such, these designs acquired an intrinsic value in terms of their compositional or artistic expression rather than their functional potential.

With the development of modern technology, reliance on direct architectural intervention became less critical. The developing architectural form often was possible only because technology could not only adjust the natural environmental conditions but could also correct for the additional imposition of the architecture. The assumption was that technology made anything possible, and the intention of architectural design was no longer focused on environmental adaptation. For this reason, many designers felt that they were free to pursue poetic expression while relying on others to develop technological methods that could support this freedom. Unfortunately, this practice has given rise to a serious disconnect from the basic intentions of design.

The unfortunate result is that today architecture often seems to be part of our environmental problems rather than part of the necessary solution. Architectural design should be able to contribute to the solution of our environmental problems in a manner that is both effective and poetic. But for this to happen, architectural designers must be aware of the basic concepts and principles of the various environmental issues that are critical to sustaining life on this planet. While we as designers can embrace technology and utilize it to enhance our efforts, we must begin by understanding what is intended rather than focus on what is possible, particularly in terms of utilizing technology. Based on this belief, the title selected for this textbook was Environmental Issues for Architecture, for we must understand these issues if we are to realize the environmental contributions that can be achieved through effective architectural design. At the same time, we need to be knowledgeable about technology so that we can successfully integrate its potential into design. Architecture can then achieve its purpose and enhance the physical design.

As an architectural educator, it is important that I avoid the temptation of prescribing specific solutions to complex problems. Instead, my challenge in lectures and in the studio is to attempt to instill in my students an awareness of the~critical issues that must be addressed, an understanding of the concepts and principles that underlie these issues, and a commitment to work to resolve them through responsible design. In this vein, I have written this book with the hope that it might inspire future designers to appreciate the potential that environmental issues have for architecture and to support that inspiration with the understanding and skill that can help them achieve this potential.

This intention was the basis for a conference held many years ago in Boston for architecture faculty teaching technology. The gathering started with a keynote address by Jerrold Zacharias, a professor of physics at MIT. He began his presentation by swinging one of two disks that hung behind a projection screen located above a huge chalkboard. As this disk swung back and forth, the second disk began moving in what appeared to be a somewhat erratic manner. Professor Zacharias began to compare the two motions and then suggested that we could analyze them mathematically in order to figure out what was causing the erratic movement. He then proceeded to fill the chalkboard with mathematical equations and finally exclaimed, “Now we know what’s happening!”

As a nonengineer with a somewhat lazy mathematical mind, I had pretty much ignored his presentation, thinking instead about the wonderful things that I could do in Boston, but I continued to pay enough attention to be amazed that Professor Zacharias could fill the chalkboard and solve the problematic equation just before running out of space. I was also astonished that so many in the audience, who like me were teachers in architectural schools, seemed not only to be able to follow the presentation but apparently even relished the mathematical experience.

After Professor Zacharias’s announcement that we now understood the conditions of the swinging disks, much of the audience, whom I assumed had an engineering background, initially seemed to agree. But then after a few moments of silence, it became apparent that while the equation had been solved, what was causing the two disks to move was still not clear. And then, at the right moment of~bewilderment, Professor Zacharias raised the screen; there, to the amazement of the audience, was the explanation—a simple double pendulum with a stick connecting the two.

Professor Zacharias then talked about pendulums and vibrating strings, explaining that a guitar string is plucked and, depending on the type and length of the string, different pitches of sound can be produced. He then explained that with a violin, the desire is to sustain numerous repeated plucks of the strings; this is why a bow is used. Rosin is put on the bow, and as the bow is pulled across the strings, the rosin grabs a string and pulls it. Since the rosin cannot “hold on,” as the bow is pulled across the string, a series of repeated plucks is established.

Once again, the audience seemed to understand. But again, Professor Zacharias would not let it rest. He said, “That’s not the issue. The problem is that most of us didn’t understand that there was a problem!”

While not necessarily problems, the various issues addressed in this book need to be understood in context with architectural design. In an attempt to help you grasp the connections between environmental issues and architecture, the discussion of each issue includes a short historic review to help you make connections with the general development of architecture that have occurred over time, especially since the Industrial Revolution. In addition, the order in which the various issues are organized is somewhat different from the traditional way in which environmental concerns are presented in most textbooks on environmental technology. While it is true that thermal issues are very important and have a major impact on design, this book begins with discussions of lighting and acoustics. This tends to parallel somewhat the way we actually experience space—through seeing and hearing. The expectation is that this order of presentation will further help you realize that Environmental Issues for Architecture can contribute to the foundations for architectural design. But since there is more than one way to approach design and since each issue is presented somewhat independently, you may consider each environmental issue in any order that makes sense to you.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

While the preparation of this book was essentially an individual effort, it was achieved with the help of many people to whom I am deeply indebted. Without their support, which has been provided in various ways, this publication would not have been possible.

Since this book covers material that I have taught for more than 40 years, I am most indebted to the many students who have taken my courses covering the various environmental technology topics. Not only did they provide the initial motivation to organize my lecture presentations of the different topics, but their requests to review my personal notes encouraged me to clarify and expand them as handouts that could help make connections between the assigned readings and class presentations. These handouts of my notes provided the initial draft of this book, although they have been expanded and, I trust, refined. So again, thanks to all of my students.

My knowledge of the various environmental issues is based in part on the work of many different authors who have effectively presented this material in their own books. While I have attempted to take a slightly different approach in this textbook, trying to emphasize the material from an architectural design point of view, my grasp of the material would not have been possible without my exposure to their publications, most of which are listed at the end of the chapters. I also want to acknowledge my association with the many members of the Society of Building Science Educators (SBSE). Through various gatherings and sharing of teaching materials, but especially through the ongoing dialogue on a broad range of important issues related to teaching on environmental controls and architectural design, the SBSE has been a great support and has encouraged me to pursue this effort.

I must also give thanks to my teaching colleagues. While my interaction with all of them has supported me over the years, I must give special recognition to my teaching buddy, my longtime officemate, and one of my dearest and closest friends, Richard Stevens. Dick is a mathematician and engineer who taught structures at the University of Cincinnati for many years, but his personal design sensitivity and aesthetic appreciation always emphasized the connection between technical considerations and architectural design.

I am also especially grateful to my colleagues Patrick Snadon and Jim Postell, both of whom strongly encouraged me to pursue the effort necessary to prepare this book.

Patrick, who is an accomplished historian of architecture and interior design and author of The Domestic Architecture of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, agreed to read an early draft of Chapter 8, which covers the history of thermal control. While he made many helpful critical comments, most importantly Patrick suggested that I take it further, although rather than focus on history, I decided to incorporate historical discussions related to each of the issues addressed in this comprehensive book on the full range of environmental concerns.

Jim persuaded me to follow up on Patrick’s suggestion. Jim and I have taught together for many years in our foundation design studio in the School of Architecture and Interior Design, and building upon this association, we have also partnered on several actual design projects. Having recently completed an interesting and informative textbook, Furniture Design, Jim gave me the confidence to write this book, and he made it possible by connecting me with Paul Drougas at John Wiley & Sons. I also want to thank Paul and his colleagues at Wiley, especially Donna Conte, for their help and guidance in this effort.

I must also thank Donald Mouch, who was my graduate assistant as I began rewriting my notes. Not only did he relieve me of some of the work associated with my teaching, Donald also reviewed the early drafts of several chapters, providing helpful input that ultimately encouraged my rewriting; I trust it has helped clarify my presentation.

I must also give credit to my former teacher, mentor, and employer—Sidney J. Greenleaf. Sid introduced me to the environmental technologies as my professor when I was in graduate school. His classes instilled in me an understanding of the basic principles underlying the performance of these technologies and an appreciation of how this can inform architectural design. But more importantly, as my employer for a few years, he trusted in my understanding and ability, which provided me with an extraordinary opportunity to be involved in a critical way in a number of very interesting projects. This work forced me to expand my own explorations and gave me a wealth of experience in a relatively short time. Sid was also instrumental in making it possible for me to teach a course on climatological design at the Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) shortly after my graduation and then made contacts for me at the University of Cincinnati, where I have spent most of my teaching career.

I am also extremely indebted to my family, especially my dear wife, Susan, who not only encouraged me to complete this book, but supported me with love and understanding as I struggled with the difficult task of rewriting during the past year. I could not have succeeded without her understanding and compassion, not only in preparing this book and teaching and practicing architecture for many years but, more importantly, in achieving a life of happiness and fulfillment.