001

Table of Contents
 
Title Page
Copyright Page
Dedication
Acknowledgements
About the Authors
 
Table of Figures
Introduction
CHAPTER 1 - Understanding BIM
 
A Brief History of Architectural Documentation
Advantages of a BIM Approach
How BIM Is Different from CAD
Why Revit?
Revit Concepts
Types of Elements in Revit
Tips for Getting Started in Revit
 
CHAPTER 2 - Getting Acquainted with the Revit Interface and File Types
 
Overview of the Revit User Interface
Modifying and Personalizing the Interface
Selection and View Navigation
Using Keyboard Shortcuts
Setting Up Your Project Environment
Revit File Formats
 
CHAPTER 3 - Views
 
Visualizing a Revit Model
Creating Views
Working with Views
Schedules
 
CHAPTER 4 - Modeling Basics
 
Levels and Grids
Basic Walls
Floors, Roofs, and Ceilings
Doors and Windows
Components
Stairs and Railings
Getting Started with a Project
 
CHAPTER 5 - Modifying Elements
 
Standard Editing Tools
Additional Editing Tools
Graphic and Visual Overrides
 
CHAPTER 6 - Extended Modeling
 
Walls: Advanced Modeling Features
Curtain Walls: Advanced Design Techniques
Roofs and Slabs: Advanced Shape Editing
 
CHAPTER 7 - Working with Other Applications
 
Exporting Your Data
Exporting DWG Drawings
Importing and Linking
Working with Imported Files
Working with Civil Engineering DWG Files
Converting 2D Drawings into a 3D Model
Starting a New Project
Starting a Model from a Scanned Drawing
 
CHAPTER 8 - Preparing Documents for Clients
 
Color-Coded Drawings
Creating Presentation Graphics
Shadows and Solar Studies
Rendering a Perspective
 
CHAPTER 9 - Sheets
 
Documentation Trends
Preparing Views
The Sheet
 
CHAPTER 10 - Annotations
 
Annotating Your Project
Dimensions
Text and Keynotes
 
CHAPTER 11 - Construction Documentation
 
Formatting Your Documents
Schedules
Drafting Views
Drafting Tools
Importing CAD Details
Reusing Details from Other Projects
 
CHAPTER 12 - Printing
 
Printing Your Documents
Revit Printing Tips
Publishing Your BIM Data
 
CHAPTER 13 - Advanced Topics
 
Understanding Families
Using Design Options
Worksharing—the Multi-User Environment
 
CHAPTER 14 - Tips and Troubleshooting
 
Optimizing Performance
Best Practices
File Corruption
 
Index
GALLERY

Table of Figures
 
Figure 1.1
Figure 1.2
Figure 1.3
Figure 1.4
Figure 1.5
Figure 1.6
Figure 1.7
Figure 1.8
Figure 1.9
Figure 1.10
Figure 1.11
Figure 1.12
Figure 1.13
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
Figure 2.3
Figure 2.4
Figure 2.5 Default toolbar settings
Figure 2.6 The Type Selector
Figure 2.7 Context menu that appears when you right-click elements
Figure 2.8 The Options bar changes for (top) walls, (center) doors, and (bottom) rooms.
Figure 2.9 The status bar when (top) selecting or hovering over a wall, (center) drawing a wall, and (bottom) using the Rotate command
Figure 2.10
Figure 2.11
Figure 2.12
Figure 2.13
Figure 2.14 Links appear in the Project Browser.
Figure 2.15 Using the Type Selector
Figure 2.16 Cascaded views
Figure 2.17 Tiled views
Figure 2.18 The View Control bar
Figure 2.19 Custom scale options
Figure 2.20
Figure 2.21
Figure 2.22
Figure 2.23
Figure 2.24 Advanced Model Graphics in the View Control bar
Figure 2.25 Advanced Model Graphics Settings dialog box
Figure 2.26 Sun studies
Figure 2.27 Shadow view with silhouette edges
Figure 2.28 Crop Region options in the View Control bar
Figure 2.29 Crop region examples
Figure 2.30 Hide/Isolate options in the View Control bar
Figure 2.31 Hide/Isolate context menu options
Figure 2.32 Reveal mode options in the View Control bar
Figure 2.33 Floor plan
Figure 2.34 Button display with text turned on and off
Figure 2.35 Undocking the ProjectBrowser
Figure 2.36 Project Browser undocked
Figure 2.37 Keyboard shortcuts indicated
Figure 2.38 Windows mouse with a scroll wheel
Figure 2.39 A context menu with view-specific information and options
Figure 2.40 SteeringWheel tool in 2D view allows for zoom, pan, and rewind.
Figure 2.41 Rewind allows a one-click access to different previous camera states of the model.
Figure 2.42 SteeringWheel tool in Rewind
Figure 2.43 Use the on-screen controls to move camera.
Figure 2.44 Use the Try Me buttons to get familiar with SteeringWheels controls.
Figure 2.45 SteeringWheel tool in the preview window
Figure 2.46 ViewCube tool
Figure 2.47 A 3D view oriented to Top using the ViewCube
Figure 2.48 The ViewCube in perspective view—dragging the corners of the ViewCube you can easily orient the view in a direction of your choice.
Figure 2.49 Left-to-right window selection
Figure 2.50 Right-to-left window selection
Figure 2.51 Dragging a grip enables a preview of the movement’s outcome.
Figure 2.52 Wall grips and shape handles
Figure 2.53
Figure 2.54 Wall grip when multiple walls are selected
Figure 2.55 Manipulating multiple walls using the grips
Figure 2.56 Manipulating the wall constrained to a plane
Figure 2.57 Referencing similar elements
Figure 2.58 A new element is constrained when created near a similar one.
Figure 2.59 Use the spacebar to rotate elements during placement.
Figure 2.60
Figure 2.61 Door flip controls
Figure 2.62
Figure 2.63
Figure 2.64
Figure 2.65
Figure 2.66
Figure 2.67
Figure 2.68
Figure 2.69
Figure 2.70
Figure 2.71
Figure 2.72 The Project Units dialog box
Figure 2.73 Slope settings in the Project Units dialog box
Figure 2.74 All major currency symbols are provided for the new currency settings.
Figure 2.75 The Snaps dialog box
Figure 2.76 Snap Overrides appears in the context menu.
Figure 2.77
Figure 2.78
Figure 2.79 The Options dialog box
Figure 2.80 The new SteeringWheels tab allows you to control various aspects of the visibility of the wheels as well as additional Zoom and Orbit settings.
Figure 2.81 The new ViewCube tab lets you specify appearance and behavioral settings of the ViewCube.
Figure 2.82 Revit library-object library
Figure 2.83 Autodesk content website
Figure 3.1
Figure 3.2
Figure 3.3 Where to click
Figure 3.4 Choose the Level command from the Drafting (or Basics) tab in the Design bar.
Figure 3.5 New Plan dialog box
Figure 3.6 Duplicate View submenu
Figure 3.7 Accessing the View Range dialog box
Figure 3.8 View Range dialog box
Figure 3.9 Cut plane functionality
Figure 3.10 Cut plane and bottomplane shown at the upper floor level
Figure 3.11 Cut plane and bottomplane shown at the lower floor level
Figure 3.12 Cut plane and bottomplane shown at 1 meter above the lower floor level
Figure 3.13 Cut plane and bottomplane shown below the lower floor level
Figure 3.14 Some Revit Family Categories are not cuttable.
Figure 3.15 A highlighted elevation tag. Note that the active elevations’ associated boxes are checked.
Figure 3.16 Elevation width and depth
Figure 3.17 Elevation tag with its corresponding sheet marker
Figure 3.18
Figure 3.19 Selecting Reference Other View
Figure 3.20 Legend with plan notes
Figure 3.21 Door Legend notes
Figure 3.22 Click the 3D button on the toolbar to create a 3D view of the model.
Figure 3.23 View Cube facilitates easy orbiting and viewing of the model.
Figure 3.24 Axonometric view of a house
Figure 3.25 Perspective view of a house
Figure 3.26 A camera view placed within the model
Figure 3.27 New Schedule dialog box
Figure 3.28 Schedule in table form
Figure 4.1 Levels drive floor-to-floor heights.
Figure 4.2 Base and top constraints of a wall
Figure 4.3 Level parameter for a desk
Figure 4.4 Symbol visibility
Figure 4.5 A selected grid symbol
Figure 4.6 Wall representations
Figure 4.7 Wall properties
Figure 4.8 Wall layers and materials
Figure 4.9 A stud wall joining to a brick wall in plan
Figure 4.10 A customized curtainwall
Figure 4.11 Walls join with floors and roofs.
Figure 4.12 The flat roof is by footprint on the left, and arc roof by extrusion on the right.
Figure 4.13 Example showing a window hosted by a wall
Figure 4.14 Door representations
Figure 4.15 Wall-mounted light fixture
Figure 4.16 A stair
Figure 4.17 The Multistory parameter
Figure 4.18
Figure 4.19
Figure 4.20
Figure 4.21
Figure 4.22
Figure 4.23
Figure 4.24
Figure 4.25 View-display modes can be changed using the View Controlbar.
Figure 4.26 Connected walls can be selected by using the Tab key prior to selecting.
Figure 4.27 Swapping wall types
Figure 4.28 Selecting walls
Figure 4.29 Walls’ type changed
Figure 4.30 Extending walls
Figure 4.31 Choosing Create Similar using the context menu and the toolbar
Figure 4.32 Flipping a wall
Figure 4.33
Figure 4.34
Figure 4.35
Figure 4.36
Figure 4.37
Figure 4.38 Adding walls to Level 2
Figure 4.39 Adding closet walls
Figure 4.40 Modifying wall height
Figure 4.41 Creating interior walls
Figure 4.42 An example of a bad wall join
Figure 4.43 Modifying the wall join
Figure 4.44 Aligning the wall
Figure 4.45 Finished walls
Figure 4.46 Interior walls extending to T.O. Roof 3
Figure 4.47 Clean up this join condition also.
Figure 4.48 Align the finished faces of these walls.
Figure 4.49 Change the wall height.
Figure 4.50 The walls of the house
Figure 4.51 Sketch tab for floors
Figure 4.52 Walls used to generate sketch lines
Figure 4.53 The warning if lines don’t form closed loops
Figure 4.54 Pick the remaining exterior walls.
Figure 4.55 Trim lines
Figure 4.56 A closed-loop sketch
Figure 4.57 The 2D sketch generates a 3D floor.
Figure 4.58 Pasting Level 2 in a 3D view
Figure 4.59 Use these walls to define the floor for the Level 2 floor plate.
Figure 4.60 Error message
Figure 4.61 Before the lines are trimmed
Figure 4.62 Split the lines, and then trim.
Figure 4.63 Dialog box asking if you want to attach the walls to levels
Figure 4.64 Joining floor and wall geometry
Figure 4.65 Use the Tab key to select sketch lines.
Figure 4.66 Initial lines created from a Tab-selection of the exterior walls
Figure 4.67 The final sketch should look like this.
Figure 4.68 Roof properties
Figure 4.69 Changing the roof pitch
Figure 4.70 Modifying the roof type
Figure 4.71 Walls before being attached to the roof
Figure 4.72 Warning message
Figure 4.73 Walls are now attached to the roof.
Figure 4.74 Adding a roof with no slope
Figure 4.75 Adding more roofs
Figure 4.76 Select the roof with the Match Properties tool.
Figure 4.77 The remaining roofs modified
Figure 4.78 Attach the walls to the roof.
Figure 4.79 Detach Target(s) error message
Figure 4.80 Model with the roof made transparent and surface patterns turned off
Figure 4.81 Resetting the Hide command
Figure 4.82 The Hide Element option for the roof
Figure 4.83 Draw the curtain wall as shown.
Figure 4.84 Clerestory curtain walls
Figure 4.85 Warning dialog box with option to delete elements message
Figure 4.86 Draw a curtain wall from the chimney to the wall midpoint.
Figure 4.87 Adding the second curtain wall
Figure 4.88 The north elevation
Figure 4.89
Figure 4.90
Figure 4.91
Figure 4.92
Figure 4.93
Figure 4.94
Figure 4.95
Figure 4.96
Figure 4.97
Figure 4.98
Figure 4.99
Figure 4.100
Figure 4.101 Additional door locations
Figure 4.102
Figure 4.103
Figure 4.104
Figure 4.105
Figure 4.106
Figure 4.107 Autodesk online families
Figure 4.108 Content in the Type Selector
Figure 4.109 Inserting a dining-roomtable
Figure 4.110 Furniture placement
Figure 4.111 Fixtures under the Families node
Figure 4.112 The finished bathroom layout
Figure 4.113 The finished bathroom layout on Level 2
Figure 4.114 Stairs in Sketch mode and in 3D view
Figure 4.115 Stair levels
Figure 4.116 Stair properties
Figure 4.117 Stair design tools
Figure 4.118 Starting the stair
Figure 4.119 Start the return run; at right, the completed command.
Figure 4.120 Extending the run line and the resulting lines after adjusting the risers and treads
Figure 4.121 Align the stair boundary to the wall.
Figure 4.122 Center the stair.
Figure 4.123 The located staircase
Figure 4.124 Cutting a section through the stair
Figure 4.125 The completed section view
Figure 4.126 Resulting 3D image
Figure 4.127 Railing elements
Figure 4.128 Baluster pattern
Figure 4.129 The railing path
Figure 4.130 Cable railing
Figure 4.131 Modified stair stringers
Figure 4.132 The stair without the railing hosted
Figure 5.1 The Paste Aligned submenu
Figure 5.2 Using the Move tool
Figure 5.3 The Rotate command
Figure 5.4 The array Options bar
Figure 5.5 Top: Array by number;bottom: an array between two points
Figure 5.6 Mirroring chairs using the middle of the table as an axis
Figure 5.7 Mirroring the table using a chosen axis
Figure 5.8 Resize an image using the Resize tool
Figure 5.9 Alignment of a room tag during placement
Figure 5.10 Alignment of a room tag during editing
Figure 5.11 Manual alignment
Figure 5.12 Aligning windows and patterns
Figure 5.13 Splitting the wall where the two perpendicular walls intersect will produce the following image with just two clicks when the Delete Inner Segment option is checked.
Figure 5.14 Trim/Extend to Corner
Figure 5.15 Trimming a single element
Figure 5.16 Trim/Extending multiple elements
Figure 5.17 The Offset tool (above) on the Edit toolbar and (below) on the Options bar
Figure 5.18 Using the Offset tool
Figure 5.19 Offsetting a roof sketch
Figure 5.20 Object Styles dialog box
Figure 5.21 When an element is selected, you can access the Visibility/Graphics setting from the right-click menu.
Figure 5.22 Overriding an element
Figure 5.23 Controlling visibility
Figure 5.24 Visibility examples
Figure 5.25 Line and pattern overrides
Figure 5.26 Element choices
Figure 5.27 Line Graphics and Fill Pattern overrides dialog boxes
Figure 5.28 Halftone and Transparent overrides
Figure 5.29 Element overrides
Figure 5.30 Hiding elements in a view
Figure 5.31 View-Specific Element Graphics
Figure 5.32 Projection Lines override group expanded
Figure 5.33 Use case for graphic overrides
Figure 5.34 Graphic overrides using transparency
Figure 5.35 Graphic overrides for walls
Figure 5.36 Hidden elements and categories
Figure 6.1 Wall assembly materials
Figure 6.2 Create brick walls in this configuration.
Figure 6.3
Figure 6.4
Figure 6.42 Floor with offset from the wall-core boundary
Figure 6.6 Wall functions
Figure 6.7 A miter join
Figure 6.8 Disallow Join
Figure 6.9 Stacked walls
Figure 6.10 Modifying a stacked wall
Figure 6.11 A finished stacked wall
Figure 6.12 Variable instance in a stacked wall
Figure 6.13 Compound wall types
Figure 6.14 Wall-section preview
Figure 6.15 Layers in the wall
Figure 6.16 Wall in section view
Figure 6.17 Wall sweeps
Figure 6.18 Load these wall profiles.
Figure 6.19 Adding the profiles to the wall
Figure 6.20 The profiles on the wall
Figure 6.21 Finishing the wall
Figure 6.22 Extending wall materials
Figure 6.24 Host Sweep
Figure 6.25 Wall with a sweep and opening, prior to applying the Change Sweep Return functionality
Figure 6.26 Modifying a sweep return
Figure 6.27 Create in Place showing a series of connected blends
Figure 6.28 The Solid Form toolbar showing the new Solid Swept Blend tool
Figure 6.29 An example of a solid swept blend
Figure 6.30 Examples of in-place walls created using sweep, blend, or extrusion technique
Figure 6.31 Taxonomy of a curtain wall
Figure 6.32 Curtain wall examples
Figure 6.33
Figure 6.34
Figure 6.35
Figure 6.36
Figure 6.37
Figure 6.38
Figure 6.39
Figure 6.40
Figure 6.41
Figure 6.42 Curtain wall conforming to roof changes
Figure 6.43 A complex curtain wall designed in Revit
Figure 6.44 A spider-clamp curtain wall
Figure 6.45 Flat roof with sloped insulation
Figure 6.46 The Shape Edit modifying tools
Figure 6.47 A roof plan showinga roof divided in segments with drainage points
Figure 6.48 Using the Draw Split tool, you create ridges and valleys.
Figure 6.49 Edit points to change the height.
Figure 6.50 Drainage point moved to a new position
Figure 6.51 Section through roof showing the slope
Figure 6.52 Editing the Roof assembly
Figure 6.53 Section of the roof with variable thickness
Figure 6.54 Roofs with curved sketches are not a problem in Revit 2009.
Figure 6.55 Edit the edge point to warp a flat roof.
Figure 6.56 Axonometric view of a warped roof
Figure 7.1 Room area report example
Figure 7.2 The Export CAD Formats dialog box
Figure 7.3 Export options
Figure 7.4 Export Options dialog box
Figure 7.5 Export Layers
Figure 7.6 Export Layer Standards
Figure 7.7 Export Image dialog box
Figure 7.8 Browsable website page
Figure 7.9 Exported Image
Figure 7.10 Import/Link
Figure 7.11 Managing links
Figure 7.12 Import/Link Revit Files dialog box
Figure 7.13 Positioning options
Figure 7.14 Reported coordinates
Figure 7.15 Import/Link dialog box
Figure 7.16 Inserted image
Figure 7.17 Image properties, and the image placed in the background
Figure 7.18
Figure 7.19 DWG Options bar
Figure 7.20 Select layers/levels to delete.
Figure 7.21 Query selection
Figure 7.22
Figure 7.23 Importing the site DWG
Figure 7.24 Error message: file imported into the wrong view
Figure 7.25 Select only the layers with contours when converting DWG to toposurface.
Figure 7.26 Highlighted topographypoints
Figure 7.27
Figure 7.28
Figure 7.29 Object styles for topography
Figure 7.30
Figure 7.31
Figure 7.32
Figure 7.34
Figure 7.35
Figure 7.36
Figure 7.37
Figure 7.38
Figure 7.39
Figure 7.40
Figure 7.41
Figure 7.42
Figure 7.43 There’s a long way to go from toposurfacecreation to finished site.
Figure 7.44
Figure 7.45
Figure 7.46
Figure 7.47
Figure 7.48
Figure 7.49
Figure 7.50 Beginning the conversion process
Figure 7.51 Adding floors
Figure 7.52 i-drop examples
Figure 7.53 Sample SketchUp content
Figure 7.54
Figure 7.55
Figure 7.56
Figure 7.57
Figure 7.58
Figure 8.1
Figure 8.2
Figure 8.3
Figure 8.4 Color by Range
Figure 8.5 Color scheme definition
Figure 8.6 Displaying color fill
Figure 8.7
Figure 8.8 Finished color-fill view
Figure 8.9
Figure 8.10 Area Schemes tab
Figure 8.11 New Area Plan dialog box
Figure 8.12 Area boundary with closed loops
Figure 8.13
Figure 8.14
Figure 8.15
Figure 8.16
Figure 8.17
Figure 8.18
Figure 8.19
Figure 8.20
Figure 8.21
Figure 8.22
Figure 8.23
Figure 8.24
Figure 8.25
Figure 8.26
Figure 8.27
Figure 8.28
Figure 8.29
Figure 8.30
Figure 8.31
Figure 8.32
Figure 8.33
Figure 8.34
Figure 8.35 Quality options
Figure 8.36 Output options
Figure 8.37 Scheme options
Figure 8.39
Figure 8.40
Figure 8.41
Figure 8.42 Positioning a sky
Figure 8.43
Figure 8.44
Figure 8.45
Figure 8.46 Glass material options include color, reflectance, and sheets of glass.
Figure 9.1
Figure 9.2
Figure 9.3
Figure 9.4
Figure 9.5
Figure 9.6
Figure 9.7
Figure 9.8
Figure 9.9
Figure 9.10 A bottom-up schedule for revisions
Figure 9.11
Figure 9.12
Figure 9.13
Figure 9.14
Figure 9.15
Figure 9.16
Figure 9.17
Figure 9.18 The Dependent view functionality allows you to split views and place them on separate sheets.
Figure 9.19 The plan does not fit on one sheet.
Figure 9.21
Figure 9.22
Figure 9.23
Figure 9.24 The plan now fits the sheet.
Figure 9.25 Tags have been smartly rotated to be legible.
Figure 9.26
Figure 9.27
Figure 10.1
Figure 10.2 The Drafting tab
Figure 10.3
Figure 10.04 Tags change with the view scale.
Figure 10.05
Figure 10.6 Changing the wall type
Figure 10.07
Figure 10.8 Tag All Not Tagged dialog box
Figure 10.9 Finished floor plan
Figure 10.10
Figure 10.11 Examples of dimensions with text
Figure 10.12
Figure 10.13
Figure 10.14 Replacing a dimension value with numeric values is not allowed.
Figure 10.15
Figure 10.16 Aligned and linear dimensions
Figure 10.17 Prefer wall dimension locations
Figure 10.18
Figure 10.19 Points can be dimensioned to, as shown in this enlarged door jamb.
Figure 10.20 The finished dimension
Figure 10.21 Baseline dimensions
Figure 10.22 Changing the Dimension String Type property
Figure 10.23 Flipping baseline dimensions
Figure 10.24 Drag control for baseline dimension
Figure 10.25 Ordinate dimension type
Figure 10.26
Figure 10.27 Tick mark
Figure 10.28
Figure 10.29 Centerline symbol
Figure 10.30
Figure 10.31
Figure 10.32
Figure 10.33 The dimensioned first-floor plan
Figure 10.34 Text format tools
Figure 10.35
Figure 10.36
Figure 10.37
Figure 10.38
Figure 10.39
Figure 10.40
Figure 10.41 Selecting a work plane
Figure 10.42 Keynotes
Figure 10.43 The Keynoting Settings dialog box
Figure 10.44 Selecting a keynote
Figure 10.45 Keynotes preview prior to placement
Figure 10.46 A keynote legend
Figure 10.47 Filter options for keynote legends
Figure 10.48 Keynote legends can be accessed from the Project Browser.
Figure 10.49 Note styles available in the default Revit keynote tag
Figure 10.50 Detail components are 2D elements that can be embedded in 3D families.
Figure 10.51
Figure 10.52 A question mark shows up if the material has not been linked to the keynote table.
Figure 10.53 Choose a keynote value from the list.
Figure 10.54 List of arrowhead styles
Figure 10.55 Fully material keynotedwall section
Figure 10.56 Wall annotated with element keynotes
Figure 10.57 Type Properties of wall showing keynotevalue predefined
Figure 10.58 Defining keynotes for materials
Figure 11.1 Adding sections
Figure 11.2 Adding callouts to the section view
Figure 11.3 Modifying the sheet name within the view
Figure 11.4 Plans initially don’t fit on the sheet.
Figure 11.5 Floor plans arranged
Figure 11.6 A200
Figure 11.7 A300
Figure 11.8
Figure 11.9 The completed schedule
Figure 11.10 Starting a schedule
Figure 11.11 Fields tab
Figure 11.12 Adding a calculated value
Figure 11.13 Filter tab
Figure 11.14 Sorting/ Grouping tab
Figure 11.15 Formatting tab
Figure 11.16 Appearance tab
Figure 11.17
Figure 11.18
Figure 11.19 Adding a schedule to a sheet
Figure 11.20 Splitting a schedule
Figure 11.21 The schedule on a sheet
Figure 11.22 New Drafting View dialog box
Figure 11.23
Figure 11.24
Figure 11.25
Figure 11.26
Figure 11.27 Pick Line options
Figure 11.28 Choosing a work plane
Figure 11.29 Groups in the Project Browser
Figure 11.30
Figure 11.31 Adding a gutter
Figure 11.32 Adding a fascia board
Figure 11.33 Finishing the detail
Figure 11.34 Grouping common elements
Figure 11.35 Repeating detail properties
Figure 11.36
Figure 11.37
Figure 11.38 Type Properties for a repeating detail
Figure 11.39 Making a custom repeating detail
Figure 11.40 The insulation Options bar
Figure 11.41 Adding insulation to the detail
Figure 11.42
Figure 11.43
Figure 11.44
Figure 11.45 Type Properties for a filled region
Figure 11.46 Show Hidden Lines tool
Figure 11.47 Using the Show Hidden Lines tool
Figure 11.48 Exporting a view from Revit
Figure 11.49 Streamlined Project Browser of saved Revit views
Figure 11.50 Multiple views can be saved as separate Revit files.
Figure 11.51 Inserting a view into a different project
Figure 11.52 The imported view merged into a new project
Figure 11.53 Inserting 2D content from another Revit file
Figure 12.1 Print dialog box
Figure 12.2 Multiple sheets and views can be printed at once.
Figure 12.3 3D view zoomed out for printing
Figure 12.4 Output when Current Window is selected
Figure 12.5 3D view zoomed in for larger printed image
Figure 12.6 Output when Visible Portion of Current Window is selected
Figure 12.7 The View/Sheet Set dialog box
Figure 12.8 The Print Setup dialog box
Figure 12.9 Raster print example
Figure 12.10 Vector print example
Figure 12.11
Figure 12.12
Figure 12.13 Publish DWF options
Figure 12.14 The Publish dialog box and DWF Export Options dialog box
Figure 12.15 A 2D DWF
Figure 12.16 COURTESY OF SIMONE CAPPOCHIN A 3D DWF
Figure 12.17 DWF element properties
Figure 12.18 A marked-up DWF
Figure 12.19
Figure 12.20 Element Properties dialog box for a markup
Figure 12.21 With Design Review, markups can even be added to 3D views.
Figure 13.1 Modifying wall types
Figure 13.2 Family Category and Parameters dialog box
Figure 13.3 Sample in-place wall
Figure 13.4 Component family examples
Figure 13.5 The Family Editor
Figure 13.6
Figure 13.7 Floor-based and wall-based lighting fixtures
Figure 13.8 A parametric family
Figure 13.9 Example of a nonparametric family
Figure 13.10 Example of a nonparametric family
Figure 13.11 Family Element Visibility Settings dialog box
Figure 13.12 Top to bottom: Coarse, Medium, and Fine levels of detail
Figure 13.13 A family using a type catalog
Figure 13.14 Formulas in families allow for smart behavior.
Figure 13.15 A nested family
Figure 13.16 Nested families change together.
Figure 13.17 Another example of nested families—interchangeable lamellas are nested in the brise soleil.
Figure 13.18
Figure 13.19 Historical content can be easily created in Revit.
Figure 13.20
Figure 13.21
Figure 13.22
Figure 13.23 Design Options dialog box
Figure 13.24 The Visibility/ Graphic Overrides dialog box controls option visibility.
Figure 13.25 Activating a design option
Figure 13.26 Adding elements to a design option
Figure 13.27 Make Primary and Accept Primary
Figure 13.28 The Worksets toolbar
Figure 13.29
Figure 13.30
Figure 13.31
Figure 13.32
Figure 13.33
Figure 14.1
Figure 14.2
Figure 14.3
Figure 14.4
Figure 14.5
Figure 14.6
Figure 14.7
Figure 14.8
Figure 14.9
Figure 14.10
Figure 14.11

001

Dear Reader,
Thank you for choosing Introducing Revit® Architecture 2009: BIM for Beginners. This book is part of a family of premium quality Sybex books, all written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching.
Sybex was founded in 1976. More than thirty years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently exceptional books. With each of our titles we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the authors we work with to the paper we print on, our goal is to bring you the best books available.
I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an e-mail at nedde@wiley.com, or if you think you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex.
 
Best regards,
002
Neil Edde
Vice President and Publisher
Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley
003

Dedication
For Gage
—Greg
 
For Thea and Michael, who brought love and laughter in my life
—Tanja
 
For my beautiful daughters, Zoë and Maya
—Eddy

Acknowledgments
Hats off to the innovators who conceptualized, designed, and made Revit happen. You have changed the world! • Huge thanks to all the faithful followers! Without you, Revit wouldn’t be what it is today. • Personal thanks to the grand masters Philippe Drouant and Phil Read for their heroic dedication and help; to Simone Cappochin and Kubik+Nemeth+Vlkovic, who keep on doing beautiful architecture with Revit and are willing to share it with us; and to our friends, Martin Taurer, Paul Woddy, and Emmanuel Di Giacommo, for their contributions A final thank-you to BNIM Architects, who continue to let us use their Revit models to help raise the knowledge base of the design community. • To Tsvetan Tsvetanov, whose dedication and hard work was essential to providing Revit with its great new rendering capabilities. • Sincere thanks to all the hardworking developers, product designers, and quality assurance testers from the development team of Revit, for their dedication, passion, and love of Revit. • And finally, thanks are due to our excellent support team at Sybex, who helped us develop and focus the content; Dick Margulis, for making a philosopher, nonnative English speaker, and a dyslexic look good in print; Liz Welch for making it grammatically correct; Dassi Zeidel for keeping tabs on all the parts and pieces; Eric Charbonneau for keeping things on track; and a special thanks to Willem Knibbe, for his willingness to go to bat for us and deal with our high-maintenance attitudes.

About the Authors
Greg Demchak is a designer, a technology advocate, urban explorer, and post-apocalyptic film producer. He holds architectural degrees from the University of Oregon and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a product designer for Autodesk and has been working with Revit since 2000. He has been teaching at the Boston Architectural College since 2003 and is currently the principal investigator for the 2009 Solar Decathlon competition. He resides in Massachusetts.
004
Tatjana Dzambazova was the product manager for Revit Architecture between 2005 and 2007, after which she moved into global sales development management for the AEC industry. Before joining Autodesk in 2000, she practiced architecture for 12 years in Vienna and London. At Autodesk, she has focused on evangelizing technology and established herself as an internationally renowned speaker who has fostered relationships with architects and industry leaders from all around the globe. Powered with seemingly unlimited sources of energy and passion, Tanja manages to make three days out of one, always on the hunt of what’s new and exciting in the world of architecture and technology; and when she is not working or coauthoring technology books, she is advocating wildlife conservation, reading books like a maniac, getting inspired in the theaters, and playing Scrabble and Texas Hold ’Em.
005
Eddy Krygiel is a registered architect, a LEED Accredited Professional, and an Autodesk Authorized Author at BNIM Architects headquartered in Kansas City, Missouri. He has been using Revit since version 5.1 to complete projects ranging from single-family residences and historic remodels to 1.12-million-square-foot office buildings. Eddy is responsible for implementing BIM at his firm and also consults for other architecture and contracting firms around the country looking to implement BIM. For the last four years, he has been teaching Revit to practicing architects and architectural students in the Kansas City area and has lectured around the nation on the use of BIM in the construction industry. Eddy also coauthored Green BIM: Successful Sustainable Design with Building Information Modeling, a book on sustainability and BIM, with Bradley Nies (Sybex, 2008).
006

Introduction
Welcome to the Second edition of Introducing Revit Architecture, which was written based on the 2009 release of the software.
It was great fun re-visiting our first book—we worked hard to polish it up, and capture the new features in the 2009 release of Revit Architecture. We enjoyed the synergy of three friends, three architects, three authors collaborating to bring this project into reality. But mostly, we were all driven by the feeling that we’re doing something great: introducing Revit to those who have not been acquainted with its incredible power and its ability to put some fun back into using software and designing architecture.
This book is written for beginners who have never seen or may have just heard about Revit. It’s for architects of any generation—you don’t need to be a high-tech wizard to get into Revit. Toward that end, we wanted to make a book that is as much about architecture as it is about software. We’ve added many timesaving and inspiring concepts to the book to get you motivated and to help you on your journey into the new era of building information modeling (BIM). We think we’ve succeeded, because the book is full of real-world examples that show how to use Revit practically and creatively based on all of our experiences out there in professional practice.
This book will help you learn Revit and BIM basics easily and efficiently via straightforward explanations, real-world examples, and practical tutorials that focus squarely on accomplishing vital Revit tasks.
Our book begins with an overview of BIM concepts before introducing the Revit interface. You’ll start working with basic modeling features, learning how to create walls, floors, roofs, and stairs. The book then explains how to use components and provides descriptions and examples of Revit’s suite of editing tools.
The book continues by looking deeper into the capabilities of core modeling elements. We explain how Revit works with other applications, show you how to document the model for construction, and explore how you can integrate annotations into the model.
After we discuss printing to paper and files, we explore worksets and team collaboration, followed by a look at some of Revit’s more advanced options. The book concludes with a chapter on troubleshooting and best practices; that’s where we try to share our practical experience with you so you can avoid some of the common beginner pitfalls (and enjoy beginner’s luck). Also featured is a new full-color gallery containing inspirational Revit projects from around the globe.
The book’s companion web page, at www.wiley.com/go/introducingrevit2009, features all the tutorial files necessary to complete the book’s exercises, plus sample families and a trial version of the Revit software.
Enjoy! Revit has changed our lives. Maybe it will change yours as well.
We welcome your feedback! Please feel free to e-mail us at GoRevit@gmail.com.
 
Greg Demchak
Tatjana Dzambazova
Eddy Krygiel

CHAPTER 1
Understanding BIM
A great building must begin with the unmeasurable, must go through measurable
means when it is being designed and in the end must be unmeasurable.
—LOUIS KAHN
Building information modeling (BIM) is an emerging approach to the design, analysis, and documentation of buildings. At its core, BIM is about the management of information throughout the entire lifecycle of a design process, from early conceptual design through construction administration, and even into facilities management. By information we mean all the inputs that go into a building design: the number of windows, the cost of materials, the size of heating and cooling equipment, the total energy footprint of the building, and so on. This information is captured in a digital model that can then be presented as coordinated documents, be shared across disciplines, and serve as a centralized design management tool. With a tool like Revit, you will reap the benefits of fully coordinated documents, but this represents just the tip of the BIM iceberg.
In this chapter, we’ll present the basics of BIM and summarize how BIM differs from traditional 2D drafting-based methodologies. We will explain the key characteristics of Revit and how Revit is truly designed to deliver the benefits of building information modeling.
Topics we’ll cover include:
A brief history of architectural documentation
Advantages of a BIM approach
How BIM is different from CAD
Why Revit?
Revit concepts
Types of elements in Revit
Tips for getting started in Revit

A Brief History of Architectural Documentation

The production of design documents has traditionally been an exercise in making drawings to represent a building. These drawings become instruction document sets: an annotated booklet that describes how the building is to be built. The plan, section, and elevation—all skillfully drafted, line by line, drawing by drawing. Whether physical or digital, these traditional drawing sets are composed of graphics where each line is part of a larger abstraction meant to convey design intent so that a building can eventually be constructed. When Filippo Brunelleschi drew the plans for Santa Maria del Fiore (Figure 1.1) in Renaissance Italy, the drawings represented ideas of what the building would look like. They were simplified representations of a completed project, used to convey ideas to the patron. In those days, the architect also played the role of builder, so there was no risk of losing information between the documentation of the building and the actual building of it. This was the age of the master builder, where architect and builder shared the same responsibility and roles. Even so, Brunelleschi still needed to communicate his vision to his patrons and his workers, and he not only produced beautiful drawings but also built elaborate scale models so that others could easily visualize the project.
Figure 1.1
Santa Maria del Fiore; image courtesy of Laura Lesniewski
007
As buildings became increasingly complex, specialization in the design and construction process emerged. In turn, this led to the need for more elaborate forms of information exchange. One person was no longer responsible for both the design and construction phases, so it became necessary for designers to convey design intent with richer amounts of information and instructions.
Jump ahead in time to the twentieth century. The use of steel had been fully embraced, thus allowing buildings to reach higher than ever before; the age of the skyscraper and modern construction was in full force. The Power and Light Building (Figure 1.2) was erected in Kansas City, Missouri, in only 19 months. An Art Deco testament to the boldness of the times, the building was built without the use of modern earthmoving machinery or other heavy equipment. The drawing set for a building of this size in the 1930s would have been about 35 pages long. The Power and Light Building was more complex than its predecessors but far simpler than today’s large commercial projects. There were no data or telecom systems, no air conditioning other than operable windows, and no security systems other than locks on the doors.
Figure 1.2
Power and Light Building, Kansas City, MO
008
Fast-forward to late twentieth century buildings. Buildings are more complex than ever before. Documentation sets span all disciplines and are hundreds of pages long. The number of people who will touch a set of drawings—to produce them, evaluate them, or use them to build the building—has become huge. Integrated building systems continue to expand with the growth of technology. Today, we have more security, electrical, data, telecom, HVAC, and energy requirements than ever before (see Figure 1.3). The quality and quantity of information that goes into a documentation set can no longer be thought of as abstract approximations—the cost of error is far too high, and fully coordinated drawings are expected. The use of computer-based technology has replaced pen and paper, yet documents are still largely generated in 2D. Drawing and editing lines has become faster and more efficient, but in the end, they are still collections of manually created, nonintelligent lines and text.
Figure 1.3
Layers of design
009
The year 1998—dawn of the Internet boom. Technology companies are flourishing, and start-ups are a dime a dozen. In the suburbs of Boston, a new approach to architectural documentation is about to be launched. The premise is simple: model the building once, and let architects view, edit, and annotate the model from any point of view, at any time. A change to the model from any view simultaneously updates all other views. Drawings cease to be separate, uncoordinated collections of lines and become by-products of a model-based design approach. Revit is born, and with it the foundation for a new approach to how buildings are designed, evaluated, represented, and documented (see Figure 1.4). In 2002, Revit Technology is acquired by Autodesk and continues to be developed. Welcome to the world of building information modeling.
Figure 1.4
The founders and some original members of Revit technology, having a tug-of-war at a release party, circa 2000
010

Advantages of a BIM Approach

The ultimate benefits of BIM are still emerging in the market and will radically change the way buildings are designed and built. A shift in process and expectation is happening in the construction market, and architects are stepping up to the challenge. The focus is shifting from traditional 2D abstractions to on-demand simulations of building performance, usage, and cost. This is no longer a futuristic fantasy but a practical reality. In the age of information-rich digital models, we can now have all disciplines involved with a project sharing a single database. Architecture, structure, mechanical, infrastructure, and construction are tied together and able to coordinate in ways never before possible. Models can now be sent directly to fabrication machines, bypassing the need for traditional shop drawings. Energy analysis can be done at the outset of design, and construction costs are becoming more and more predictable. These are just a few of the exciting opportunities that a BIM approach offers.
BIM has shifted how designers and contractors look at the entire building process, from preliminary design through construction documentation, into actual construction, and even into postconstruction building management. With BIM, a parametric 3D model is used to generate traditional building abstractions such as plans, sections, elevations, details, and schedules. Drawings produced using BIM are not just discrete collections of manually coordinated lines but interactive representations of a model.
Working in a model-based framework guarantees that a change in one view will propagate to all other views of the model. As you shift elements in plan, they change in elevation and section. If you remove a door from your model, it simultaneously gets removed from all views, and your door schedule is updated. This enhanced document delivery system allows unprecedented control over the quality and coordination of the document set.
With the advent of BIM, designers and builders have a better way to create, control, and display information. Some of the advantages that first-time users can expect to realize are as follows:
• Three-dimensional design visualization improves understanding of the building and its spaces and gives you the ability to show a variety of design options to both the team and the client.
• Integrated design documents minimize errors in documentation cross-referencing and keynoting, allowing clearer, more precise documents.
• Interference checking permits you to immediately see conflicts between architectural, structural, and mechanical elements in 3D and to avoid costly errors on site.
• Automated, always up-to-date schedules of building components (like door and room-area schedules) are data-driven and can drive data and improve the visibility of costs and quantities.
• Material quantity take-offs allow better predictability and planning.
• Sustainable strategies are easier to explore, enabling you to design better buildings and make a better world.

How BIM Is Different from CAD

The key difference between BIM and computer-aided design (CAD) is that a traditional CAD system uses many separate (usually 2D) documents to explain a building. These documents are created separately and have little to no intelligent connection between them. A wall in a plan view is represented with two parallel lines, with no understanding that those lines represent the same wall in a section. The possibility of uncoordinated data is very high. BIM takes the opposite approach: it assembles all information into one location and cross-links that data among associated objects. (See Figures 1.5 and 1.6.)
By and large, CAD is strictly a 2D technology with a specific need to output a collection of lines and text on a page. These lines have no inherent meaning, whether inside the computer or on the printed sheet. CAD drafting has its efficiencies and advantages over pen and paper, but it is really just a simulation of the act of drafting. This form of drawing is how architects and other designers have worked for the last couple of hundred years. Historically, the designer drew a set of plans and then used those plans to manually derive sections, elevations, and details. During the development of a project, if any of those items changed, the designer had to modify each of the other drawings that were affected to take the change into account. For a long time, this meant getting out an eraser and an eraser shield and spending days picking up changes. Today, you can use the Delete key, but the goal is fundamentally the same. This is where BIM makes a significant departure from legacy CAD platforms.
Figure 1.5
Typical CAD outputs
011
The beauty of BIM is that it manages change for you. Unlike CAD, the intent of BIM is to let the computer take responsibility for interactions and calculations (something computers are good at), providing you—the designer—with more time to design and evaluate your decisions. A core feature of BIM is that it allows you to create and modify everything in one design context. When a change to a project is done by the user in one place, the system will propagate that change to all relevant views and documents of the project. As you model in plan, the elevations, sections, and details are also being generated. Where you make the change is up to you, and the system will take care of the rest. With a BIM tool such as Revit, if you change the size of a window opening in elevation, this change is made throughout the entire model: sections, floor plans, schedule tables, and quantity take-offs.
Figure 1.6
Typical BIM outputs
012
Here are a few other big differences between BIM and CAD:
BIM adopts a task-oriented rather than an object-oriented methodology. In 2D draf ting CAD, you draw two lines (objects) to represent a wall. In BIM, the task of creating a wall is presented in the form of an interactive tool named Create Wall. This wall has properties like width, height, bearing or nonbearing, demolished or new, interior or exterior, fire rating, and materials (such as boards or brick). The wall interacts with other walls to automatically join geometries and clean up connections, showing how the walls will be built. Similarly, if you add a door, it’s more than four lines and an arc; it’s a door in plan and elevation. Adding it to the wall automatically creates an opening in the wall in all views where the door is visible. As we will discover, the tools available for walls are specific to walls, allowing you to attach walls to roofs and floors, punch openings, and change the layered construction of the wall. Again, all of these interactions are not just properties; they are focused on specific tasks associated with architectural walls.
 
BIM keeps you honest. An additional advantage of a BIM methodology is that you can’t cheat your design. Because the elements have properties based on real-life properties, you’ll find it difficult to fake elements within the design. If you have a door in plan, it automatically appears in the other associated views such as elevation or section. In a CAD-based system this can be easy to overlook because the door has to be manually transcribed from plan to section and elevation and is easily forgotten or drawn at a wrong location. Because BIM is based on actual assemblies, it’s difficult to misrepresent dimensions or objects within the model.
 
BIM is more than a modeler. Other software packages, like SketchUp, Rhinoceros, and 3ds Max, are excellent modeling applications. However, these modeling applications don’t have the ability to document your design for construction or to be leveraged downstream. This is not to say these tools don’t play a part in a BIM workf low. Many architects use these tools to generate concept models, which can then be brought into a BIM application and progress through design, analysis, and documentation.
 
BIM is a data-driven design tool. BIM lets you create custom content and libraries throughout the course of your project. This content contains rich amount of data that will inform schedules, quantity take-offs, and analysis. Again, it’s not just 3D—it’s 3D with intelligent information (metadata).
 
BIM is based on an architectural classification system, not “layers.” Because a building model is an assembly of meaningful, to-be-built objects, you control visibility and graphics of objects using a rational list of well-understood categories. This is different from CAD, where every line belongs to a layer, and it is up the user to manage all these layers. For example, in Revit there is no way to accidentally place a window into the “wall” layer. In a BIM world, layers become obsolete; after all, in the real world buildings are not made of abstract color-coded layers.

Potential Hazards

One of the powers of Revit is the ability to work in a single-file environment where the design and documentation of the building happens on a holistic model. This can also be a disadvantage if you do not take it seriously and give it full consideration. Users who may be quick to make changes without thinking how such a change will ripple through the model can cause unintended problems if they’re not careful. Revit is a parametric modeler: it creates relationships between building elements in order to streamline the design process. For example, if you delete a level from your model, then all the walls, doors, and furniture on that level will also be deleted. Likewise, if you delete a wall, all the doors and windows in that wall will be deleted. If you underlay the roof in your second floor so that you can see the extents of the roof overhang, deleting the lines that represent the roof overhang actually means deleting the roof! These are basic mistakes that new users might encounter as they readjust their mental model and come to see the model as not just lines but actual building elements. A nice consequence of this is that Revit will not let you leave elements floating around in an abstract 3D vacuum. You will not have views cluttered with fragmented geometry from some other file, exploded blocks, or mysterious lines. At the same time, you must take care when making large-scale changes to a model, especially the further along in the design process you go.