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Table of Contents

The Wiley-Blackwell Companions to Religion

The Wiley-Blackwell Companions to Religion series presents a collection of the most recent scholarship and knowledge about world religions. Each volume draws together newly-commissioned essays by distinguished authors in the field, and is presented in a style which is accessible to undergraduate students, as well as scholars and the interested general reader. These volumes approach the subject in a creative and forward-thinking style, providing a forum in which leading scholars in the field can make their views and research available to a wider audience.

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Title page

Dedicated to Professor Daniel L. Overmyer, inspiring teacher and mentor,
pioneering scholar—sinological studies “from the ground up.”

Notes on Contributors

Joshua Capitanio is an assistant professor in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of the West. He is a scholar of Chinese religions, with an emphasis on issues related to ritual theory and practice during the Tang and Song Dynasties. His current research is focused on interactions between Buddhism and indigenous Chinese religious traditions such as Daoism, particularly in the realms of ritual and meditative practice. He has been a fellow at Peking University and conducted advanced graduate research there. His research interests include Chinese Buddhism and Daoism, and a dictionary of medieval Chinese vernacular translated into English.

Shin-yi Chao is an associate professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion at Rutgers University, Camden. She has conducted research on various topics related to Daoism and popular religion in China. Her publications include Daoist Ritual, State Religion, and Popular Practices: Zhenwu Worship from Song to Ming (960–1644) and articles on Chinese popular religion in traditional and modern periods, the Daoist examination system, and Daoist temple networks in early twelfth century China.

Philip Clart is professor of Chinese Culture and History at the University of Leipzig, Germany. His main research areas are popular religion and new religious movements in Taiwan, religious change in Taiwan and China, and literature and religions of the late imperial period. His monographs include Han Xiangzi: The Alchemical Adventures of a Daoist Immortal and Die Religionen Chinas. He has co-edited Religion in Modern Taiwan: Tradition and Innovation in a Changing Society and The People and the Dao: New Studies of Chinese Religions in Honour of Daniel L. Overmyer. His articles have appeared in the Journal of Chinese Religions, T’oung Pao, the Journal of Ritual Studies, and Ethnologies.

Paul Copp is assistant professor in the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago. His research interests center on Chinese Buddhism in the Tang, Five Dynasties, and Northern Song periods. He has recently completed a book manuscript on Buddhist incantation and amulet practice in the Tang, entitled Incantatory Bodies: Material Incantation and Efficacy in Chinese Buddhism, 600–1000. Currently, he is at work on a new book project on Buddhist manuscript culture in ninth and tenth century Dunhuang, as well as on smaller studies of Buddhist exegetical practice in the Tang and Northern Song.

Ryan Dunch is an associate professor of History and Chair of the Department of East Asian Studies at the University of Alberta. He is the author of Fuzhou Protestants and the Making of a Modern China, 1857–1927, as well as articles and book chapters related to the past and present of Christianity in Chinese society. His principal current research focus is missionary publishing in Chinese before 1911. He serves as one of the editors of H-ASIA, an international listserv for specialists in Asian history and studies.

Stephen Eskildsen is a professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion, University of Tennessee-Chattanooga. He is the author of Asceticism in Early Taoist Religion and The Teachings and Practices of the Early Quanzhen Taoist Masters, as well as articles on Taoist mysticism and inner alchemy. His current research pertains to the sensory and physical phenomena of Taoist meditation. He offers courses on Chinese Religion and comparative mysticism and ascetic practices.

James D. Frankel is assistant professor of Religion at the University of Hawai‘i at Mx101_MinionPro-Regular_10n_000100noa. His research centers on the history of Islam in China, a field that draws upon and informs his scholarly interests in the comparative history of ideas, and religious and cultural syncretism. He is the author of Rectifying God’s Name: Liu Zhi’s Translation of Monotheism and Islamic Ritual Law in Neo-Confucian China, which examines Chinese Islamic scholarship and literature of the early Qing period. He teaches courses in Islam, comparative religion, and mysticism.

Beata Grant is professor of Chinese and Religious Studies at Washington University in St. Louis. Her research interests include female monasticism in China, Chinese women’s writing, and popular religious literature. Her articles have appeared in Late Imperial China and the Journal of Chinese Religions, and she was editor of and contributor to a special two-issue volume of Nan Nü: Men, Women and Gender in China on the theme of religion and gender in China. Her most recent publications include Eminent Women: Buddhist Nuns of Seventeenth-Century China and, with Wilt. L. Idema, Escape from Blood Pond Hell: The Tales of Mulian and Woman Huang.

Guo Jue teaches at Western Michigan University and specializes in early China, from the Warring States period to the Han, with a focus on practice and beliefs, particularly on a popular level that is not associated with traditional and institutionalized religions. Her research utilizes recently discovered archaeological materials including tomb objects and texts along with historically transmitted literature. She has published “Concepts of Death and the Afterlife Reflected in Newly Discovered Tomb Objects and Texts from Han China” (in Mortality in Traditional Chinese Thought) and is currently working on a book entitled Facing Illness: Practices of Divination and Sacrifice in Warring States Chu China. She teaches courses on Chinese religious traditions; thematic courses on afterlife, divination, and healing from a comparative perspective; and method and theory courses focusing on non-Western traditions.

Thomas Jansen is Lecturer in Chinese Studies at the University of Wales, Trinity Saint David (Lampeter Campus) and director of the Confucius Institute in Lampeter. His research interests include courtly culture in early medieval China and the uses of popular religious scriptures between 1550 and 1949. He is the author of Höfische Öffentlichkeit im frühmittelalterlichen China: Debatten im Salon des Prinzen Xiao Ziliang and a number of articles on early medieval history and culture. Currently, he is co-editing a volume on Chinese religions and globalization since 1800.

Keith N. Knapp is professor of History and Chair of the History Department at The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina. His research centers on the articulation and transmission of Confucian values and what they disclose about the social and cultural life of China’s early medieval era. He is particularly interested in moral stories, rituals, iconography, material culture, historiography, and education. He is the author of Selfless Offspring: Filial Children and Social Order in Medieval China and a number of articles published in journals and edited volumes on parental authority, ancestor worship, filial cannibalism, and Confucian commoners.

Louis Komjathy is assistant professor of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of San Diego and research associate in the Institute of Religion, Science, and Social Studies at Shandong University. He is also founding co-director of the Center for Daoist Studies and founding co-chair of the Daoist Studies Group of the American Academy of Religion. He has published three books: Title Index to Daoist Collections; Cultivating Perfection: Mysticism and Self-transformation in Early Quanzhen Daoism; and Handbooks for Daoist Practice.

Mark Meulenbeld is assistant professor of East Asian Languages and Literature at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. His research focuses on the interaction between the institutional tradition of Daoism and local religious traditions in various Chinese regions. In order to explore this interactive relationship, he uses a wide variety of sources, ranging from literature and historiography to ritual manuals and material culture. He is currently finishing his first book manuscript, entitled Rethinking the Novel: Exorcism, Community, and Vernacular Narrative in Late Imperial China. His next project will be based on almost a decade of fieldwork in Hunan and on Taiwan.

James Miller is associate professor of Chinese Studies in the School of Religion and Cultural Studies Program at Queen’s University, Canada. His sinological work has focused on the medieval Daoist religious movement known as the Way of Highest Clarity. More broadly he researches the ways in which religions imagine human relations with the natural world and influence human behavior toward the natural environment. He has published four books on these topics, including, most recently, The Way of Highest Clarity: Nature, Vision and Revelation in Medieval China.

Randall Nadeau is Chair of the Department of Religion and Professor of East Asian Religions at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. He has published research on popular religious literature, deity cults, and folk religion in both China and Japan, as well as methodology in the study of religion, as applied especially to Buddhism and popular religious movements. His book on Confucianism and Taoism treats these two major religions as aspects of a single religious tradition. He is currently working on a book on religions of India, China, and Japan as philosophical and ritual responses to contemporary global concerns. He offers courses on Chinese and Japanese religions, and approaches to the study of religion. In the past two years he has lectured on theory and method in the study of religion at eight Chinese universities.

Mario Poceski is associate professor of Buddhist studies and Chinese Religions at the University of Florida. He has studied at the University of California, Los Angeles, as well as Komazawa University, Japan, Stanford University, and the National University of Singapore. A specialist in the history of Chinese Buddhism, his latest book is Ordinary Mind as the Way: The Hongzhou School and the Growth of Chan Buddhism. His publications also include two other books and a number of articles and chapters on various aspects of Buddhist studies. Presently he is writing a book that surveys the history of Chinese religions, editing a volume on East and Inner Asian Buddhism, and working on several projects on Chinese Buddhist literature and history.

Gil Raz is associate professor of Religion at Dartmouth College. He has conducted three years of field work in Taiwan, working closely with a Daoist priest. His research ranges from medieval Chinese religion to contemporary Daoist practice. His book Emergence of Daoism: Creation of Tradition examines the appearance and development of Daoism in medieval China. His other publications include studies of Daoist sexual practice, the interface between divination and Daoist ritual, and the theory of ritual. He is currently completing a book manuscript that examines the formation of the Daoist religious tradition between the second and fifth centuries CE. He offers courses on Chinese Daoism, Buddhism, and apocalyptic literature.

Julius N. Tsai is a foreign service officer with the United States Department of State. His research areas have included ritual action and ritual change; religious biographies; the formation of religious identity; secrecy in religions; and the relationship between religion and empire. His current research explores Daoist geomantic practices as part of a larger inquiry into ritual efficacy in China.

Jimmy Yu is Sheng Yen Assistant Professor of Chinese Buddhist Studies in the Department of Religion at Florida State University. His research interests center on the cultural history of Buddhism and Chinese religions, including the history of the body, material culture, scholarly representations of Chan/Zen Buddhism, and popular religious movements within the broader context of fifteenth to seventeenth century China. His forthcoming book, Sanctity and Self-Inflicted Violence in Chinese Religions, 1500–1700, features four distinct extreme bodily practices that cross religious and sectarian boundaries. His second book project is on the formation of a new Chan Buddhist lineage of Dharma Drum Mountain and the thought of Sheng Yen, who was one of the leading figures of contemporary Chinese Buddhism.