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Wiley Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice

Series Editor: Charles F. Wellford, University of Maryland College Park.

The handbooks in this series will be comprehensive, academic reference works on leading topics in criminology and criminal justice.

The Handbook of Law and Society
Edited by Austin Sarat and Patricia Ewick

The Handbook of Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice
Edited by Marvin D. Krohn and Jodi Lane

The Handbook of Deviance
Edited by Erich Goode

The Handbook of Gangs
Edited by Scott H. Decker and David C. Pyrooz

The Handbook of Criminological Theory
Edited by Alex R. Piquero

The Handbook of Drugs and Society
Edited by Henry H. Brownstein

The Handbook of Drugs and Society

Edited by

Henry H. Brownstein

 

 

 

 

 

 

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For my grandchildren

List of Contributors

Sheigla Averill Institute for Scientific Analysis, California, USA

Stephen J. Bahr Brigham Young University, Utah, USA

John Bailey Georgetown University, District of Columbia, USA

Deborah Baskin Loyola University, Illinois, USA

Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers Yale University, Connecticut, USA

Trevor Bennett University of Glamorgan, South Wales, Pontypridd, Wales

Alex S. Bennett National Development and Research Institutes, New York, USA

Bina Bhardwa Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Birkbeck University of London, London, UK

Henry H. Brownstein Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia, USA

TaLisa J. Carter University of Delaware, Delaware, USA

Alice Cepeda University of Southern California, California, USA

Louisa Degenhardt National Drug and Alcohol Research Center, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia

Paul Draus University of Michigan-Dearborn, Michigan, USA

Jason Edwards University of South Wales, Pontypridd, Wales

Luther C. Elliott National Development and Research Institutes, New York, USA

Jessica Frankeberger Graduate student at the University of Southern California, California, USA

Brian Fuleihan University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA

Juan Carlos Garzón Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, DC, USA

Norman Giesbrecht Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Ontario, Canada

Andrew Golub National Development and Research Institutes, New York, USA

Paul Gootenberg Stony Brook University, New York, USA

Michael S. Gordon Friends Research Institute, Maryland, USA

Wayne D. Hall Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, The University of Queensland, Australia

Bridget A. Hearon McLean Hospital/Behavioral Health, Massachusetts, USA

John P. Hoffmann Brigham Young University, Utah, USA

Charles Hogan Georgia State University, Georgia, USA

Geoffrey Hunt Aarhus University, California, USA

Scott Jacques Georgia State University, Georgia, USA

Brian C. Kelly Purdue University, Indiana, USA

Timothy W. Kinlock Friends Research Institute, Maryland, USA

Karen Joe-Laidler University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong

Tiggey May Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK

Duane C. McBride Andrews University, Michigan, USA

Neil McKeganey Centre for Drug Misuse Research, Glasgow, Scotland

Sheigla Murphy Institute for Scientific Analysis, California, USA

Kathryn M. Nowotny University of Colorado at Boulder, Colorado, USA

Daniel O’Connell University of Delaware, Delaware, USA

Mark Pawson Graduate Center at the City University of New York, New York, USA

Dina Perrone California State University, California, USA

Eve E. Reider Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, Maryland, USA

Elizabeth B. Robertson University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA

Juliette Roddy University of Michigan-Dearborn, Michigan, USA

Robin Room Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Paloma Sales Institute for Scientific Analysis, California, USA

Eric L. Sevigny Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia

Belinda E. Sims National Institute on Drug Abuse, Maryland, USA

Ira Sommers Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Yvonne Terry-McElrath University of Michigan, Michigan, USA

Peter J. Venturelli Valparaiso University, Indiana, USA

Ralph A. Weisheit Illinois State University, Illinois, USA

Notes on Contributors

Sheigla Averill, a Research Analyst at the Institute for Scientific Analysis, has worked on NIDA/NIH-funded projects on pregnancy and violence, needle exchange, drug users’ engagement in health and social services, young heroin users, nonmedical prescription drug use and baby boomers’ marijuana use.

Stephen J. Bahr is Professor of Sociology at Brigham Young University. Research interests include prisoner reintegration, the causes and consequences of drug use and abuse, prevention and treatment of drug abuse, and the evaluation of programs to help juvenile and adult offenders desist from drug use and crime.

John Bailey has taught at Georgetown University and has studied and conducted fieldwork in Peru and Colombia. His research since the late 1970s has focused largely on Mexico. His publications include articles and book chapters on a variety of policy issues in Mexican politics, including agriculture, public budgeting, decentralization, education, electoral reform, government–business relations and social security, and more recently he has concentrated on issues of national and public security in the bilateral relationship and in the Western Hemisphere more broadly. Dr Bailey has chaired the Government Department (1987–90) and directed the Latin American Studies Program (1972–74; 1994–96) at Georgetown University.

Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers received her doctorate in clinical psychology in 2013 from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and completed her pre-doctoral internship and fellowship at McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School. Currently, she is an Assistant Professor in Psychology and Psychiatry at Yale University. Her research focuses on clarifying the psychobiological mechanisms for behavioral inhibition and self-regulation and the implications of these mechanisms for various forms of disinhibitory psychopathology.

Deborah Baskin is Professor in the Departments of Sociology and of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Loyola University in Chicago. Previously she served as Director of and Professor in the School of Criminal Justice and Criminalistics, California State University, Los Angeles, and before that she was the Deputy Executive Officer of the doctoral program in criminal justice at the City University of New York and a tenured faculty member at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Dr Baskin has published books, articles, and chapters in the areas of women’s involvement in violent street crime, the relationship between drugs and violence, forensic mental health, and the use of forensic evidence in criminal case processing. She has received grants from the National Science Foundation and the Guggenheim Foundation, among other organizations. Dr Baskin received her PhD from the University of Pennsylvania in sociology.

Alex S. Bennett is a Principal Investigator at National Development and Research Institutes, Inc. (NDRI). He is currently the Principal Investigator of a study of opioid overdose among veterans that seeks to provide a research-based foundation for outreach and drug policy. He also coordinates a veterans’ overdose community advisory board that facilitates interaction and coordination among numerous agencies that seek to reduce drug-related harms.

Trevor Bennett is Emeritus Professor of Criminology at the University of South Wales. He was previously Head of the Centre for Criminology at the University of South Wales. Professor Bennett has published over 130 articles and book chapters as well as 10 books on various criminological topics. His books, co-authored with Dr Katy Holloway, include Understanding Drugs, Alcohol and Crime (2005) and Drug-Crime Connections (2007).

Bina Bhardwa is a Research Fellow at the Institute for Criminal Policy Research at Birkbeck, University of London. Since October 2013 she has been working on a study funded by the Dawes Trust looking at the nature and diversity of fraud and organized crime in the United Kingdom. She is also currently working on a European-wide project called City Risks which, in consultation with local communities, is aimed at increasing citizen perceptions of security via the use of innovative smart phone technologies. Bina has recently been awarded a PhD in Sociology exploring “recreational” drug use, use of digital technologies, and control in three leisure settings.

Henry H. Brownstein is the Associate Dean for Research and Director of the Center for Public Policy in the L. Douglas Wilder School for Government and Public Affairs at Virginia Commonwealth University. Previously he was Director of the Drugs and Crime Research Division of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) of the US Department of Justice. He has been studying drugs and society for more than 30 years, mostly with funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and NIJ, and has written books, articles, chapters, and essays on the subject.

TaLisa J. Carter is a graduate student in the Sociology and Criminal Justice department at the University of Delaware. She formerly worked as a Correctional Officer, and her research interests include corrections, criminal justice institutions, and race. Currently, she is a Research Assistant working on the Justice Reinvestment Initiative project with Daniel O’Connell.

Alice Cepeda is currently an Assistant Professor in the School of Social Work at the University of Southern California. She received her PhD in Sociology from the City University of New York, Graduate Center. Her research examines the complex of social determinants that influence the development of drug abuse health disparities across generations of Mexican-origin populations. Dr Cepeda has been a recipient of several National Institutes of Health federal grants.

Louisa Degenhardt is a Professor in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of New South Wales and has worked in its National Drug and Alcohol Research Center since 1998. She has worked on a wide range of projects examining the epidemiology of illicit drug use, comorbid mental health problems, and illicit drug surveillance. Dr Degenhardt earned her PhD in 2001 for which she studied the comorbidity of drug use and mental health problems in the Australian population. She has published hundreds of peer-reviewed papers, technical reports, and monographs as well as several books and book chapters. She established drug surveillance and strategic early warning systems across Australia and has conducted diverse epidemiological studies, cohort studies, and case–control studies among others.

Paul Draus is Director of Public Administration, Director of Public Policy, and Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. His research interests include ethnography of health and health care, urban and rural communities, substance abuse, violence, and media.

Jason Edwards (at the time of writing this chapter) was a Research Assistant at the Centre for Criminology, University of South Wales. He is now employed at Bournemouth University in the Research and Knowledge Exchange Office. In addition he has worked extensively on several Welsh Government Projects on peer mentoring of drug users, mephedrone and violence, and nonfatal overdose. He also lectures across several modules on the University of South Wales undergraduate program in the areas of criminal justice, penology, and victimology.

Luther C. Elliott is a Principal Investigator at National Development and Research Institutes, Inc. (NDRI). He has been examining the context of marijuana use, its potential for coping with PTSD, and the impact of drug policy reform.

Jessica Frankeberger is currently a graduate student in the Master’s of Public Health program with a concentration in Child and Family Health in the Department of Preventative Medicine at the University of Southern California. She also serves as a Research Assistant in the School of Social Work. Her previous research has focused on violence against women, health psychology, and substance abuse.

Brian Fuleihan is a doctoral candidate and teaches criminology and criminal justice classes at the University of South Carolina. His research interests include drug abuse and crime, substance abuse treatment interventions, and drug courts.

Juan Carlos Garzón is a Global Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars and Center of Latin American Studies at Georgetown University. He was part of a research team for the “Report on the Drug Problem in the Americas” at the Organization of American States (OAS). Earlier he worked as a researcher at the Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Observatory in the Office of the Vice Presidency, and as the Security and Armed Conflict Analysis Unit Coordinator at the Security and Democracy Foundation. He has also authored newspaper and academic articles related to the armed conflict in Colombia, the peace process, drug trafficking, urban violence, and organized crime. He has his BA in Political Science from the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and is completing his MA in Latin American Studies with focus on Security from Georgetown University.

Norman Giesbrecht is a Senior Scientist with Public Health and Regulatory Policy Section in the Social, Prevention and Health Policy Research Department at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto. Dr Giesbrecht has conducted research on alcohol policy development in local, provincial, and national settings, risks and benefits of alcohol consumption, risk factors for chronic disease, and the roles of research, public opinion, and special interests in alcohol policy development.

Andrew Golub is a Senior Principal Investigator at National Development and Research Institutes, Inc. (NDRI). His research seeks to understand the context of substance use and the impact of drug policy in order to improve social policy. He is currently the Principal Investigator of an NIH-funded study of Veteran Reintegration, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse in the Inner-City.

Paul Gootenberg, SUNY Distinguished Professor of History and Sociology at Stony Brook University, New York, is the author of Andean Cocaine: The Making of Global Drug (2009) and editor of Cocaine: Global Histories (1999). A Latin Americanist, he is active in the SSRC’s Drugs, Security, and Democracy (DSD) research network.

Michael S. Gordon is a Research Scientist at Friends Research Institute in Baltimore, MD and Adjunct Professor in the Criminal Justice Program at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at Stevenson University. Dr Gordon’s research is focused on developing, implementing, and evaluating innovative drug abuse treatment and HIV interventions for criminal justice populations.

Wayne D. Hall has worked in the fields of addiction, mental health, and public health over the past 20 years, addressing socially important and intellectually challenging scientific and policy questions that lie at the intersection between human biology and history. He has improved our understanding of the adverse health effects of cannabis, public policy responses to opioid dependence, understanding of illicit drug epidemiology, and the epidemiology of mental disorders in Australia. Since 1980, Hall has published over 900 research papers, book chapters, editorials, commentaries, and other works. This includes papers in the highest-impact journals in the addictions field (Addiction, Drug and Alcohol Dependence) and in the world’s leading general medical journals (The Lancet, British Medical Journal, and PLoS Medicine).

Bridget A. Hearon received her doctorate in clinical psychology in 2013 from Boston University. Currently, she is a Research Fellow in the Behavioral Health Partial Program at McLean Hospital. Her research focuses on the identification of psychological factors such as distress tolerance that contribute to maladaptive health behaviors, including substance use and overeating.

John P. Hoffmann is Professor of Sociology at Brigham Young University. His research interests include the etiology of drug and alcohol use, criminological theory, and religion and behavior. His recent publications have appeared in Criminology, Social Forces, Social Science & Medicine, and the Journal of Health and Social Behavior.

Charles Hogan is a PhD student in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Georgia State University. His current research is centered on interviewing active marijuana dealers in the Atlanta-metro area. His first novel, Inkwashed, was published online in April of 2013.

Geoffrey Hunt is a social and cultural anthropologist. Currently Dr Hunt is Professor at the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research (CRF) at the University of Aarhus, Denmark and Senior Research Scientist at the Institute for Scientific Analysis, San Francisco. Dr Hunt is Principal Investigator on a National Institutes of Health project on Gender and Alcohol Intoxication. Recent publications include Hunt, Moloney, and Evans (2009) Youth Drugs and Nightlife and Hunt, Milhet, and Bergeron (Eds.) (2011) Drugs and Culture: Knowledge, Consumption and Policy.

Scott Jacques is an Associate Professor of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Georgia State University. His research focuses on drug dealers. His coauthored book is titled Code of the Suburb: Inside the World of Young Middle-Class Drug Dealers (University of Chicago Press).

Karen Joe-Laidler is a Professor of Sociology and the Director of the Centre for Criminology at the University of Hong Kong. She has been involved in criminological research – applied and theoretical – in the United States and Hong Kong. In the United States, her interest in the articulation of gender and ethnicity in gangs dates back to the late 1980s. She continues to publish in this area, focusing especially on violence and drugs. In Hong Kong, her research has focused on the sex work industry and drug-related issues, especially the rise of and problems associated with psychotropic drugs, drug-use-related violence, Buddhist interventions with heroin users, and generational differences among heroin users. She is also working on a number of evaluation studies of youth intervention programs.

Brian C. Kelly is an Associate Professor of Sociology and Anthropology and Director of the Center for Research on Young People’s Health at Purdue University. He has authored or coauthored publications in several social science and public health journals on topics including medical sociology, drug use, youth cultures, and sexual health.

Timothy W. Kinlock, a criminologist, is Senior Research Scientist at Friends Research Institute in Baltimore, MD and Adjunct Professor II in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Baltimore. He has published extensively on the history, etiology, and adverse consequences of heroin addiction. Dr Kinlock’s research teams were among the first to study the effectiveness of prison-initiated methadone, prison-initiated buprenorphine, and naltrexone for parolees and probationers in the United States.

Tiggey May is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Criminal Policy Research at the University of London. For over 15 years she has been conducting and managing research studies using mainly qualitative methodologies in areas such as policing, drug use, markets and supply networks, sex work and youth justice. She has published widely on all these topics. She has recently completed a study funded by the European Commission which examined European Drug Markets. She is currently working on a study examining Organised Crime Groups involved in Fraud.

Duane C. McBride is Chair of Behavioral Sciences, Director of the Institute for Prevention of Addictions, and a Research Professor of Sociology at Andrews University. His expertise is in the areas of criminology and drug abuse and Dr McBride has published articles on these subjects in numerous scholarly journals as well as two books on drug policy.

Neil McKeganey is a sociologist and the Director of the Centre for Drug Misuse Research, which he set up in Scotland 1994 focused on aspects of drug use, drugs policy, drugs treatment, and drugs enforcement. Professor McKeganey is the author of over 150 peer-reviewed publications. His authored books include Controversies in Drugs Policy and Practice (2010), The A to Z of Substance Misuse and Addiction (2013) and Drug Policy Reform: The Pursuit of the Unachievable (forthcoming). In 2013 Neil McKeganey was awarded the Nils Bejerot prize for Global Drugs Prevention.

Sheigla Murphy, a medical sociologist and the Director for the Center for Substance Abuse Studies at the Institute for Scientific Analysis, coauthored (with Waldorf and Reinarman) Cocaine Changes: The Experience of Using and Quitting (1991) and Pregnant Women on Drugs: Combating Stereotypes and Stigma (with Rosenbaum) in 1999.

Kathryn M. Nowotny is a PhD candidate and Chancellor’s Fellow in the Department of Sociology and Population Program at the University of Colorado Boulder where she also serves as Research Assistant for the Population Center at the Institute of Behavioral Science. Previously, she served as Research Coordinator for the UH Center for Drug and Social Policy Research. Her dissertation examines disparities in health and healthcare for inmates.

Daniel O’Connell is a Scientist at the Center for Drug and Health Studies, and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at the University of Delaware. He specializes in criminological theory, with a focus on desistance from criminal and addiction careers and the relationship of theory to correctional practice, prisoner reentry, drug treatment, and corrections; adolescent drug use; and research methodologies, with an emphasis on field experiments.

Mark Pawson is a PhD student in Sociology at the City University of New York Graduate Center. He has been a project manager and ethnographer at the Center for HIV Educational Studies and Training in New York and his research interests include substance use and youth cultures.

Dina Perrone is an Assistant Professor in the School of Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Emergency Management at the California State University, Long Beach. She earned her PhD in Criminal Justice from Rutgers University-Newark, part of which was funded by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse, Behavioral Sciences Predoctoral Training Program. Dr Perrone’s research and published works examine the patterns of use of emerging drugs, effects of drug policy, and factors associated with drug-related harm, particularly among hidden drug-using populations (i.e., those outside of the criminal justice system and drug treatment). Her book, The High Life: Club Kids, Harm, and Drug Policy, covers designer drugs in the New York dance club scene, and her other projects investigated the use of salvia divinorum and other legal highs (synthetic cannabis, mephedrone).

Eve E. Reider is currently a Health Scientist Administrator in the Clinical Research Branch, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health (NIH); she previously worked from 2000 to 2015 at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Prevention Research Branch. She has collaborated with Drs. Elizabeth Robertson and Belinda Sims in writing about the long-term effects of early interventions on subsequent drug abuse and associated mental, emotional, and behavioral health outcomes.

Elizabeth B. Robertson is Associate Dean and Professor at The University of Alabama; she is retired from the NIH, the National Institute on Drug Abuse where she served as the Chief of the Prevention Research Branch within the Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research.

Juliette Roddy is an Associate Professor of Public Policy in the Urban and Regional Studies Department and Chair, Department of Health and Human Services at the University of Michigan, Dearborn. She is an economist and her research focuses on the Detroit metropolitan area.

Robin Room is a sociologist who has worked in the drug and alcohol research field for more than 40 years and has directed alcohol and drug research centers in the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Australia. He is a professor who heads the Centre for Alcohol Policy Research at La Trobe University, a professor at the Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs at Stockholm University, and an honorary professor at the University of Melbourne.

Paloma Sales is a medical sociologist and Co-Principal Investigator at the Institute for Scientific Analysis who has authored and coauthored peer-reviewed articles in the areas of pregnancy and drug use, young heroin users, Ecstasy use and sales, women dealers, nonmedical prescription drug use, and older marijuana users.

Eric L. Sevigny is an Associate Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Georgia State University. His research focuses on drug policy, particularly around issues of sentencing and incarceration; the measurement of drug use consequences; and the collateral consequences of mass incarceration.

Belinda E. Sims is currently a Health Scientist Administrator in the NIDA Prevention Research Branch. In recent years she has collaborated with Drs. Elizabeth Robertson and Eve E. Reider in writing about the effects of early interventions on subsequent drug abuse and associated mental, emotional, and behavioral health outcomes, including health-risking sexual behaviors, and on the dissemination and implementation of substance abuse prevention programs.

Ira Sommers is an expert in criminal justice, desistance, and risk factors. He has conducted and published research on a wide range of topics, including violent offending, substance use, and high-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. He was Principal or Co-Principal Investigator on numerous grants from National Institute of Justice (NIJ), National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Guggenheim Foundation. Dr Sommers is a Professor of Criminal Justice and Criminology and Director of the Psychology of Crime and Justice program at Loyola University Chicago. He received his doctorate in Social Work in 1983 from the University of Pennsylvania.

Yvonne Terry-McElrath is a Senior Research Associate in the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. She has conducted research and published in several areas, including tobacco and illicit drug use in adolescent populations, anti-tobacco and drug use media campaigns, drug policy, international development, drug treatment provision within juvenile justice populations, the drug–crime cycle, and HIV/AIDS prevention services among high-risk groups.

Peter J. Venturelli is an Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminology at Valparaiso University and a Board Member at Baldwin Research Institute, Amsterdam, NY.

Ralph A. Weisheit is a Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice at Illinois State University. He is the author of eight books, including Methamphetamine: Its History, Pharmacology, and Treatment (with William L. White, 2009) and Domestic Marijuana: A Neglected Industry (1992). He has conducted extensive research on rural crime and rural justice.

Acknowledgements

I thank Charles Wellford and everyone at Wiley Blackwell who took this book from a proposal to a publication including Julia Teweles, Julia Kirk, Lindsay Bourgeois, Breanna Locke, Haze Humbert, Allison Kostka, Mahendran Mani, Gunalan Lakshmipathy, Annette Abel, and Mark Graney. And most important I thank everyone who wrote a chapter for this book and generously shared what they know, understand, are able to explain, and have to say about drugs and society.

Part I
Understanding Drugs in Society