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Health Survey Methods

 

 

Edited by

 

Timothy P. Johnson

 

Survey Research Laboratory

University of Illinois at Chicago

Chicago, IL, USA

 

 

 

 

 

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List of Contributors

  1. Emily E. Anderson

    Neiswanger Institute for Bioethics, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

  2. Michael Battaglia

    Battaglia Consulting Group, LLC., Arlington, MA, USA

  3. Paul Beatty

    Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hyattsville, MD, USA

  4. Timothy J. Beebe

    Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

  5. Maureen R. Benjamins

    Sinai Urban Health Institute, Room K437, 1500 South California Avenue, Chicago, IL 60608, USA

  6. Ulrike Boehmer

    Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University, School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

  7. Adam C. Carle

    University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

  8. Jarvis T. Chen

    Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

  9. Melissa A. Clark

    Department of Epidemiology and Obstetrics & Gynecology, Public Health Program and Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

  10. Kennon R. Copeland

    NORC at the University of Chicago, Statistics and Methodology Bethesda, MD, USA

  11. Benjamin Cornwell

    Department of Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

  12. Michael Davern

    NORC at the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

  13. Elizabeth Dean

    RTI International, North Carolina, USA

  14. Ralph DiGaetano

    Westat, Rockville, Maryland, USA

  15. Brad Edwards

    Westat, Rockville, Maryland, USA

  16. Francis Fullam

    Marketing Research, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Health Systems Management, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA

  17. Nadarajasundaram Ganesh

    NORC at the University of Chicago, Statistics and Methodology Bethesda, MD, USA

  18. Joe Gfroerer

    Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, USA

  19. Jon R. Gunderson

    Assistive Communication and Information Technology Accessibility in the Division of Disability Resources and Education Services (DRES), University of Illinois, Champaign/Urbana, IL, USA

  20. Heidi Guyer

    Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

  21. Rooshey Hasnain

    Asian American Studies Program and Department of Disability and Human Development, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

  22. Craig A. Hill

    Survey, Computing, and Statistical Sciences, RTI International, Chicago, IL, USA

  23. Emily Hoagland

    Department of Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

  24. Timothy P. Johnson

    Survey Research Laboratory, College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois, USA

  25. Joel Kennet

    Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, USA

  26. Ronald C. Kessler

    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

  27. Stanislav (Stas) Kolenikov

    Abt SRBI, Silver Spring, MD, USA

  28. Sunghee Lee

    Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

  29. John D. Loft

    Survey, Computing, and Statistical Sciences, RTI International, Chicago, IL, USA

  30. Liam McKeever

    Department of Disability and Human Development, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

  31. Joe Murphy

    Survey, Computing, and Statistical Sciences, RTI International, Chicago, IL, USA

  32. Mary B. Ofstedal

    Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

  33. Ashmeet Oberoi

    Department of Disability and Human Development, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

  34. Jeff Pitblado

    Statistical Software, StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA

  35. Hadi B. Rangin

    Assistive Communication and Information Technology Accessibility in the Division of Disability Resources and Education Services (DRES), University of Illinois, Champaign/Urbana, IL, USA

  36. Safa Rashid

    Health Systems Science Department, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

  37. Ashley Richards

    Survey, Computing, and Statistical Sciences, RTI International, Chicago, IL, USA

  38. Marc Roemer

    Agency for Healthcare Research and , Quality Survey Statistician formerly at the US Census Bureau, Rockville, MD, USA

  39. Samantha Rosenthal

    Department of Epidemiology, Public Health Program, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

  40. Joseph W. Sakshaug

    Department of Statistical Methods, Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany. Program in Survey Methodology, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

  41. Mike Scott

    Division of Rehabilitation Services of the Illinois Department of Human Services, Chicago, IL, USA

  42. Ami M. Shah

    UCLA Center for Health Policy Research10960 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 1550, Los Angeles, CA 00024, USA

  43. Carmit-Noa Shpigelman

    Department of Community Mental Health, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel

  44. Sandy Slater

    Health Policy and Administration Division, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

  45. Tom W. Smith

    NORC at the University of Chicago, USA

  46. Wendy Thomas

    Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

  47. Jonathan B. VanGeest

    Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA

  48. James Wagner

    Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

  49. Joseph West

    Sinai Urban Health Institute, Room K437, 1500 South California Avenue, Chicago, IL 60608, USA

  50. Steven Whitman

    Sinai Urban Health Institute, Room K437, 1500 South California Avenue, Chicago, IL 60608, USA

  51. Gordon Willis

    National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

  52. Shannon N. Zenk

    Health Systems Science Department, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

  53. Todd Rockwood

    Division of Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

  54. Beth-Ellen Pennell

    Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Preface

Much of what we know about population health comes from quantitative health surveys. This handbook organizes and summarizes current knowledge regarding the design and conduct of health surveys into a single volume. Our goal is to provide a single reference that provides overviews of current issues and which also serves as a gateway to additional resources concerned with each topic. As such, we are hopeful that it will be useful to students, practitioners, and researchers. In the first chapter, I provide a brief overview of the evolution and development of health survey methods over the past two centuries. Subsequent chapters are divided into five sections that address sampling, measurement and field issues, surveys involving special populations, and data management and analysis.

In the section on sampling issues, Michael Battaglia provides an overview of current sampling strategies for community health surveys in Chapter 2. Ralph DiGaetano then discusses, in Chapter 3, procedures for sampling in population-based case–control studies. Approaches to sampling rare and hard-to-reach populations, an increasing focus of researchers concerned with at-risk groups, are reviewed by James Wagner and Sunghee Lee in Chapter 4.

Measurement issues are addressed across eight chapters in the next section. Three of these focus specifically on the development of health measures, including Todd Rockwood's consideration of physical health measures (in Chapter 5), Ron Kessler's and Beth-Ellen Pennell review of mental health measures (in Chapter 6), and Paul Beatty's overview of health behavior and service utilization measures (in Chapter 7). Sunghee Lee reviews commonly employed, albeit poorly understood, subjective health rating measures in Chapter 8, and Gordon Willis provides an overview of current questionnaire pretesting protocols in Chapter 9. The unique and important challenges of cross-cultural health surveys are next considered, in Chapter 10, by Brad Edwards. An important method in health surveys is the use of social network tools and analysis, a topic covered in Chapter 11 by Ben Cornwell and Emily Hoagland. An overview of new technologies becoming available for applications in health survey research is presented by Joe Murphy, Elizabeth Dean, Craig Hill and Ashley Richards in Chapter 12.

Seven chapters address topics relevant to fielding health surveys. Chapter 13, by Steve Whitman, Ami Shah, Maureen Benjamins and Joseph West address strategies for community outreach, collaboration and engagement, a topic that many fail to recognize or appreciate. The challenge of collecting health data from proxy respondents is next addressed by Joe Sakshaug in Chapter 14. Joe Saksaug, Mary Ofstedal, Heidi Guyer and Tim Beebe provide an overview of current best practices for the collection of various types of biospecimens in Chapter 15, and Shannon Zenk, Sandy Slater and Safa Rashid present strategies for the collection of contextual information during health surveys in Chapter 16. Collection of data regarding sensitive topics is a very common issue in health survey research, and two of these topics are reviewed in handbook chapters. Joe Gforerer and Joel Kennet address measurement of substance use behaviors in Chapter 17 and Tom Smith considers measurement of sexual behavior in Chapter 18. Ethical considerations in the collection of health survey data are reviewed in Chapter 19 by Emily Anderson.

Methods for health surveys of special populations are covered in the next section. Among these are two chapters concerned with surveys of health care professionals and organizations. Chapter 20, by Jonathan VanGeest, Tim Beebe and Tim Johnson examines physician surveys, and Chapter 21, by John Loft, Joe Murphy and Craig Hill discusses surveys of health care organizations. In Chapter 22, Francis Fullam and Jonathan VanGeest review methods for surveying patient populations. Melissa Clark, Samantha Rosenthal and Ulrike Boehmer consider challenges in conducting surveys of sexual minority groups in Chapter 23, and Rooshey Hasnain and colleagues, including Carmit-Noa Shpigelman, Mike Scott, Jon Gunderson, Hadi Bargi Rangin, Ashmeet Oberoi, and Liam McKeever, address issues in surveying persons with disabilities in Chapter 24.

Chapters in the final section of the handbook are devoted to data management and analysis issues. These include Chapter 25, by Adam Carle, which is concerned with assessing the measurement quality of health survey data, and Chapter 26, in which sample weighting for health surveys is reviewed by Ken Copeland and Nadarajasundaram Ganesh. Two chapters consider strategies for merging health surveys with auxiliary data sources. In Chapter 27, Michael Davern, Marc Roemer and Wendy Thomas review the uses of administrative records for this purpose, and Jarvis Chen considers approaches to merging aggregate level information with health survey data in Chapter 28. Finally, in Chapter 29 Stanislav Kolenikov and Jeff Pitblado provide a broad overview of analysis strategies when working with complex health survey data.

With the many public health and health policy issues now being confronted worldwide, it is probably safe to say that there will be a need for health survey research far into our collective future. Health survey methodologies will undoubtedly also continue to improve in quality and rigor, and to evolve to address issues of health and public health that we cannot now anticipate. Our hope is for that research to successfully build upon the foundation of knowledge, experience, and ideas offered in this volume.

Acknowledgments

This handbook is the product of contributions from a talented and highly experienced group of 54 health survey experts. Collectively in 29 chapters, they provide insights and guidance regarding numerous key topics that are relevant to the conduct of evidence-based health survey research. It was a pleasure to work with these professionals and they have my sincere appreciation and gratitude for their contributions and support in developing this handbook. Many of them provided additional support, above and beyond the call, as reviewers of other chapters. The efforts of these and the many other colleagues who also helped review early chapter drafts are also greatly valued and appreciated. Their helpful insights and valuable recommendations improved our final product and for that, I am additionally grateful. Thank you also to my colleagues at the University of Illinois at Chicago Survey Research Laboratory. I learn from them every day and the challenges we confront in conducting our research have found their way into every corner of this volume. I would also like to thank the team at Wiley for inviting me to undertake this project, and their strong support through every stage of its development and production. It is also important to acknowledge that this volume would not exist without my earlier collaborations with Dick Warnecke and the late Seymour Sudman.

Finally, thank you to Lu for putting up with me while this handbook was being completed.

Tim Johnson

Chicago

October 2013