cover

Contents

About the Authors

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 What is a Motivational Approach?

INTRODUCTION

THE FIVE PRINCIPLES

Clarify Contracts

Express Empathy

Develop Desire to Change (Develop Discrepancy)

Avoid Argument (Roll with Resistance)

Support Self-belief and Self-responsibility (Self-efficacy)

THE KEY MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS

Affirm (Build Self-belief)

Listen

Open Questions

Summarise and Reflect Listening

Support self-motivating statements

A CYCLE OF CHANGE

Pre-contemplation

Contemplation

Decision

Action

Maintenance

Lapse

SUMMARY OF A MOTIVATIONAL APPROACH

SUMMARY

Chapter 2 How Effective is the Motivational Approach?

SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE

Chapter 3 How to Use the Toolkit to Meet Individual Requirements

THE TOOLKIT AND LEARNING

PREFERRED SENSE

ADAPTING MATERIALS TO MEET INDIVIDUAL REQUIREMENTS

USING THE EXERCISES

SUMMARY

Chapter 4 Establishing Rapport and Making Contracts

THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR RAPPORT

Valuing the Person, if not the Behaviour

Understanding Rapport as a Process

The Communication Cycle

Using Appropriate Matching Behaviours

Understanding the Dance of Rapport

Facilitator’s Worksheet F4.1: The Optimum Conditions for Rapport.

Facilitator’s Worksheet F4.2: Matching, Pacing, Leading

Facilitator’s Worksheet F4.3: The Power of Influence

MAKING A CLEAR CONTRACT

Authority, Purpose and Freedom

What is in the Contract?

SUMMARY

Chapter 5 Exploring Current Motivation

SUMMARY

Chapter 6 The Cycle of Change

WHAT IS THE CYCLE OF CHANGE?

SUMMARY AND APPLICATION

Chapter 7 Listening Skills

FIVE LEVELS OF LISTENING

Level 3 – Active Listening

Level 4 – Empathetic Listening

Level 5 – Listening to Develop Discrepancies

LISTENING WITH YOUR EYES

Some cautions on reading body language

Body Language and Culture

Understand Non-verbal Language by Checking it Out

Listening to Feelings

Facilitator’s Worksheet F7.1: Using Non-verbal Information

SUMMARY

Chapter 8 Summarising and Reflective Listening

PURPOSES OF REFLECTIVE LISTENING

UNPACKING THE SKILL

SUMMARY

Chapter 9 Asking Open Questions

WHAT ARE OPEN QUESTIONS?

SUMMARY

Chapter 10 Working with Resistance

MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS ARE EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE IN ACTION

Roadblocks

SkillsSome Resistant Behaviours and How to Respond

Using Socratic Questions

Example of a Motivational Approach

Style and Response

Facilitator’s Worksheet F10.1

Working with ResistanceFacilitator’s Worksheet F10.2

Facilitator’s Worksheet F10.3

Facilitator’s Worksheet F10.4: Responses to resistance

Facilitator’s Worksheet F10.5: Some Possible Replies to F10.4

Facilitator’s Worksheet F10.6: Your agency

SUMMARY

Chapter 11 Exploring Ambivalence

THE NATURE OF AMBIVALENCE

SUMMARY

Chapter 12 Developing the Desire to Change

DEVELOPING DISCREPANCY

STEPS TOWARDS CHANGE

APPLYING THE SKILLS

SUMMARY

Chapter 13 Affirmation and Confidence to Change

BUILDING CONFIDENCE

AFFIRMATION

SUMMARY

Chapter 14 Motivational Action Planning

SIGNS OF READINESS TO CHANGE

Chapter 15 Supporting Change

INTEGRATING ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND APPROACHES

MOTIVATIONAL FEEDBACK

SUMMARY

Chapter 16 Putting it All Together; Cultivating your Skills

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODEL

PEER COACHING

ADDITIONAL TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS

THE MANAGER’S ROLE IN SUSTAINING AND DEVELOPING MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS

STRUCTURES TO SUPPORT MOTIVATIONAL SKILLS

TOWARDS A MOTIVATIONAL CULTURE

THE MOTIVATIONAL DANCE

References

Index of Worksheets

Facilitator Worksheets

Service User’s Worksheets

Subject Index

Image

About the Authors

Catherine Fuller MA, PGCertEd is a staff developer for the National Probation Service of England and Wales and runs an international training consultancy. She helps practitioners and their managers, in a variety of settings, develop skills, understanding and confidence to facilitate change in others. Her background includes over 20 years as a practitioner, manager and staff developer. Catherine and Phil were at the forefront of developing motivational work with offenders in England and Wales and Catherine has since helped to establish motivational cultures in the new probation services of Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania.

Information about training packages based on this book is available from: Catherine Fuller Associates

Catherine Fuller Associates provide tailor-made consultancy and training on Motivational Skills to assist the implementation of the ideas in this Toolkit into practice.

Catherine Fuller Associates can be contacted at:

Cop Castle

Bringsty Common

Worcester

WR6 5UN

01886821403

Catherine.fuller@talk21.com

Phil Taylor qualified as an engineer before his career in the probation service. Between 1969 and 1999 he worked as a probation officer, manager and trainer. He continued working as a freelance trainer in all areas of the criminal justice sector until 2005. During his 15 years in training, Phil pioneered new ways of assessment for NVQs and wrote and published many colourful training packages in association with Linda Gast and Catherine Fuller. Phil is now retired and has returned to University to learn creative writing, for his own pleasure.

Acknowledgements

There are many people we would like to thank for their help and influence in writing this book, including:

William Miller and Stephen Rollnick for the theory and research into effective motivational interviewing.

Prochaska and Di Clemente for their ideas on the ‘cycle of change’ which has proved to be a useful, accessible framework to assist the application of motivational work.

James Sandham for introducing us to the practical application of motivational skills in the criminal justice sector.

Lin Taylor for ideas and support over the years and creatively laying out the materials.

Linda Gast for permission to update the chapter on rapport in Influence and Integrity, A practice handbook for pro-social modelling, by Linda Gast and Phil Taylor, originally published by MPTC Birmingham, 2002. Material from the The Trainer’s Pack for Pro-social Modelling by the same authors is also included. Thanks are due to Linda and Phil for permission to publish this version. Enquiries regarding the above can be made to Linda and Mike Gast Training, e-mail: training@lindagast.co.uk

Tudor Williams for supporting our work over the years, demonstrations of motivational management and for permission to publish updated versions of material from the Toolkit of Motivational skills (first edition) 2003, by Fuller, C., and Taylor, P., published by National Probation Directorate.

Sally Cherry (Midlands Probation Training Consortium) and Mike Tennant (National Offender Management Services) for permission to publish updated versions of materials from Systematic Motivational Skills for Approved Premises, 2004, by Fuller, C., published by National Probation Directorate and Midlands Probation Consortium. Thanks are also due to Sally for her help in developing staff training in motivational skills in conjunction with Pro-Social Modelling.

Dave Thompson for his lively and appropriate illustrations.nts

Sue Jenner for her commentary on the Toolkit, demonstrating the spirit of motivational interviewing in so many interactions and help to develop motivational skills training both nationally and internationally.

Commissioners of training and participants on all our courses without whose examples of practical application this book would not have been written.