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Guides to Research Methods in Language and Linguistics

Series Editor: Li Wei, Centre for Applied Linguistics, University College London

The science of language encompasses a truly interdisciplinary field of research, with a wide range of focuses, approaches, and objectives. While linguistics has its own traditional approaches, a variety of other intellectual disciplines have contributed methodological perspectives that enrich the field as a whole. As a result, linguistics now draws on state‐of‐the‐art work from such fields as psychology, computer science, biology, neuroscience and cognitive science, sociology, music, philosophy, and anthropology.

The interdisciplinary nature of the field presents both challenges and opportunities to students who must understand a variety of evolving research skills and methods. The Guides to Research Methods in Language and Linguistics addresses these skills in a systematic way for advanced students and beginning researchers in language science. The books in this series focus especially on the relationships between theory, methods, and data—the understanding of which is fundamental to the successful completion of research projects and the advancement of knowledge.

  1. The Blackwell Guide to Research Methods in Bilingualism and Multilingualism
    Edited by Li Wei and Melissa G. Moyer
  2. Research Methods in Child Language: A Practical Guide
    Edited by Erika Hoff
  3. Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition: A Practical Guide
    Edited by Susan M. Gass and Alison Mackey
  4. Research Methods in Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics: A Practical Guide
    Edited by Nicole Müller and Martin J. Ball
  5. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics: A Practical Guide
    Edited by Janet Holmes and Kirk Hazen
  6. Research Methods in Sign Language Studies: A Practical Guide
    Edited by Eleni Orfanidou, Bencie Woll, and Gary Morgan
  7. Research Methods in Language Policy and Planning: A Practical Guide
    Edited by Francis Hult and David Cassels Johnson
  8. Research Methods in Intercultural Communication: A Practical Guide
    Edited by Zhu Hua
  9. Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language: A Practical Guide
    Edited by Annette M. B. de Groot and Peter Hagoort

Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language

A Practical Guide




Edited by

Annette M. B. de Groot and Peter Hagoort














List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Examples of various infant language habituation tasks
Figure 1.2 Mean looking times across various trial types in Fennell and Byers‐Heinlein (2014)
Figure 2.1 The Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm
Figure 2.2 Means of single longest look in seconds to infant‐directed (IDS) and adult‐directed (ADS) speech stimuli
Figure 2.3 The Interactive Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm
Figure 2.4 Visual fixation to original label, new label, and recovery trials by condition
Figure 2.5 Eye gaze shifts toward and away from target in looking‐while‐listening task by age
Figure 2.6 The Headturn Preference Procedure
Figure 4.1 Typical eye tracker set up
Figure 4.2 Illustration of the gaze‐contingent moving‐window (top) and boundary (bottom) paradigms
Figure 4.3 Velocity‐based saccade detection
Figure 4.4 Determination of word boundaries with PRAAT software
Figure 4.5 Main effect of eye‐voice span and its interaction with predictability
Figure 5.1 Example of a screen‐based visual world paradigm experimental set up
Figure 5.2 Example visual display modeled after Altmann and Kamide (1999)
Figure 5.3 Timing of target fixations for each trial, for one participant and fixation proportions computed for same data
Figure 5.4 Proportion of fixations over time (from target‐word onset) to target (goat), cohort competitor (goal), and distractor in neutral and constraining verb conditions in Experiment 1 in Dahan and Tanenhaus (2004)
Figure 6.1 An illustration of the trial structure in Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971)
Figure 6.2 An illustration of the prime‐target pairs used in Glaser and Düngelhoff (1984)
Figure 6.3 Results obtained by Glaser and Düngelhoff (1984)
Figure 6.4 Illustration of trial structures in the masked and unmasked conditions in de Wit and Kinoshita (2015)
Figure 7.1 Example trial in a picture‐matching comprehension priming paradigm
Figure 7.2 Example trial in a picture‐matching and picture‐description production priming paradigm
Figure 7.3 Example trial in a sentence recall production priming paradigm
Figure 10.1 Comparison of cut and break verbs in Chontal, Hindi, and Jalonke
Figure 11.1 The basic architecture of a Simple Recurrent Network (SRN)
Figure 11.2 A sketch of the probabilistic model that incorporates distributional statistics from cross‐situational observation and prosodic and attentional highlights from social gating
Figure 11.3 A sketch of the DevLex‐II model
Figure 11.4 Vocabulary spurt simulated by DevLex‐II (591 target words)
Figure 13.1 Idealized example of an event‐related potential waveform in response to a visual stimulus, with labeled positive and negative peaks
Figure 13.2 Grand average ERPs from three parietal channels, elicited by the final words in the three conditions
Figure 13.3 Simulated EEG data illustrating the difference between ERPs and time‐frequency analyses in their sensitivity to phase‐locked (evoked) and non‐phase‐locked (induced) activity
Figure 14.1 An anatomical scan of the head and the brain (A), and Functional MRI images (B)
Figure 14.2 Example of an idealized BOLD curve, sometimes called the hemodynamic response function (HRF)
Figure 14.3 A statistical map overlaid on an anatomical brain scan
Figure 14.4 Image of a 5‐month‐old infant wearing a fNIRS cap, includinga schematic illustration of the path of light between a source (star) and a detector (circle), through the scalp (dashed line) and cortical tissue (in gray)
Figure 14.5 Sample of signal in fNIRS studies
Figure 15.1 Imaging of an acute patient presenting with anomia following left inferior parietal and frontal lobe stroke
Figure 15.2 Lesion mapping based on T1‐weighted data (A), on a diffusion tractography atlas (B), and an example of extracting tract‐based measurements from tractography (C)
Figure 15.3 Anatomical variability in perisylvian white matter anatomy and its relation to post‐stroke language recovery
Figure 16.1 A schematic illustration showing the steps involved in a VLSM analysis
Figure 16.2 Overlay of patients’ lesions
Figure 16.3 Power analysis map showing the degree of power in our sample, given a medium effect size and alpha set at p < .05
Figure 16.4 VLSM results showing neural correlates of auditory word recognition with varying levels of correction
Figure 17.1 Transmission of DNA between generations
Figure 17.2 Visualization of Sanger sequencing results
Figure 17.3 Next generation sequencing
Figure 17.4 Visualization of SNP‐chip results

List of Tables

Table 1.1 Mock habituation data from four experiments with looking time as the dependent variable
Table 1.2 Steps in data collection and analyses
Table 2.1 Visual and linguistic stimuli used to teach two novel words in either infant‐directed or adult‐directed speech
Table 2.2 Ten‐ to 12‐month‐old infants saw two types of discrimination trials, one to test for path discrimination and one for actor discrimination
Table 3.1 Overview of instruments/analysis tools for studying vocabulary development in children
Table 3.2 Example transcript from CHILDES
Table 4.1 Definitions of location and duration eye‐tracking measures
Table 4.2 Practical issues related to eye‐tracking during reading
Table 7.1 Example structural alternations studied in structural priming experiments
Table 7.2 Stimulus materials for a hypothetical small clause study
Table 7.3 Hypothetical results for a small clause study
Table 8.1 Questions and assessments from Extracts 8.1 to 8.3
Table 12.1 Excerpt from the SUBTLEX‐US database for the word “appalled”
Table 12.2 Stimuli used in a semantic priming experiment by de Mornay Davies (1998)
Table 17.1 Example of genotyping chip results for four individuals and five polymorphisms