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To our students of global and crisis communication, who, spanning many cultures and boundaries, yearn for an understanding of, and emphasis on, culture in crises. And to communication practitioners everywhere who constantly contend with crisis and conflict situations that challenge their abilities and professional deontology. We hope that the cases and tips provided in this book will bring some welcome reprieve!

Amiso M. George & Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo

A Note from the Series Editor

The IEEE Professional Communication Society (PCS), with Wiley-IEEE Press, continues its book series titled Professional Engineering Communication with a volume collected guided and shaped by Amiso M. George and Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo titled Culture and Crisis Communication: Transboundary Cases from Nonwestern Perspectives. In the field of risk communication, there are few sustained, focused collections about practices from a nonwestern perspective. This book aims to fill that gap and show everyone how communication is, foremost, always contextualized and never inert.

With the knowledgeable and steady vision provided by the book's editors, who also contributed to writing chapters, this tome will help anyone unpack assumptions and presumptions about appropriate actions to take while (sometimes literally) in the eye of the storm. From intense human tragedy to the follies of the rich, these chapters examine how companies, organizations, news outlets, health organizations, technical experts, politicians, and local communities communicate in crisis situations.

As with other books in this series, we aim to do more than theorize. Thus, each chapter provides lessons learned, discussion questions for interactive training, and some expert opinions. Use these resources to enrich your own thinking about the complexity of international and intra-national communication when an emergency is at hand.

When this book series began, we were looking for a collection that could address these issues, and here it is. The series has a mandate to explore areas of communication practices and application as applied to the engineering, technical, and scientific professions. Including the realms of business, governmental agencies, academia, and other areas, this series has and will continue to develop perspectives about the state of communication issues and potential solutions when at all possible.

While theory has its place (in this book and this series), we always look to be a source where recommendations for action and activity can be found. All of the books in the fast-growing PEC series keep a steady eye on the applicable while acknowledging the contributions that analysis, research, and theory can provide to these efforts. You will see Brewer's active synthesis between on-site realities and research coming together. There is a strong commitment from the Professional Communication Society of IEEE and Wiley to produce a set of information and resources that can be carried directly into engineering firms, technology organizations, and academia alike.

For the series, we work with this philosophy: at the core of engineering, science, and technical work is problem solving and discovery. These tasks require, at all levels, talented and agile communication practices. We need to effectively gather, vet, analyze, synthesize, control, and produce communication pieces in order for any meaningful work to get done. This book, like others in the series before it, contributes deeply to that vision.

Traci Nathans-Kelly, Ph.D.

Author Biographies

imagesDila Beisembayeva (M.A., Unitec, New Zealand) is a lecturer at the Department of Computing in the Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand. Originally from Kazakhstan, Beisembayeva's interests include social media, national identity, and censorship in authoritarian states such as China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. Her international communication master's thesis explored the impact of online political activism on political process in Kazakhstan. She has presented papers at conferences in Ireland, Japan, and Canada. Email:

imagesRonald Carr (M.F.A., University of California, Los Angeles) is an associate professor and director of the Communication Studies Department, with specialization in broadcasting and documentary filmmaking, at Temple University, Japan. He is also executive producer of Global Lives, Asia, and of Urban Villages, a recent Temple University-funded project that brings awareness and solutions to serious issues plaguing Asian urban communities. Professor Carr has produced stories on disaster relief in Manila, Philippines, and the struggles facing informal settlers, and on nuclear energy crisis following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. His projects have taken him to far-flung places such as Beirut, Sapporo, Damascus, and Varnasse. He resides in Tokyo with his family. Email:

imagesChristabel Reena David (BComms (Hons), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore) is a senior consultant at DeVries Global. To date, she has worked on several accounts, including Head & Shoulders, SK-II Local and Global, Prestige Fine Fragrances, Samsonite, and CÉ LA VI Singapore. She has experience in both regional and local work such as media relations, traditional and social media communication strategy, event execution, and regional toolkit creation. David graduated from Nanyang Technological University's Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information in 2014, specializing in public relations. She worked on creating awareness among youths for social enterprises for her final year project and on a paper on social media crisis communication in Singapore. Email:

imagesUttaran Dutta (Ph.D., Purdue University) is an assistant professor in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication, Arizona State University, USA. His research interest includes intercultural communication, communication for social change, indigenous and folk culture, and visual communication. He has published in several peer-reviewed journals including Qualitative Health Research, Journal of International Communication, and Communication Design Quarterly. Email:

imagesAmiso M. George (Ph.D., Ohio University; Accredited in Public Relations by the Public Relations Society of America [PRSA]; Fellow, PRSA) is an associate professor of strategic communication at Texas Christian University (TCU), Fort Worth, Texas. She is former chair of the Strategic Communication Department and former director of the graduate program at TCU, where she coaches the award-winning PRSSA Bateman team. George also directed the Public Relations program at the Reynolds School of Journalism, University of Nevada, Reno, where she developed and taught the first course in crisis communication. She was a visiting professor of strategic communication at Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, in 2012. Before entering academia, George worked as a journalist and freelance broadcaster in radio and television at Nigerian Television Authority, Voice of America international radio network (Africa Service), and WOUB Radio in Athens, Ohio. She also served as a consultant for C-SPAN-Television, Washington, D.C. In addition to journal articles and book chapters on crisis communication, she is the co-editor of Crisis Communication: An International Perspective on Hits and Misses (Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2012) and Race, Gender and Other Minorities: Readings for Professional Communicators (Cognella, 2012). She consults in risks and crisis communication. Email:; Twitter: @tampriye

imagesYi-Hui Christine Huang (Ph.D., University of Maryland) is a professor at the School of Journalism and Communication in the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Previously, she taught at School of Communication in National Chengchi University in Taiwan and as a visiting professor in the Negotiation Program at Harvard University Law School. Her research interests include cross-cultural communication and relationship management, crisis communication, conflict and negotiation, public relations management, and communication studies in China. She has received distinguished public relations research awards from the National Communication Association, USA; National Science Council, R.O.C.; and Research Chair Professorship Award by the National Chengchi University in Taiwan. A recipient of numerous top paper awards and teaching awards at various international conferences, including the International Communication Association, Dr. Huang has also served on the editorial boards of major international SSCI journals in communication and public relations, including Journal of Public Relations Research, Asian Journal of Communication, and International Journal of Strategic Communication. She is associate editor-in-chief and editorial board member of major Chinese TSSCI scholarly publications, including Chinese Journal of Communication Research. She has also served as the vice president and the secretary-general of the Chinese Communication Society as well as a board member and consultant for the Foundation of Public Relations of the Republic of China. Email:

imagesJangyul Robert Kim (Ph.D., University of Florida; Accredited in Public Relations by the Public Relations Society of America [PRSA]; Fellow, PRSA) is the director general of Customer Risk Prevention Bureau at the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of South Korea. A former associate professor in the Department of Journalism and Media Communication at Colorado State University, USA, he is the first Korean awarded the professional designation of Accredited in Public Relations (APR) by the Public Relations Society of America. He is also the first Korean to be inducted into the prestigious Public Relations College of Fellows. He was a visiting professor at Ewha Womans University in Seoul, South Korea, in 2013–2014. Prior to joining academia, he was the founder of KorCom Porter Novelli, a full-service public relations firm based in Seoul, and has consulted numerous domestic and multinational firms, governments, and non-profit organizations. Kim's research interest includes issues and crisis communications, public diplomacy, corporate social responsibility, international public relations, and strategic and marketing communications. His manuscripts are published in top peer review journals including Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Review, Asian Journal of Communications, Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, and Journal of Public Relations (Korean). Email:

imagesElena Kolesova (Ph.D., University of Auckland) is a senior lecturer and programme leader for postgraduate programmes at the Department of Communication Studies in the Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand. She developed and teaches courses in Asian studies and in international and intercultural communication. Her research interests include the re-emergence of nationalism in Japan and Russia, media and multiculturalism in New Zealand, and East Asian popular culture in a local context. In 2011, she organized a “Cool New Asia” international symposium followed by the ePublication Cool New Asia: Asian Popular Culture in Local Context. In 2014, she co-organized an Ethnic Media Forum. Elena is also involved in research on international/transnational education and international students, and has published in the area of the history of Japanese education, international students and also a comparative analysis of history textbooks in Japan and Russia. She is the reviews editor for New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies. Email:

imagesKwamena Kwansah-Aidoo (Ph.D., Queensland University of Technology, Australia) is an associate professor of marketing/public relations at Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia. In the early 2000s, he established Monash University, Gippsland's Public Relations Program before moving to Swinburne in 2007, as head of Academic Group of Communication, Marketing and Tourism, and Associate Dean, International from 2011 to 2013. He has been a consultant for Ghana Social Marketing Foundation, visiting professor of marketing communication at the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, visiting scholar at Texas Christian University, and consultant for AusTraining in cross-cultural communication/issues in Africa. He is experienced in leading course and curriculum development in public relations, advertising, and communication studies. Dr. Kwansah-Aidoo has authored two books on media communication and crisis communication. He has also published several refereed journal articles and book chapters on public relations, communication and media, with emerging streams on Ghanaian film and also the African diaspora in Australia. Email:

imagesJoanne Chen Lyu (Ph.D., The Chinese University of Hong Kong) is an assistant professor at the School of Communication in Hang Seng Management College, Hong Kong. Prior to joining academia, she served in the Public Relations Department of a transnational media corporation for years. In her doctoral study, she won Top Student Paper in the public relations division of the annual conference of International Communication Association (2012). Lyu's research interest includes public relations, crisis communication and management, relationship/guanxi studies, and Chinese communication. She has published in Public Relations Review, Communication & Society, and many English and Chinese scholarly books. Email:

imagesHeba Metwali (M.A., American University of Cairo) is a researcher, English translator, and media specialist at the Egyptian State Information Service since 1997. Metwali has previously worked as an expert and media coordinator at the Population and Migration Department, League of Arab States. She obtained a B.A. in English literature from Ain Shams University, a Diploma in Journalism from Cairo University, M.A. in Journalism and Mass Communication from the American University in Cairo, and a postgraduate studies in anthropology and visual anthropology from the African Institute, Cairo University. She is a Ph.D. candidate in the Faculty of Mass Communication at Cairo University. Metwali's research interests include media and journalism, image of women, children, countries, and peoples in the media, the role of media in shaping perceptions, and effects of media on developmental issues. Email:

imagesJuan-Carlos Molleda (Ph.D., University of South Carolina) is a professor and the Edwin L. Artzt Dean of the School of Journalism and Communication, University of Oregon. He was the former chair of the Department of Public Relations and director of the Online Master's in Public Relations and Communication Management at the University of Florida's (UF) College of Journalism and Communications. He is also an affiliated faculty of the UF Center for Latin American Studies. Molleda is academic trustee of the Institute for Public Relations, member of the board of directors of the LAGRANT Foundation, Latin American liaison of the Public Relations Society of America's Certification in Education for Public Relations, and co-director of the Latin American Communication Monitor, a multinational study organized by the European Public Relations Education and Research Association. Dr. Molleda introduced to the international academic community the concept and theory of cross-national conflict shifting (Journalism Studies, Public Relations Review), the Latin American School of Public Relations (Journalism Studies), as well as the social roles of public relations in Brazil (Journal of Public Relations Research) and Colombia (PRSA Educators Academy and Anagramas, a peer-reviewed publication from Universidad de Medellin, Colombia). Dr. Molleda has a national and international record of conference papers, lectures, and publications in Europe, the Americas, and Asia. Email:

imagesAugustine Pang (Ph.D., University of Missouri) is an associate professor and program director of Master of Mass Communication at Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He specializes in crisis management and communication, image management and repair, media management, and corporate communication management. His chapters have appeared in leading communication books like the Handbook of Crisis Communication (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), SAGE Handbook of Public Relations (2010), Handbook of Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011), and Handbook of Research on Crisis Leadership in Organizations (Edward Elgar, 2013). He has also published in many top journals, including Journal of Public Relations Research, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, International Journal of Strategic Communication, Australian Journalism Review, and Asia Pacific Media Educator, amongst others. Dr. Pang has won top research awards at leading international conferences such as the International Communication Association, Corporate Communications International, the Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), and the International Public Relations Research. He won a highly commended paper published in Corporate Communication: An International Journal for 2014. A member of the Arthur W. Page Society (US), he was appointed Honorary Fellow by Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 2015 in recognition of his expertise in the field. Email:

imagesCornelius B. Pratt (Ph.D., University of Minnesota at Twin Cities; Accredited in Public Relations by the Public Relations Society of America [PRSA]) is a professor in the Globalization and Development Communication Program and in the Department of Strategic Communication at Temple University, Philadelphia. He also teaches at Temple University Japan. Pratt is an honorary visiting professor of mass communication at Bingham University, New Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Widely published in top communication and public relations journals, he is the co-editor of Crisis Communication: An International Perspective on Hits and Misses (Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2012). Additionally, he serves on the editorial-review boards of six journals, including the South East Asian Journal of Management, Public Relations Review, and the Journal of Public Relations Research. His research interests include international communication, ethics, public relations and communication for national and regional development, particularly in emerging economies. Email:

imagesIbrahim Saleh (Ph.D., Cairo University) is an associate professor of political journalism and mass communication at Future University in Egypt, chair of Political Mass Media Department, and director of Future Public Opinion Polling Centre (FPOPC). Saleh is Fulbright scholar, a senior media expert on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and an indexed scholar in the Media Sustainability Index (MSI). Saleh is the chair of Journalism Research and Education (JRE) section at the International Association of Media and Communication Research (IAMCR). Saleh is the linchpin editor of the Journal of Transnational ‘Worlds of Power': Proliferation of Journalism and Professional Standards, book series on Visual Politics of War, and Global Media Journal, African edition. He is the author of the following books: Unveiling the Truth about Middle Eastern Media—Privatization in Egypt: Hope or Dope? (2003), Prior to the Eruption of the Grapes of Wrath in the Middle East (2006), and Visual Politics of War (2015). Email: and

imagesSoumitro Sen (Ph.D., Purdue University) is an assistant professor of public relations in the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at California State University, Long Beach. Prior to joining the academe, he was a public relations practitioner, performing media relations for Purdue University. He also is a former print journalist. His research interests include new media and public relations, coverage of news in the neoliberal press, and health communication. His research has appeared in peer-reviewed journals such as Journal of Creative Communications and Health Communication. Email:

imagesRegina Coeli da Silveira e Silva (Ph.D., Ohio University) is a professor in the Department of Social Communication at Universidade Salgado de Oliveira in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She is the coordinator of the Núcleo de Estudos em Comunicação e Pesquisa – NECP (Nucleus of Communication Research Studies). Dr. Silva has taught at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, University of Connecticut in Storrs, and Ohio University. She has conducted seminars in Brazil and Argentina. Among her extensive publications on communication and new technologies is one focused on R&D quality in Brazilian universities and research centers. Professor Silva is the recipient of Cátedra Interamericana de Pesquisa 2000 (Interamerican Research Chair 2000) from College of the Americas—COLAM/UN, for her research on women's rights. She is the chief editor of her university interdisciplinary research journal, Cadernos de Estudos e Pesquisas. A member of the International Communication Association (ICA) and the Brazilian Studies Association (BRASA), Dr. Silva is also the current president of the International Association for Journals and Conferences—IAJC—Latin America Chapter. In 2011, she was elected a voting member of Niterói City Council for Women's Rights. In 2016, Rio de Janeiro State Government awarded her the title of Citizen Woman as a tribute for her contribution to women's human rights. Email:

imagesGabriel C. Stephen (M.A., Maryville University of St. Louis) is a public relations doctoral student and instructor at the University of Florida. In addition, Stephen is an account supervisor for a strategic communications agency in Gainesville, Florida. He obtained a Master of Arts in Strategic Communication and Leadership from Maryville University and a double bachelor's degree in Advertising and Public Relations from Southeast Missouri State University. Stephen worked as marketing assistant at Maryville University and a media relations specialist at Saint Bernard & Associates of St. Louis. Email:

imagesSelin Türkel (Ph.D., Ege University, Turkey) is a lecturer in the Faculty of Communication, Public Relations and Advertising Department at Izmir University of Economics since 2005. She received a B.A. degree in Public Relations and Advertising (Istanbul Bilgi University, 2004) and an M.A. degree in Business Administration (Izmir University of Economics, 2007). Her research interests are corporate communication, corporate social responsibility, and marketing communication research. Dr. Türkel is a co-author of the SSCI journal article, “A Strategic Approach to CSR Communication: Examining the Impact of Brand Familiarity on Consumer Responses” (Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, doi:10.1002/csr.1373) and the international book chapter “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Communication: A Turkish Industry Example.” Dr. Türkel has also attended many international conferences to present her studies. Email:

imagesEbru Uzunoğlu (Ph.D., Ege University, Turkey) is an associate professor and the head of the Public Relations and Advertising Department at Izmir University of Economics (IUE). Currently, she is acting dean of the Communication Faculty at IUE. She teaches courses on marketing communications, campaign design in integrated marketing communications (IMC), IMC projects, principles of public relations, and brand management. Her research interests include integrated marketing communications, brand communications, and social media implementations. She is a co-editor of the book Integrated Communications in the Post-Modern Era (Palgrave MacMillan, 2014). She has published in many journals, including Journal of Marketing Communications, Public Relations Review, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, International Journal of Information Management, International Journal of Human Sciences, and the Global Media Journal. She worked in several national and international companies as a public relations and advertising specialist, marketing communication specialist, and product manager for 12 years. She is a member of the Izmir Public Relations Association and was a board member for three terms. Email:

imagesReidinar Juliane Wardoyo (MMassComm, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore) is a communications coordinator at the World Resources Institute, Indonesia. She was a research associate at the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. Her research interests include communication for development (e.g., maternal health, the use of information and communication technology for education and the use of digital interventions in health communication) and strategic communication. Prior to joining the master's degree program at NTU, she worked as a consultant for Edelman Indonesia, specializing in corporate and public affairs practice, with issues revolving around crisis management, government engagement, and corporate communication. She holds a bachelor's in humanities from the University of Indonesia and a master's degree in mass communication from NTU. Email:

imagesKyung-Hyan Yoo (Ph.D., Texas A&M University) is an associate professor and graduate director of Communication Department at William Paterson University of New Jersey, USA. Prior to pursuing her academic career, she worked as a public relations specialist at KorCom Porter Novelli, a full-service public relations firm based in Seoul, Korea. Her research interests focus on online communication, online trust, electronic word-of-mouth, persuasive technology, online information search, and decision-making. She has worked on research projects on online travel reviews and social media use by travelers funded by TripAdvisor, Travel Industry Association of America, and several local destination marketing organizations. Yoo has authored journal articles and book chapters on social media marketing, consumer-generated media, and online trust. Her manuscripts have been published in top peer review journals including Public Relations Review, Computers in Human Behavior, and Journal of Information Technology & Tourism. Email: