Details

Primer on Engineering Standards


Primer on Engineering Standards


Wiley-ASME Press Series Expanded Textbook Edition

von: Maan H. Jawad, Owen R. Greulich

41,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Asme Press Series
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 05.03.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119466161
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 168

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Beschreibungen

A Clear, Comprehensive Introduction to Standards in the Engineering Professions Standards supplement the design process by guiding the designer toward consistency, safety, and reliability. As daily life involves increasingly complex and sophisticated instruments, standards become indispensable engineering tools to ensure user safety and product quality. Primer on Engineering Standards: Expanded Textbook Edition delves into standards creation and compliance to provide students and engineers with a comprehensive reference. The different types of standards are dissected and discussed in terms of development, value, impact, interpretation, and compliance, and options are provided for situations where conformance is not possible. The process of standards creation is emphasized in terms of essential characteristics and common pitfalls to avoid, with detailed guidance on how, where, and with whom one may get involved in official development. Organized for both quick reference and textbook study, this new Expanded Textbook Edition provides a quick, clear understanding of critical concepts, ramifications, and implications as it: Introduces the concepts, history, and classification of standards, rules, and regulations Discusses the federal, state, and local government’s role in standards development and enforcement Distinguishes voluntary consensus standards, limited consensus standards, and jurisdictional versus non-jurisdictional government standards Covers the need for and process of exemptions to existing standards Examines the characteristics of a good standard, and discusses opportunities for involvement in development Includes case studies to demonstrate standards applications, and extensive appendices to direct further inquiry The successful design, fabrication, and operation of any product relies on foundational understanding of pertinent standards; indeed, standards and guidelines form a central pillar of the engineering profession. This helpful resource goes beyond a list of rules to help students and practitioners gain a better understanding of the creation, import, and use of standards. 
Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Procedures and Rules 5 1.3 Standards 6 1.3.1 History and Purpose of Standards 6 1.3.2 A Few Examples of Standards throughout the Ages 6 1.3.3 Classification 8 1.3.4 Limited Consensus Standards 9 1.3.5 Voluntary Consensus Standards (VCS) 9 1.3.6 Governmental Standards 10 1.4 Applicability of Standards 11 1.4.1 Permissible Materials of Construction, Performance Criteria, and Material Data 13 1.4.2 Safe Design Rules 13 1.4.3 Construction Details 14 1.4.4 Available Methodologies for Inspection and Testing 14 1.4.5 Safe Operating Parameters 14 1.4.6 Conformity Assessment 14 1.5 Summary 15 2 Role of Governments in Standards 17 2.1 Overview 17 2.2 History 19 2.3 Aspects of Governmental Involvement with Standards 19 2.4 General Policies 20 2.5 National versus State, Provincial, or Local Standards Involvement 20 2.6 The US Government and Standards 21 2.7 US Government OMB Circular A119 21 2.8 National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act 23 2.9 National Science and Technology Council 24 2.10 Other US Government Actions 24 2.11 How the Government Uses Standards 24 2.12 US Government as a Participant in VCS Activities 25 2.13 State and Local Standards Use 26 2.14 Other Countries 26 2.15 Summary 27 2.16 Case Studies 27 3 Voluntary Consensus Standards and Codes 29 3.1 Purpose of Standards 30 3.1.1 Standards for Safety and Reliability 30 3.1.2 Standards to Reduce Cost 32 3.1.3 Standards for Increased Flexibility 33 3.1.4 Standards for Promotion of Business 34 3.1.5 Standards to Help Society to Function 35 3.1.6 Consistency 36 3.2 Voluntary Consensus Standards 36 3.3 American National Standard Institute (ANSI) 36 3.4 Codes 38 3.4.1 National Codes 38 3.4.2 International Codes 38 3.5 Some ANSI Accredited Organizations 38 3.5.1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) 39 3.5.2 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 42 3.5.3 American Petroleum Institute (API) 43 3.5.4 UL (Formerly Underwriters Laboratory) 43 3.5.5 National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBI) 43 3.5.6 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 44 3.5.7 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 44 4 Limited Consensus Standards 45 4.1 Types of Standards 45 4.2 Proprietary versus Nonproprietary Standards 47 4.2.1 Proprietary Standards 47 4.2.2 Nonproprietary Standards 48 4.3 Governmental and Jurisdictional Limited Consensus Standards 48 4.3.1 NASA 48 4.3.2 Army Corp of Engineers 49 4.3.3 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 49 4.3.4 National Science Foundation (NSF) 49 4.3.5 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Forest Service 49 4.3.6 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 50 4.3.7 Municipalities 50 4.4 Case Studies 50 5 Jurisdictional Standards 51 5.1 Regulations and Jurisdictional Requirements 51 5.2 Jurisdictional Standards Implementation 56 5.3 Incorporation by Reference 56 5.3.1 Access to Reference Standards 57 5.3.2 Updating of Reference Standards 57 5.4 Sample Jurisdictional Standard: The OSHA Regulations 58 5.4.1 OSHA General Duty Clause 60 5.5 Summary 61 6 Standards Development Process 63 6.1 Introduction 64 6.2 Voluntary Consensus Standards (VCS) 64 6.3 Government Nonjurisdictional Standards: DOD, NASA, etc. 65 6.4 Governmental Jurisdictional Standards: DOT, FAA, FCC, OSHA, etc. 66 6.5 Corporate Standards 66 6.5.1 Corporate Public Standards 66 6.5.2 Corporate Proprietary Standards 67 6.6 Limited Consensus Standards 67 6.7 Standards Maintenance 68 6.8 Summary 68 6.9 Case Study 68 7 Types of Standards 69 7.1 Introduction 69 7.2 Performance versus Prescriptive 69 7.2.1 Performance Standards 69 7.2.2 Prescriptive Standards 70 7.2.3 Component Standards 71 7.2.4 Hybrid Standards 71 7.3 Geographical, Political, or Economic Extent 72 7.4 Mandatory or Voluntary 72 7.5 Consensus versus Nonconsensus 73 7.6 Purpose 73 7.7 Subject 73 7.8 Surprise Consequences of a Successful Standard 74 7.9 Summary 76 7.10 Case Study 76 8 Conformity Assessment 77 8.1 Introduction 77 8.2 Users of Conformity Assessment 78 8.2.1 Producers and Manufacturers 79 8.2.2 Users and their Designated Agents 79 8.2.3 Inspection/Insurance Agencies and Inspection Jurisdictions 79 8.2.4 Governmental Agencies 80 8.3 Applicability of Conformity Assessment 80 8.3.1 Employees 80 8.3.2 Processes 81 8.3.3 Products 81 8.3.4 Services 81 8.3.5 Systems 82 8.4 Verification and Validation Process 82 8.5 Conformity Assessment Organizations 84 8.6 Summary 85 8.7 Case Studies 85 9 Standards Interpretation and Relief 87 9.1 General Discussion 87 9.2 Standards Adoption 88 9.3 Effect of Noncompliance with Standards 89 9.3.1 New Products 90 9.3.2 Post-Manufacturing Noncompliance 92 9.4 Standards Interpretation 95 9.4.1 Informal Processes 95 9.4.2 Formal Interpretations 95 9.5 Tailoring 97 9.5.1 Nonmandatory Standards Tailoring 98 9.5.2 Legislative Tailoring 98 9.5.3 Governmental Agency Supplemental Standards 98 9.6 Waivers and Variances 99 9.6.1 Waivers of Corporate Standards 99 9.6.2 Code Cases 100 9.6.3 Variances from Jurisdictional Standards 101 9.7 Summary 103 9.8 Case Study 103 10 Characteristics of a Good Standard 105 10.1 Introduction 105 10.2 Clarity and Understanding 105 10.3 Scope 106 10.4 Terminology 107 10.5 Structure and Organization 107 10.6 Consistency 109 10.7 References to Other Standards 109 10.8 Attention to Details 109 10.9 Supplementing a Standard 110 10.10 Timeliness 110 10.11 Sample Standard Structure 110 10.12 Summary 112 10.13 Case Studies 112 11 Getting Involved in Standards Development 113 11.1 Introduction 113 11.2 Reasons to Get Involved 113 11.2.1 Influence the Process and the Product 113 11.2.2 Opportunity to Learn 114 11.2.3 Credibility 114 11.2.4 Personal Satisfaction 115 11.2.5 Networking and Career Benefits 115 11.3 Opportunities for Involvement in Standards 116 11.3.1 Company Standards 116 11.3.2 Interest Group Standards 116 11.3.3 Voluntary Consensus Standards (VCS) 116 11.3.4 Jurisdictional Standards 117 11.4 Selecting a Committee 117 11.4.1 Finding a Committee 117 11.4.2 Making the Choice 118 11.5 What Does It Require? 118 11.6 Summary 119 Acronyms 121 Appendix A Deciding Not to Use a Standard 125 A.1 Introduction 125 A.2 Reasons Not to Use a Standard 126 A.2.1 Lack of a Standard 126 A.2.2 Overly Constraining 126 A.2.3 Unique Product or Application 126 A.2.4 Basic Services 127 A.2.5 Patented Products 127 A.3 Consequences of Not Using a Standard 127 A.4 Mitigations for Not Using a Standard 128 A.5 Summary 129 Appendix B Some SDOs developing Voluntary Consensus Standards 131 Appendix C Some Industrial Organizations That Publish Limited Consensus Standards 135 Appendix D Some US Government Jurisdictional Agencies 137 Bibliography 139 Biography 141 Index 143
Owen R. Greulich, M.E., P.E., is an active member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Process Piping Code Committee and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Committee on Aerospace Pressure Vessels. He currently serves as Pressure and Energetic Systems Safety Manager in the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters. Previously, Mr. Greulich worked in the private sector metals fabrication and machining industry. Maan H. Jawad, Ph.D., P.E., is president of Global Engineering and Technology, an engineering consulting firm for the pressure vessel, power, petrochemical, and nuclear industries. He has been active on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code committees as a member and chairperson since 1972, a member of the Missouri Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Rules, and is a Fellow of the ASME. Prior to retiring, he was with the Nooter Corporation in St. Louis, Missouri.
A Clear, Comprehensive Introduction to Standards in the Engineering Professions Standards supplement the design process by guiding the designer toward consistency, safety, and reliability. As daily life involves increasingly complex and sophisticated instruments, standards become indispensable engineering tools to ensure user safety and product quality. Primer on Engineering Standards: Expanded Textbook Edition delves into standards creation and compliance to provide students and engineers with a comprehensive reference. The different types of standards are dissected and discussed in terms of development, value, impact, interpretation, and compliance, and options are provided for situations where conformance is not possible. The process of standards creation is emphasized in terms of essential characteristics and common pitfalls to avoid, with detailed guidance on how, where, and with whom one may get involved in official development. Organized for both quick reference and textbook study, this new Expanded Textbook Edition provides a quick, clear understanding of critical concepts, ramifications, and implications as it: Introduces the concepts, history, and classification of standards, rules, and regulations Discusses the federal, state, and local government???s role in standards development and enforcement Distinguishes voluntary consensus standards, limited consensus standards, and jurisdictional versus non-jurisdictional government standards Covers the need for and process of exemptions to existing standards Examines the characteristics of a good standard, and discusses opportunities for involvement in development Includes case studies to demonstrate standards applications, and extensive appendices to direct further inquiry The successful design, fabrication, and operation of any product relies on foundational understanding of pertinent standards; indeed, standards and guidelines form a central pillar of the engineering profession. This helpful resource goes beyond a list of rules to help students and practitioners gain a better understanding of the creation, import, and use of standards.

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