PHR / SPHR Professional in Human Resources Certification Study Guide
Updated edition of best-selling guide for PHR and SPHR candidates The demand for qualified human resources professionals is on the rise. The new Professional in Human Resources (PHR) and Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR) exams from the Human Resources Certification Institute (HRCI) reflect the evolving industry standards for determining competence in the field of HR. This new edition of the leading PHR/SPHR Study Guide reflects those changes. Serving as an ideal resource for HR professionals who are seeking to validate their skills and knowledge, this updated edition helps those professionals prepare for these challenging exams. Features study tools that are designed to reinforce understanding of key functional areas Provides access to bonus materials, including a practice exam for the PHR as well as one for the SPHR. Also includes flashcards and ancillary PDFs Addresses key topics such as strategic management, workforce planning and employment, compensation and benefits, employee and labor relations, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations This new edition is must-have preparation for those looking to take the PHR or SPHR certification exams in order to strengthen their resume.
Introduction xxi Assessment Test xxviii Chapter 1 Certifying Human Resource Professionals 1 The Human Resource Profession 2 Development of the Human Resource Body of Knowledge 3 Defining the Functional Areas of the BOK 5 Core Knowledge Requirements of the BOK 7 Certification Levels 8 Eligibility Requirements 10 Recertification 11 The Test 12 It’s Experiential and Federal 14 What the Questions Look Like 14 Preparing for the Exam 15 Taking the Exam 20 Summary 22 Chapter 2 Core Knowledge Requirements for HR Professionals 23 Needs Assessment and Analysis 25 Third-Party Contract Management 26 Communication Skills and Strategies 28 Employee Communication 28 Professional Communication 30 Documentation Requirements 30 Documenting Employment Actions 30 Documenting Performance Issues 30 Adult Learning Processes and Learning Styles 32 Motivation Concepts 34 Abraham Maslow: The Hierarchy of Needs (1954) 34 B. F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning (1957) 35 Frederick Herzberg: Motivation/Hygiene Theory (1959) 35 Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y (1960) 36 David McClelland: Acquired Needs Theory (1961) 36 J. Stacey Adams: Equity Theory (1963) 36 Victor Vroom: Expectancy Theory (1964) 37 Clayton Alderfer: ERG Theory (1969) 37 Leadership Concepts 38 Behavioral Theories 39 Situational Theories 39 Contingency Theories 41 Leadership Styles 42 Project Management Concepts 42 Diversity Concepts 44 Human Relations Concepts 46 HR Ethics and Professional Standards 46 Human Resource Technology 47 HRIS Systems 47 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis 53 Data Collection 54 Analysis Tools 54 Qualitative Analysis 58 Metrics: Measuring Results 58 Change Management 60 Job Analysis and Description 61 Job Analysis 61 Job Descriptions 62 Employee Records Management 63 Interrelationships Among HR Activities 74 Organizational Structures 76 Environmental Scanning Concepts 79 Environmental Scanning Tools 80 Employee Attitude Assessment 83 Basic Budgeting and Accounting 84 Accounting 84 Budgeting 86 Risk Management 87 Summary 90 Exam Essentials 90 Review Questions 92 Chapter 3 Business Management and Strategy 97 Organizations 100 External Business Environment 100 Internal Business Operations 101 Strategy 108 Strategic Planning 109 Human Capital Management Plans 116 Strategic Management 119 Strategic Relationships 120 Corporate Responsibility 121 Change Management 124 Enterprise Risk Management 127 HR Technology 130 Legislative and Regulatory Processes 131 Legislative Process 131 Administrative Law 132 Lobbying 133 Corporate Governance 133 Organization Values and Ethics 134 Whistle-Blower Protection 138 Ethics Officers 140 HR Metrics: Measuring Results 141 Global Considerations 142 Summary 142 Exam Essentials 143 Review Questions 144 Chapter 4 Workforce Planning and Employment 149 Federal Employment Legislation 151 Civil Rights Legislation 152 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 154 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 156 Civil Rights Act of 1991 158 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 160 Federal Contractors, Subcontractors, and Agencies 161 Annual EEO Survey 162 Affirmative Action Plans 166 Strategic Workforce Planning 168 Workforce Goals and Objectives 168 Job Analysis and Description 169 Qualified Employees 170 Translating Organization Goals into Staffing Plans 174 Labor Market Analysis 176 Staffing Programs 177 Sourcing and Recruiting Candidates 177 Candidate Selection Tools 185 Employment Offers 202 Post-offer Employment Activities 204 Organization Exit/Off-Boarding Processes 209 Voluntary Exit Processes 209 Involuntary Exit Processes 210 Records Management: The Life Cycle 214 Metrics: Measuring Results 216 Global Considerations 217 Exam Essentials 220 Review Questions 222 Chapter 5 Human Resource Development 227 Federal Employment Legislation 229 Copyright Act of 1976 229 U.S. Patent Act 230 Organization Development 230 Strategic Interventions 231 Techno-Structural Interventions 236 Human Process Interventions 243 Human Resource Management Interventions 245 Talent Management 246 Management Development 250 Leadership Development 251 Employee Training Programs 251 Performance-Management Programs 267 Performance Appraisal 268 Elements of Performance Appraisal 269 Timing Performance Appraisals 269 Performance-Appraisal Methods 270 Training Performance Evaluators 272 Unique Employee Needs 274 Diversity Initiatives 276 Flexible Work Arrangements 276 Repatriation 276 Metrics: Measuring Results 277 Global Considerations 278 Summary 279 Exam Essentials 280 Review Questions 281 Chapter 6 Compensation and Benefits 285 Total Rewards Defined 287 Compensation and Benefits Philosophy 288 Compensation Strategy 291 Budgeting and Accounting for Total Rewards 292 Fiduciary Responsibility 293 Compensation 293 Federal Employment Legislation 296 Types of Compensation 307 Traditional Pay Structures 315 Benefits 325 Involuntary Benefits 327 Voluntary Benefits 343 Payroll 364 Payroll Systems 364 Payroll Administration 365 Communicating Compensation and Benefits Programs 369 Executive Compensation 369 Stock Options 372 Board of Directors/Outside Directors 374 Metrics: Measuring Results 375 Global Considerations 376 Summary 376 Exam Essentials 377 Review Questions 378 Chapter 7 Employee and Labor Relations 383 Federal Employment Legislation 385 Common-law Doctrines 387 Legal Statutes 390 Employee Rights and Responsibilities 399 Employee Relations 400 Organization Climate and Culture 400 Employee Relations Programs 404 Workplace Policies and Procedures 407 Performance Improvement 409 Dispute Resolution 415 Arbitration 415 Mediation 416 Constructive Confrontation 418 Labor Relations 418 Labor Laws and Organizations 419 Employee Rights 420 Union Organization 424 What Can an Employer Do? 424 The Organizing Process 425 Collective Bargaining 431 Union Avoidance Strategies 437 Metrics: Measuring Results 438 Global Considerations 439 Summary 440 Exam Essentials 440 Review Questions 442 Chapter 8 Risk Management 447 Risk Identification 449 HR Tools to Identify and Assess Risk 450 Risk Assessment 453 Assessing Legal Compliance Risks 453 Assessing Safety and Health Risks 473 Assessing Security Risks 481 Risk Management 486 Managing Legal Compliance Risks 486 Managing Safety and Health Risks 489 Managing Security Risks 495 Managing Business Continuity Risks 501 Managing Workplace Privacy Risks 504 Metrics: Measuring Results 507 Global Considerations 509 Summary 510 Exam Essentials 510 Review Questions 511 Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 515 Chapter 2: Core Knowledge Requirements for HR Professionals 516 Chapter 3: Business Management and Strategy 518 Chapter 4: Workforce Planning and Employment 521 Chapter 5: Human Resource Development 523 Chapter 6: Compensation and Benefits 526 Chapter 7: Employee and Labor Relations 528 Chapter 8: Risk Management 531 Appendix B Case Study: Where the Green Glass Grows 535 The Company 536 The Customer 537 Exercises 537 Answer Key and Additional Exercise 539 Appendix C Federal Employment Legislation and Case Law 543 Legislation and Case Law Summary 544 Additional Cases 554 1968: Rosenfeld v. Southern Pacific 554 1969: Weeks v. Southern Bell Telephone Co. 555 1973: McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green 556 1978: Regents of California v. Bakke 556 1979: United Steelworkers v. Weber 557 1981: Texas Department of Community Affairs v. Burdine 557 1987: Johnson v. Santa Clara County Transportation Agency 558 1987: School Board of Nassau v. Arline 558 1989: Martin v. Wilks 559 1992: Electromation, Inc. v. NLRB 560 1993: E. I. DuPont & Co. v. NLRB 561 1993: St. Mary’s Honor Center v. Hicks 562 1995: McKennon v. Nashville Banner Publishing Co. 563 2001: Circuit City Stores v. Adams 563 Appendix D Resources 565 Business Management and Strategy 567 Books 567 Professional Associations 567 Workforce Planning and Employment 568 Books 568 Professional Associations 568 Human Resource Development 569 Books 569 Professional Associations 569 Compensation and Benefits 570 Books 570 Professional Associations 570 Employee and Labor Relations 570 Books 570 Professional Associations 571 Risk Management 571 Books 571 Professional Associations 572 Appendix E About the Additional Study Tools 573 Additional Study Tools 574 Sybex Test Engine 574 Electronic Flashcards 574 PDF of Glossary of Terms 574 Adobe Reader 574 System Requirements 575 Using the Study Tools 575 Troubleshooting 575 Customer Care 576 Index 577
Sandra M. Reed, PHR, SPHR, is the owner of Epoch Resources, a consulting firm specializing in the unique HR needs of small businesses. Sandra has authored learning modules and case studies for the Society for Human Resource Management. Anne M. Bogardus worked with growing biotech, high-technology, and public relations organizations at the manager and director levels. She is the author of Human Resources JumpStart and the previous editions of PHR/SPHR Professional in Human Resources Certification Study Guide. Technical Editor Brenda G. Budke, SPHR, directs an HR consulting firm in Fresno, California. She is founder and Dean of a corporate university, and is past president of the Human Resource Association of Central California (HRACC).
Updated to Meet the Requirements of the 2012 Exams If you want to validate your skills as a Human Resources professional, you need to earn your PHR or SPHR certification. This new edition of the PHR/SPHR Professional in Human Resources Certification Study Guide helps you prepare for the 2012 exams, covering the key functional areas with which you'll need to be familiar. It offers invaluable insights on the new PHR/SPHR Body of Knowledge as it breaks down the critical HR topics. Inside, you'll find: Full coverage of all exam objectives in a systematic approach, so you can be confident you're getting the instruction you need for the exam Real-world scenarios that put what you've learned in the context of actual job roles Challenging review questions in each chapter to prepare you for exam day Exam Essentials, a key feature in each chapter that identifies critical areas you must become proficient in before taking the exam A handy tear card that maps the PHR/SPHR Body of Knowledge to the corresponding chapter in the book, so you can track your exam prep objective by objective Sybex Exam Prep Tools Go to www.sybex.com/go/phr4e and download a full set of electronic test prep tools to help you thoroughly prepare for the exam. These include: Custom Test Engine Over 200 Sample Questions Two Practice Exams Electronic Flashcards Additional Appendices in PDF Format Download practice exams and chapter review questions Reinforce your understanding with electronic flashcards Includes Real-World Scenarios, In-Depth Discussion of Body of Knowledge, and Access to Exam Prep Software Featuring: Custom Test Engine Over 200 Sample Questions Electronic Flashcards