Peacemaking and the Challenge of Violence in World Religions
Written by top practitioner-scholars who bring a critical yet empathetic eye to the topic, this textbook provides a comprehensive look at peace and violence in seven world religions. Offers a clear and systematic narrative with coverage of Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Native American religions Introduces a different religion and its sacred texts in each chapter; discusses ideas of peace, war, nonviolence, and permissible violence; recounts historical responses to violence; and highlights individuals within the tradition working toward peace and justice Examines concepts within their religious context for a better understanding of the values, motivations, and ethics involved Includes student-friendly pedagogical features, such as enriching end-of-chapter critiques by practitioners of other traditions, definitions of key terms, discussion questions, and further reading sections
Acknowledgments xi Introduction 1Irfan A. Omar and Michael K. Duffey 1 Jihad and Nonviolence in the Islamic Tradition 9Irfan A. Omar Overview of the Islamic tradition 10 Ways of Understanding Violence and Nonviolence 13 Jihad in the Qur’an 15 Peacemaking and the challenge of violence 21 Nonviolent Activism: Key Muslim Figures 26 Conclusion 33 Questions for Discussion 35 Notes 35 References 36 Further Reading 38 Muslim Peacemaking and Civil Rights Organizations/Resources 39 Glossary 40 1.1 A Confucian Response 41Sin Yee Chan 1.2 A Jewish Response 44Joshua Ezra Burns 2 Christianity: From Peacemaking to Violence and Home Again 47Michael K. Duffey Who was Jesus? 49 Jesus, Nonviolence, and Peacemaking 50 A Brief History of Christian Nonviolence and Violence 55 Christian conscience 63 Peace through Nonviolence 65 Conclusion 69 Questions for discussion 70 Notes 70 References 72 Further Reading 73 2.1 A Buddhist Response 75Eleanor Rosch 2.2 A Muslim Response 80Irfan A. Omar 3 Jewish Ideologies of Peace and Peacemaking 83Joshua Ezra Burns What is Judaism? 84 Jewish Terms for Peace and Peacemaking 87 War and Peace in the Hebrew Scriptures 90 Pacifism in the Rabbinic Tradition 92 The State of Israel 95 Pursuing Peace 98 Conclusions and Future Prospects 101 Questions for Discussion 102 References 102 Further Reading 104 Glossary 105 3.1 A Christian Response 107Michael K. Duffey 3.2 A Native American Response 109Tink Tinker 4 From Sincerity of Thought to Peace “All Under Heaven” (Tianxia ?V??): The Confucian Stance on Peace and Violence 112Sin Yee Chan Introduction to Confucianism 113 Meanings of peace 117 Peace on the ground 120 Violence and war 122 Conclusion 129 Questions for discussion 130 Notes 131 References 132 Further reading 133 Glossary 134 4.1 A Buddhist Response 135Eleanor Rosch 4.2 A Jewish Response 139Joshua Ezra Burns 5 “Peace is the Strongest Force in the World”: Buddhist Paths to Peacemaking and Nonviolence 142Eleanor Rosch Overview of Buddhism 143 Historical Development of the Meanings of Peace, Nonviolence, and War 149 Moral Teachings Regarding Violence and Nonviolence 152 History of Buddhism’s Responses to Violence 154 Emerging Innovative Peacemaking Practices 158 Conclusions: What in Buddhism Provides the Means for Nonviolent Peacemaking? 161 Questions for Discussion 164 Notes 165 References 166 Further Reading 167 Buddhist Peacemaking Organizations and Resources 169 Glossary 170 5.1 A Hindu Response 173Kalpana Mohanty 5.2 A Native American Response 175Tink Tinker 6 Peacemaking and Nonviolence in the Hindu Tradition 178Kalpana Mohanty Introduction to the Hindu tradition 179 Peace, war, and nonviolence 180 Hinduism’s Response to Violence 182 Traditional Methods of Conflict Resolution 184 Mohandas K. Gandhi and the Satyagraha Movement 185 Practices and Disciplines that Contribute to Peacemaking 188 Hindu Peace Groups and Organizations 189 Innovative and Emerging Peacemaking Practices 190 Hindu Saints and Seminal Thinkers 192 Conclusion 195 Questions for Discussion 196 Notes 196 References 196 Further Reading 197 Hindu Peace Organizations 198 Glossary 198 6.1 A Christian Response 200Michael K. Duffey 6.2 A Muslim Response 202Irfan A. Omar 7 The Irrelevance of euro?]christian Dichotomies for Indigenous Peoples: Beyond Nonviolence to a Vision of Cosmic Balance 206Tink Tinker Religion 207 Balance as Reciprocal Dualism 210 Warfare 210 Nonviolence as Incompatible 215 World Incommensurability: the Dissimilitude of Otherness 216 Relationship = Less Extraneous Violence 219 Questions for discussion 220 Notes 221 References 223 Further reading 224 7.1 A Confucian Response 226Sin Yee Chan 7.2 A Hindu Response 230Kalpana Mohanty Conclusion 232Irfan A. Omar and Michael K. Duffey Index 236
‘Peacemaking’s approach makes it ideal for peace activists, people working on interreligious dialogue, undergraduates studying comparative religion, and even laypeople. It is both a realistic book and a very hopeful book… Omar and Duffey have taken a commendable first step in putting the possibility of peace front and center.’ (Jason Wyman, Fellowship, Vol. 81 No. 1-6).
Irfan A. Omar is Associate Professor of Islam and World Religions at Marquette University, USA. He teaches courses on Islam, interfaith dialogue, and World Religions and his research interests include Christian-Muslim and Hindu-Muslim dialogue. He is the editor or co-editor of several books, including The Judeo-Christian-Islamic Heritage: Philosophical and Theological Perspectives (2012) and A Christian View of Islam: Essays on Dialogue (2010). In 2006, he was a Fulbright Senior Scholar at Muhammadiyah University Malang in Indonesia. He currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Ecumenical Studies and the Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion. He is also a member of the steering committee of the Ethics Section of the American Academy of Religion.Michael K. Duffey is Associate Professor of Theology at Marquette University, USA. He is also Director of the Interdisciplinary Major in Peace Studies and founder of the Marquette Center for Peacemaking. He holds degrees in government and in religious studies and his research interests include post-conflict healing, interreligious peacemaking, and the history of nonviolence. He has been published widely in scholarly journals and is the author of three books: Sowing Justice, Reaping Peace: Case Studies of Racial, Religious, and Ethnic Healing Around the World (2001), Peacemaking Christians: The Future of Just War, Pacifism, and Nonviolence (1995), and Be Blessed in What You Do (1988).
Peacemaking and the Challenge of Violence in World Religions is a comprehensive exploration of the history, beliefs and practices around peace and violence in seven of the world’s major religions. Written by expert practitioner-scholars, this textbook provides clear and systematic coverage of Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Native American religions.Each chapter introduces a different religion and its sacred texts; discusses ideas of peace, war, nonviolence, and permissible violence; recounts historical responses to violence; and highlights individuals working within the tradition toward peace and justice. At the end of each chapter there are critiques by practitioners of two other religions that create a rich dialogue between traditions. Other student-friendly pedagogical features include definitions of key terms, discussion questions, further reading sections, and a list of additional resources. This textbook is uniquely committed to discussing issues of peace and violence within their religious context in order to give readers a better understanding of the values, motivations, and ethics involved in these complex components of religion around the world.
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