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New Challenges for Knowledge


New Challenges for Knowledge

Digital Dynamics to Access and Sharing
1. Aufl.

von: Renaud Fabre, Quentin Messerschmidt-Mariet, Margot Holvoet

99,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 23.11.2016
ISBN/EAN: 9781119378099
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 224

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Digital technologies are reshaping every field of social and economic lives, so do they in the world of scientific knowledge. “The New Challenges of Knowledge” aims at understanding how the new digital technologies alter the production, diffusion and valorization of knowledge. We propose to give an insight into the economical, geopolitical and political stakes of numeric in knowledge in different countries. Law is at the center of this evolution, especially in the case of national and international confusion about Internet, Science and knowledge.
Introduction . xiii Part 1. Production: Global Knowledge and Science in the Digital Era  1 Chapter 1. Current Knowledge Dynamics 3 1.1. Transparency of scientific data 4 1.2. Transparency of experimental protocol  6 1.3. A necessary form of research engineering 7 1.4. Confusion between data and scientific results: avoiding manipulation of research results 8 Chapter 2. Digital Conditions for Knowledge Production  11 2.1. An economic system oriented toward innovation  11 2.2. What of knowledge and indeed the concept of the commons? 13 2.3. From analog to digital 14 2.4. User–producer: civil society enters the knowledge production system  16 2.5. The interactions between the various spheres of knowledge production 18 2.6. Collaboration between society and knowledge: producing authorities should be put into perspective 20 Chapter 3. The Dual Relationship between the User and the Developer 23 3.1. Legal arrangements for knowledge-sharing using development platforms 23 3.2. The user contributes to the creation and development of content process 25 Chapter 4. Researchers’ Uses and Needs for Scientific and Technical Information  29 4.1. The CNRS survey 29 4.2. Diverse uses and dual needs 31 4.3. An explanation through differentiated scientific analysis  33 Chapter 5. New Tools for Knowledge Capture  37 5.1. The growth of metadata exploitation  37 5.2. Are we moving toward a semantic Web? 38 5.3. Tools and limits for metadata processing 39 5.4. The challenges of the semantic Web  40 Chapter 6. Modes of Knowledge Sharing and Technologies  43 6.1. Data storage technologies and access allowing knowledge sharing 43 6.2. Exchange platforms and catalogs  44 6.3. Knowledge-processing and digital editions  45 Part 2. Sharing Mechanisms: Knowledge Sharing and the Knowledge-based Economy 47 Chapter 7. Business Model for Scientific Publication 49 7.1. The current economic model is changing so as to adapt to new conditions for knowledge sharing  49 7.2. Creation of a new model 51 7.3. The issues raised by the creation of a new economic model  52 7.4. A new economic model struggling to fine its niche 54 Chapter 8. Actor Strategy: International Scientific Publishing, Services with High Added Value and Research Communities 57 8.1. Publishing, editing and existing: live issues within the publication of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) 58 8.2. Who is subject to it? The other players in scientific publishing  59 8.3. The characteristics of SMS (Science of Man and Society)  60 8.4. Existing without publishing? New STI directions  62 8.5. Alternatives to scientific publishing  63 Chapter 9. New Approaches to Scientific Production 67 9.1. New means of access to scientific production: innovative models  67 9.2. Two main objectives: accelerating knowledge sharing and promoting scientific collaboration 71 9.3. The need for new analytical tools and the risk of reprivatization of scientific knowledge. 72 9.4. The absence of the usage doctrine and the risk of reprivatization of science: the case of social networks  74 Chapter 10. The Geopolitics of Science 77 10.1. National convergent research models 78 10.2. Science is a source of international cooperation  81 10.3. International scientific cooperation is accelerating 84 Chapter 11. Copyright Serving the Market 85 Part 3. Enhancement Knowledge Rights and Public Policies in the Wake of Digital Technology 89 Chapter 12. Legal Protection of Scientific Research Results in the Humanities and Social Sciences  91 12.1.Different legal protections for different kinds of science 91 12.2. Why protect? 92 12.3. How to protect  93 12.4. Protect against whom? 98 12.5. Changing the challenges of Internet protection 99 12.6. Legal obstacles related to the author’s right 100 Chapter 13. Development of Knowledge and Public Policies 103 13.1. Knowledge enhancement concerns everyone  104 13.2. What are the public policies for enhancing knowledge?  105 13.3. State establishment of connections between actors: a key tool in knowledge enhancement  107 13.4. Comparing the United States and the European Union  109 Chapter 14. From Author to Enhancer  111 14.1. Enhancing scientific research is a complex process  112 14.2. Scientific research enhancement follows a legislative framework intended to promote innovation  114 Chapter 15. The Right to Knowledge: Moving Toward a Universal Law? 117 15.1. Unclear regulatory frameworks  118 15.2. Developing legal frameworks related to the Internet is complicated 121 15.3. Proposals for developing legal frameworks for the Internet  123 Chapter 16. Governing by Algorithm 127 16.1. Statistics that foreshadow algorithms 128 16.2. Algorithmic governance and democratic opportunities  130 Chapter 17. Public Data and Science in e-Government  133 17.1. Disseminating data and disseminating science: a new requirement 134 17.2. Public data in the e-government  137 17.3. Science within e-government 139 Chapter 18. Surveillance, Sousveillance, Improper Capturing 141 18.1. The traditional legal framework for information capture 142 18.2. The clear need for a specific law 145 Chapter 19. Public Knowledge Policies in the Digital Age  149 19.1. GAFA domination and the oligopolization of the market 150 19.2. Isolated digital ecosystems 152 19.3. Regulation through competition law 153 19.4. Data protection: moving toward a law for the digital community 154 Chapter 20. The Politics of Creating Artificial Intelligence  157 20.1. History 158 20.2. Artificial intelligence has become a priority for public and private actors  160 20.4. The appearance of legal problems 162 Chapter 21. Security Policies in Artificial Intelligence 165 21.1. Security as a comment on machines and data  166 21.2. From the security of machines to the security of humans 169 Conclusion 175 Postscript  177 Glossary  179 Bibliography  185 Index 201

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