Details

Nanomaterials


Nanomaterials

Biomedical, Environmental, and Engineering Applications
Advanced Material Series 1. Aufl.

von: Suvardhan Kanchi, Shakeel Ahmed, Myalowenkosi I. Sabela, Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain

194,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Scrivener
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 29.05.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119370376
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 324

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Beschreibungen

This timely volume on nanomaterials and their biomedical and environmental applications includes the fundamentals of nanoparticles, and state-of-the-art properties, characterization, and the synthesis methods as well as the applications. The main thrust of the book is to present review chapters that explore all these aspects of nanomaterials for scientists, engineers and students who are fairly new to the field and want to have a deeper understanding of all the recent R & D advances. The 12 chapters are written by subject matter experts and plot the influence of nanomaterials on the analytical systems (macro to micro & lab-on-a-chip) for biomedical and environmental applications.
Contents Preface xiii Part I: Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Characterization 1 1 Synthesis, Characterization and General Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 3Falah H. Hussein, Firas H. Abdulrazzak, and Ayad F. Alkaim 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 The History of Carbon Nanotubes 5 1.3 Graphene 7 1.4 Graphite 10 1.5 Fullerene 11 1.6 Rehybridization 11 1.7 Structure of CNTs 13 1.8 Classification of Carbon Nanotubes 13 1.8.1 Classification by Chirality 14 1.8.2 Classification by Conductivity 15 1.8.3 Classification by Layers 15 1.9 Crystal Structures of Carbon Nanotubes 15 1.10 Synthesis Methods 17 1.10.1 Arc-Discharge 17 1.10.2 Laser Ablation 18 1.10.3 Flame Methods 19 1.10.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 20 1.11 The Purification Process of Carbon Nanotubes 22 1.12 Mechanism of Growth CNTs 23 1.12.1 The Model for Carbon Filament Growth 23 1.12.1.1 Tip Growth Model 24 1.12.1.2 Base Growth Model 24 1.12.2 Free Radical Condensate 25 1.12.3 Yarmulke Mechanism 26 1.13  Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 27 1.13.1 Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 27 1.13.2 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 28 1.14 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 28 1.14.1 Fuel Cells 29 1.14.2 Solar Cells 30 1.14.3 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 32 1.15 Characterization of CNTs 32 1.15.1 Raman Spectroscopy 32 1.15.1.1 G band 36 1.15.1.2 D Band 37 1.15.1.3 Radial Breathing Mode 37 1.15.2 X-Ray Diffraction 38 1.15.3 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 39 1.15.4 Thermo Gravimetric Analysis 41 1.15.5 Transmission Electron Microscopy 43 1.15.6 Scanning Electronic Microscopy 45 1.15.7 Scanning Helium Ion Microscopy 46 1.16 Composite of CNTs/Semiconductors 47 1.17 Recent Updates on Synthesis of CNTs 49 References 50 2 Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphorene: A Novel 2D Material 61Sima Umrao, Narsingh R. Nirala, Gaurav Khandelwal, and Vinod Kumar 2.1 Introduction 61 2.1.1 History of Phosphorene 62 2.1.2 Crystal Structure 63 2.1.3 Band Structure 65 2.2 Synthesis of Phosphorene 65 2.2.1 Mechanical Exfoliation 65 2.2.2 Plasma-assisted Method 66 2.2.3 Liquid-Phase Exfoliation 68 2.2.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 70 2.3 Characterization of Phosphorene 70 2.3.1 Structural Charcterizations 71 2.3.2 Spectroscopic Characterizations 73 2.3.3 Optical Band Gap Characterization 76 2.4 Environment Stability Issue of Phosphorene 80 2.5 Summary and Future Prospective 82 References 83 3 Graphene for Advanced Organic PhotovoltaicsTanvir Arfin and Shoeb Athar 3.1 Introduction 93 3.2 History of Graphene 94 3.3 Structure of Graphene 94 3.4 Graphene Family Nanomaterials 94 3.5 Properties of Graphene 95 3.5.1 Physicochemical Properties 95 3.5.2 Thermal and Electrical Properties 96 3.5.3 Optical Properties 96 3.5.4 Mechanical Properties 96 3.5.5 Biological Properties 96 3.6 Graphene for Advanced Organic Photovoltaics 96 3.6.2 Acceptor Material in OPVs 98 3.6.3 Interfacial Layer in OPVs 100 3.7 Conclusion 102 References 102 4 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Chemical Vapor DepositionFalah H. Hussein and Firas H. Abdulrazzak 4.1 Introduction 105 4.2 Synthesis Methods 107 4.2.1 Arc-Discharge 108 4.2.2 Laser Ablation 109 4.2.3 Flame Methods 109 4.2.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 110 4.3 The Parameters of CVD 112 4.3.1 CNT Precursors 112 4.3.2 Type of Catalyst 114 4.3.3 Effect of Temperature 115 3.4.4 Gas Flow Rates 116 4.4 Deformations and Defects in Carbon Nanotubes 118 4.4.1 Deformations in Carbon Nanotubes 118 4.4.2 Defects in Carbon Nanotubes 120 4.5 Characterization of CNTs 123 4.6 Conclusion 126 References 126 Part II: Environmental Applications 133 5 A Review of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment with Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide 135Lavanya Madhura and Shalini Singh 5.1 Introduction 135 5.2 Heterogeneous Photocatalysis 137 5.3 Pharmaceuticals in the Environment 137 5.4 Role of TiO2 in Photocatalysis for Degradation, Mineralization, and Transformation Process of Pharmaceuticals 138 5.5 Applications 139 5.6 Conclusion 146 Acknowledgment 147 References 147 6 Nanosilica Particles in Food: A Case of Synthetic Amorphous Silica 153Rookmoney Thakur and Shalini Singh 6.1 Introduction 153 6.1.1 The Different Forms of Silica 155 6.1.2 Synthetic Amorphous Silica 156 6.1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of SAS 157 6.1.4 Silica Applications in the Food Industry 157 6.1.5 Toxicity 158 6.1.6 Conclusion 159 References 160 7 Bio-sensing Performance of Magnetite Nanocomposite for Biomedical Applications 165Rajasekhar Chokkareddy, Natesh Kumar Bhajanthri, Bakusele Kabane, and Gan G. Redhi 7.1 Introduction 166 7.1.1 Hematite 166 7.1.2 Maghemite 168 7.1.3 Magnetite 169 7.1.4 Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 170 7.1.5 Types of Magnetic Substances 170 7.1.5.1 Paramagnetic Substances 171 7.1.5.2 Diamagnetic Substances 171 7.1.5.3 Ferri Magnetic Substances 172 7.1.5.4 Ferro Magnetic Substances 172 7.1.5.5 Anti-ferro Magnetic Substances 173 7.1.6 Shape, Size, and Magnetic Properties 177 7.1.7 Synthesis Methods of Magnetic Nanoparticles 178 7.1.8 Advantages of Magnetic Nanomaterials 178 7.1.9 Surface Modifications of Magnetic Nanoparticles 181 7.2 Potential Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles 181 7.2.1 Magnetic Separation 182 7.2.2 Magnetic Resonance Image 184 7.2.3 Targeted Drug Delivery Systems 186 7.2.4 Magnetic Hyperthermia 188 7.2.5 Gene Delivery 190 7.3 Conclusion 191 References 192 8 The Importance of Screening Information DATA Set in Nanotechnology 197Khan Ameera Bibi, Suruj Gitesh, and Shalini Singh 8.1 Introduction 198 8.2 Review of the Literature 201 8.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes 201 8.2.2 Nanosilver 203 8.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes vs. Asbestos 203 8.2.4 Density 205 8.2.5 Risk Assessment 205 8.2.6 Using SIDS as a Risk Assessment Tool for ENPs 206 8.3 Behavioral Patterns of Engineered Nanoparticles 206 8.3.1 Products Containing Nanosilver 207 8.3.2 Toxicity Effects of Nanosilver on Humans 208 8.3.3 Toxicity Effects on the Environment 210 8.4 Conclusions and Recommendations 213 References 213 9 Nanomaterials for Biohydrogen Production 217Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Abudukeremu Kadier, Ackmez Mudhoo, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Kuppam Chandrasekhar, Takuro Kobayashi, and Kaiqin Xu 9.1 Introduction 218 9.2 Major Biohydrogen Production Pathways 219 9.2.1 Biophotolysis 219 9.2.2 Photo-fermentation 220 9.2.3 Dark fermentation 220 9.2.4 Microbial Electrolysis Cell 221 9.3 Nanaparticle Effects on Biohydrogen Production 222 9.3.1 Dark Fermentative Hydrogen Production 222 9.3.2 Photo Fermentative Hydrogen Production 223 9.3.3 Photocatalytic Hydrogen (H2) Production 226 9.3.4 MEC-based hydrogen production 226 9.4 Biohydrogen Producing Associated with Immobilized Enzymes (Cellulases and Hydrogenases) 227 9.5 Outlook and Concluding Notes 229 Acknowledgment 232 References 232 10 A Framework for Using Nanotechnology in Military Gear 239Hlophe Nkosingiphile.Siphesihle, Mbatha Precious Hlengiwe, and Shalini Singh 10.1 Introduction 240 10.2 Literature Review 241 10.2.2 Ballistic Protection Properties 241 10.2.3 Biological and Chemical Protection Properties 242 10.2.4 Health Monitoring Sensing Properties 242 10.2.5 UV Protection Properties 243 10.2.6 Ethics, Safety, and the Enhancement of Soldier’s Performance 243 10.2.7 Risks in Engineered Nanomaterials 244 10.2.8 Control of Risks 245 10.3 Application of Nanotechnology in the Military 246 10.3.1 Protective Properties 246 10.3.1.2 Biological and Chemical Hazard Protection 247 10.3.1.3 Injury Protection 248 10.3.2 Medical properties 248 10.3.2.2 Tissue Repair 248 10.3.3 Ethics, Safety, and the Enhancement of Soldier’s Performance 248 10.3.4 Key Transmissions of ENM Exposure 249 10.4 Conclusions 251 10.4.1 Recommendations 252 References 253 Part III: Biological Applications 257 11 Plasmonic Nanopores: A New Approach Toward Single Molecule Detection 259Gaurav Khandelwal, Sima Umrao, Narsingh R. Nirala, Sadhana S Sagar, and Vinod Kumar 11.1 Introduction 260 11.1.1 Biological Nanopores 261 11.1.2 Solid State Nanopores 261 11.1.3 Plasmoinc Nanopore 262 11.2 Sensing Principles of Plasmonic Nanopore 264 11.2.1 Fabrication of Plasmonic Nanopores 265 11.2.1.1 Materials of Choice 265 11.2.1.2 Lithography 266 11.2.1.3 Multilayers 267 11.3 Optical Properties 267 11.4 Improving Performance 268 11.4.1 Use of a New Kind of Structures 269 11.4.2 Use of New Spectroscopy Techniques 269 11.5 Surface Patterning 270 11.6 Applications – Next-Generation DNA Sequencing and Beyond 271 11.7 Some Other Sensing Examples 275 11.8 Future Perspectives 277 References 278 12 Catalytically Active Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials and Their Role in Biosensing 285Narsingh R. Nirala, Sima Umrao, Gaurav Khandelwal, and Vinod Kumar 12.1 Introduction 286 12.2 Different Types of Catalytically Active Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials 286 12.2.1 Carbon Derivative-based Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials 287 12.2.1.1 Carbon Nanotubes 287 12.2.1.2 Graphene Oxide 288 12.2.1.3 Graphene Quantum Dots 289 12.2.1.4 Graphene-Hemin Nanocomposites 290 12.2.2 Nobel Metal Nanoparticle-based Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials 290 12.2.2.1 Gold Nanoparticles 290 12.2.3 Metal Oxide Nanoparticle-based Enzyme Mimetic Nanomaterials 292 12.3 Applications of Catalytically Active Nanomaterials in Biosensing 292 12.3.1 Biosensors 292 12.3.1.1 H2O2 Detection 293 12.3.1.2 Glucose Detection Peroxidase-like Nanozymes Coupled 294 12.3.1.3 Immunoassays 294 References 296

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