Details

Multicore DSP


Multicore DSP

From Algorithms to Real-time Implementation on the TMS320C66x SoC
1. Aufl.

von: Naim Dahnoun

93,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 30.11.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781119003854
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 648

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

The only book to offer special coverage of the fundamentals of multicore DSP for implementation on the TMS320C66xx SoC  This unique book provides readers with an understanding of the TMS320C66xx SoC as well as its constraints. It offers critical analysis of each element, which not only broadens their knowledge of the subject, but aids them in gaining a better understanding of how these elements work so well together. Written by Texas Instruments’ First DSP Educator Award winner, Naim Dahnoun, the book teaches readers how to use the development tools, take advantage of the maximum performance and functionality of this processor and have an understanding of the rich content which spans from architecture, development tools and programming models, such as OpenCL and OpenMP, to debugging tools. It also covers various multicore audio and image applications in detail.  Additionally, this one-of-a-kind book is supplemented with: A rich set of tested laboratory exercises and solutions Audio and Image processing applications source code for the Code Composer Studio (integrated development environment from Texas Instruments) Multiple tables and illustrations With no other book on the market offering any coverage at all on the subject and its rich content with twenty chapters, Multicore DSP: From Algorithms to Real-time Implementation on the TMS320C66x SoC is a rare and much-needed source of information for undergraduates and postgraduates in the field that allows them to make real-time applications work in a relatively short period of time. It is also incredibly beneficial to hardware and software engineers involved in programming real-time embedded systems.
Preface xviii Acknowledgements xxi Foreword xxii About the Companion Website xxiii 1 Introduction to DSP 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Multicore processors 3 1.2.1 Can any algorithm benefit from a multicore processor? 3 1.2.2 How many cores do I need for my application? 5 1.3 Key applications of high-performance multicore devices 6 1.4 FPGAs, Multicore DSPs, GPUs and Multicore CPUs 8 1.5 Challenges faced for programming a multicore processor 9 1.6 Texas Instruments DSP roadmap 10 1.7 Conclusion 11 References 12 2 The TMS320C66x architecture overview 14 2.1 Overview 14 2.2 The CPU 15 2.2.1 Cross paths 16 2.2.1.1 Data cross paths 17 2.2.1.2 Address cross paths 18 2.2.2 Register file A and file B 20 2.2.2.1 Operands 20 2.2.3 Functional units 21 2.2.3.1 Condition registers 21 2.2.3.2 .L units 22 2.2.3.3 .M units 22 2.2.3.4 .S units 23 2.2.3.5 .D units 23 2.3 Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instructions 24 2.3.1 Control registers 24 2.4 The KeyStone memory 24 2.4.1 Using the internal memory 27 2.4.2 Memory protection and extension 29 2.4.3 Memory throughput 29 2.5 Peripherals 30 2.5.1 Navigator 32 2.5.2 Enhanced Direct Memory Access (EDMA) Controller 32 2.5.3 Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) 32 2.5.4 General purpose input–output (GPIO) 32 2.5.5 Internal timers 32 2.6 Conclusion 33 References 33 3 Software development tools and the TMS320C6678 EVM 35 3.1 Introduction 35 3.2 Software development tools 37 3.2.1 Compiler 38 3.2.2 Assembler 39 3.2.3 Linker 40 3.2.3.1 Linker command file 40 3.2.4 Compile, assemble and link 42 3.2.5 Using the Real-Time Software Components (RTSC) tools 42 3.2.5.1 Platform update using the XDCtools 42 3.2.6 KeyStone Multicore Software Development Kit 47 3.3 Hardware development tools 47 3.3.1 EVM features 47 3.4 Laboratory experiments based on the C6678 EVM: introduction to Code Composer Studio (CCS) 51 3.4.1 Software and hardware requirements 51 3.4.1.1 Key features 52 3.4.1.2 Download sites 53 3.4.2 Laboratory experiments with the CCS6 53 3.4.2.1 Introduction to CCS 55 3.4.2.2 Implementation of a DOTP algorithm 63 3.4.3 Profiling using the clock 65 3.4.4 Considerations when measuring time 67 3.5 Loading different applications to different cores 67 3.6 Conclusion 72 References 72 4 Numerical issues 74 4.1 Introduction 74 4.2 Fixed- and floating-point representations 75 4.2.1 Fixed-point arithmetic 76 4.2.1.1 Unsigned integer 76 4.2.1.2 Signed integer 77 4.2.1.3 Fractional numbers 77 4.2.2 Floating-point arithmetic 78 4.2.2.1 Special numbers for the 32-bit and 64-bit floating-point formats 81 4.3 Dynamic range and accuracy 82 4.4 Laboratory exercise 83 4.5 Conclusion 85 References 85 5 Software optimisation 86 5.1 Introduction 86 5.2 Hindrance to software scalability for a multicore processor 88 5.3 Single-core code optimisation procedure 88 5.3.1 The C compiler options 90 5.4 Interfacing C with intrinsics, linear assembly and assembly 91 5.4.1 Intrinsics 91 5.4.2 Interfacing C and assembly 92 5.5 Assembly optimisation 97 5.5.1 Parallel instructions 98 5.5.2 Removing the NOPs 99 5.5.3 Loop unrolling 99 5.5.4 Double-Word Access 100 5.5.5 Optimisation summary 100 5.6 Software pipelining 101 5.6.1 Software-pipelining procedure 105 5.6.1.1 Writing linear assembly code 105 5.6.1.2 Creating a dependency graph 105 5.6.1.3 Resource allocation 108 5.6.1.4 Scheduling table 108 5.6.1.5 Generating assembly code 109 5.7 Linear assembly 111 5.7.1 Hand optimisation of the dotp function using linear assembly 112 5.8 Avoiding memory banks 118 5.9 Optimisation using the tools 118 5.10 Laboratory experiments 123 5.11 Conclusion 126 References 126 6 The TMS320C66x interrupts 127 6.1 Introduction 127 6.1.1 Chip-level interrupt controller 129 6.2 The interrupt controller 135 6.3 Laboratory experiment 140 6.3.1 Experiment 1: Using the GIPIOs to trigger some functions 140 6.3.2 Experiment 2: Using the console to trigger an interrupt 140 6.4 Conclusion 143 References 144 7 Real-time operating system: TI-RTOS 145 7.1 Introduction 146 7.2 TI-RTOS 146 7.3 Real-time scheduling 148 7.3.1 Hardware interrupts (Hwis) 148 7.3.1.1 Setting an Hwi 149 7.3.1.2 Hwi hook functions 149 7.3.2 Software interrupts (Swis), including clock, periodic or single-shot functions 155 7.3.3 Tasks 155 7.3.3.1 Task hook functions 157 7.3.4 Idle functions 158 7.3.5 Clock functions 158 7.3.6 Timer functions 158 7.3.7 Synchronisation 158 7.3.7.1 Semaphores 159 7.3.7.2 Semaphore_pend 159 7.3.7.3 Semaphore_post 159 7.3.7.4 How to configure the semaphores 159 7.3.8 Events 159 7.3.9 Summary 163 7.4 Dynamic memory management 163 7.4.1 Stack allocation 165 7.4.2 Heap allocation 165 7.4.3 Heap implementation 165 7.4.3.1 HeapMin implementation 165 7.4.3.2 HeapMem implementation 165 7.4.3.3 HeapBuf implementation 167 7.4.3.4 HeapMultiBuf implementation 171 7.5 Laboratory experiments 172 7.5.1 Lab 1: Manual setup of the clock (part 1) 172 7.5.2 Lab 2: Manual setup of the clock (part 2) 172 7.5.3 Lab 3: Using Hwis, Swis, tasks and clocks 174 7.5.4 Lab 4: Using events 187 7.5.5 Lab 5: Using the heaps 189 7.6 Conclusion 190 References 191 References (further reading) 191 8 Enhanced Direct Memory Access (EDMA3) controller 192 8.1 Introduction 192 8.2 Type of DMAs available 193 8.3 EDMA controllers architecture 194 8.3.1 The EDMA3 Channel Controller (EDMA3CC) 194 8.3.2 The EDMA3 transfer controller (EDMA3TC) 201 8.3.3 EDMA prioritisation 201 8.3.3.1 Trigger source priority 202 8.3.3.2 Channel priority 203 8.3.3.3 Dequeue priority 203 8.3.3.4 System (transfer controller) priority 203 8.4 Parameter RAM (PaRAM) 203 8.4.1 Channel options parameter (OPT) 203 8.5 Transfer synchronisation dimensions 203 8.5.1 A – Synchronisation 204 8.5.2 AB – Synchronisation 204 8.6 Simple EDMA transfer 204 8.7 Chaining EDMA transfers 208 8.8 Linked EDMAs 208 8.9 Laboratory experiments 210 8.9.1 Laboratory 1: Simple EDMA transfer 211 8.9.2 Laboratory 2: EDMA chaining transfer 211 8.9.3 Laboratory 3: EDMA link transfer 213 8.10 Conclusion 213 References 213 9 Inter-Processor Communication (IPC) 214 9.1 Introduction 215 9.2 Texas Instruments IPC 217 9.3 Notify module 219 9.3.1 Laboratory experiment 222 9.4 MessageQ 222 9.4.1 MessageQ protocol 224 9.4.2 Message priority 229 9.4.3 Thread synchronisation 229 9.5 ListMP module 233 9.6 GateMP module 234 9.6.1 Initialising a GateMP parameter structure 234 9.6.1.1 Types of gate protection 235 9.6.2 Creating a GateMP instance 236 9.6.3 Entering a GateMP 236 9.6.4 Leaving a gate 236 9.6.5 The list of functions that can be used by GateMP 237 9.7 Multi-processor Memory Allocation: HeapBufMP, HeapMemMP and HeapMultiBufMP 237 9.7.1 HeapBuf_Params 238 9.7.2 HeapMem_Params 239 9.7.3 HeapMultiBuf_Params 239 9.7.4 Configuration example for HeapMultiBuf 239 9.8 Transport mechanisms for the IPC 241 9.9 Laboratory experiments with KeyStone I 241 9.9.1 Laboratory 1: Using MessageQ with multiple cores 241 9.9.1.1 Overview 242 9.9.2 Laboratory 2: Using ListMP, ShareRegion and GateMP 243 9.10 Laboratory experiments with KeyStone II 249 9.10.1 Laboratory experiment 1: Transferring a block of data 249 9.10.1.1 Set the connection between the host (PC) and the KeyStone 249 9.10.1.2 Explore the ARM code 250 9.10.1.3 Explore the DSP code 259 9.10.1.4 Compile and run the program 263 9.10.2 Laboratory experiment 2: Transferring a pointer 267 9.10.2.1 Explore the ARM code 267 9.10.2.2 Explore the DSP code 271 9.10.2.3 Compile and run the program 278 9.11 Conclusion 278 References 278 10 Single and multicore debugging 280 10.1 Introduction 281 10.2 Software and hardware debugging 282 10.3 Debug architecture 282 10.3.1 Trace 282 10.3.1.1 Standard trace 282 10.3.1.2 Event trace 283 10.3.1.3 System trace 285 10.4 Advanced Event Triggering 286 10.4.1 Advanced Event Triggering logic 289 10.4.2 Unified Breakpoint Manager 294 10.5 Unified Instrumentation Architecture 295 10.5.1 Host-side tooling 295 10.5.2 Target-side tooling 295 10.5.2.1 Software instrumentation APIs 297 10.5.2.2 Predefined software events and metadata 297 10.5.2.3 Event loggers 297 10.5.2.4 Transports 297 10.5.2.5 SYS/BIOS event capture and transport 297 10.5.2.6 Multicore support 297 10.6 Debugging with the System Analyzer tools 298 10.6.1 Target-side coding with UIA APIs and the XDCtools 299 10.6.2 Logging events with Log_write() functions 300 10.6.3 Advance debugging using the diagnostic feature 301 10.6.4 LogSnapshot APIs for logging state information 302 10.7 Instrumentation with TI-RTOS and CCS 302 10.7.1 Using RTOS Object Viewer 302 10.7.2 Using the RTOS Analyzer and the System Analyzer 303 10.7.2.1 RTOS Analyzer 303 10.7.2.2 System Analyzer 303 10.8 Laboratory sessions 305 10.8.1 Laboratory experiment 1: Using the RTOS ROV 305 10.8.2 Laboratory experiment 2: Using the RTOS Analyzer 305 10.8.3 Laboratory experiment 3: Using the System Analyzer 312 10.8.4 Laboratory experiment 4: Using diagnosis features 314 10.8.5 Laboratory experiment 5: Using a diagnostic feature with filtering 317 10.9 Conclusion 321 References 322 Further reading 323 11 Bootloader for KeyStone I and KeyStone II 324 11.1 Introduction 324 11.2 How to start the boot process 325 11.3 The boot process 325 11.4 ROM Bootloader (RBL) 328 11.4.1 The boot configuration format 336 11.4.1.1 Creating the boot parameter table 336 11.4.1.2 Creating the boot table 338 11.4.1.3 The boot configuration table 338 11.5 Boot process 340 11.5.1 Initialisation stage for the KeyStone I 340 11.5.2 Second-level bootloader 341 11.5.2.1 Intermediate bootloader 341 11.5.2.2 How to use the IBL 342 11.6 Laboratory experiment 1 345 11.6.1 Initialisation stage for the KeyStone II 350 11.6.1.1 Bootloader initialisation after power-on reset 350 11.6.1.2 Bootloader initialisation process after hard or soft reset 350 11.6.2 Second bootloader for the KeyStone II 350 11.6.2.1 U-Boot 351 11.7 Laboratory experiment 2 352 11.7.1 Printing the U-Boot environment 360 11.7.2 Using the help for U-Boot 362 11.8 TFTP boot with a host-mounted Network File System (NFS) server – NFS booting 363 11.8.1 Laboratory experiment 3 364 11.9 Conclusion 372 References 372 12 Introduction to OpenMP 374 12.1 Introduction to OpenMP 375 12.2 Directive formats 376 12.3 Forking region 377 12.3.1 omp parallel – parallel region construct 377 12.3.1.1 Clause descriptions 378 12.4 Work-sharing constructs 382 12.4.1 omp for 382 12.4.1.1 OpenMP loop scheduling 383 12.4.2 omp sections 385 12.4.3 omp single 386 12.4.4 omp master 386 12.4.5 omp task 387 12.5 Environment variables and library functions 390 12.6 Synchronisation constructs 392 12.6.1 atomic 393 12.6.1.1 Clauses 393 12.6.2 barrier 395 12.6.3 critical 396 12.7 OpenMP accelerator model 397 12.7.1 Supported OpenMP device constructs 397 12.7.1.1 #pragma omp target 397 12.7.1.2 #pragma omp target data 399 12.7.1.3 #pragma omp target update 400 12.7.1.4 #pragma omp declare target 401 12.8 Laboratory experiments 402 12.8.1 Laboratory experiment 1 402 12.8.2 Laboratory experiment 2 402 12.8.3 Laboratory experiment 3 404 12.8.4 Laboratory experiment 4 405 12.8.5 Laboratory experiment 5 405 12.9 Conclusion 417 References 419 13 Introduction to OpenCL for the KeyStone II 420 13.1 Introduction 421 13.2 Operation of OpenCL 421 13.3 Command queue 424 13.3.1 Creating a command queue 427 13.3.1.1 Command-queue properties 429 13.3.2 Enqueueing a kernel 430 13.4 Kernel declaration 431 13.5 How do the kernels access data? 431 13.6 OpenCL memory model for the KeyStone 432 13.6.1 Creating a buffer 433 13.6.1.1 Cl_mem_flags 434 13.7 Synchronisation 435 13.7.1 Event with a callback function 436 13.7.2 User event 439 13.7.3 Waiting for one command or all commands to finish 439 13.7.4 wait_group_events 440 13.7.5 Barrier 440 13.8 Basic debugging profiling 440 13.9 OpenMP dispatch from OpenCL 443 13.9.1 OpenMP for the kernel code 443 13.9.2 OpenMP for the ARM code 443 13.10 Building the OpenCL project 444 13.11 Laboratory experiments 445 13.11.1 Laboratory experiment 1: Hello World 446 13.11.2 Laboratory experiment 2: dotp functions 454 13.11.2.1 Explore the main.cpp function 454 13.11.2.2 Explore the kernel dotp.cl 459 13.11.2.3 Run the dotp program 460 13.11.3 Laboratory experiment 3: USE_HOST_PTR 460 13.11.4 Laboratory experiment 4: ALLOC_HOST_PTR 463 13.11.5 Laboratory experiment 5: COPY_HOST_PTR 465 13.11.6 Laboratory experiment 6: Synchronisation 467 13.11.7 Laboratory experiment 7: Local buffer 473 13.11.8 Laboratory experiment 8: Barrier 477 13.11.9 Laboratory experiment 9: Profiling 479 13.11.10 Laboratory experiment 10: OpenMP in kernel 484 13.11.11 Laboratory experiment 11: OpenMP in ARM 487 13.12 Conclusion 489 References 490 14 Multicore Navigator 491 14.1 Introduction 491 14.2 Navigator architecture 492 14.2.1 The PKDMA 494 14.2.1.1 PKDMA transmit side 495 14.2.1.2 PKDMA receive side 495 14.2.1.3 Infrastructure PKDMA 497 14.2.2 Descriptors 497 14.2.2.1 Host packet descriptors 498 14.2.2.2 Monolithic packet descriptor 498 14.2.2.3 Setting up the memory regions for the descriptors 498 14.2.3 Queue Manager Subsystem 500 14.2.4 Queue Manager 503 14.2.4.1 Queue peek registers 503 14.2.4.2 Link RAM 504 14.2.5 Accumulator packet data structure processors 504 14.2.5.1 Accumulation 506 14.2.5.2 Quality of service 506 14.2.5.3 Event management (resource sharing and job load balancing) 506 14.2.6 Interrupt distributor module 506 14.3 Complete functionality of the Navigator 506 14.4 Laboratory experiment 511 14.5 Conclusion 513 References 514 15 FIR filter implementation 515 15.1 Introduction 515 15.2 Properties of an FIR filter 516 15.2.1 Filter coefficients 516 15.2.2 Frequency response of an FIR filter 516 15.2.3 Phase linearity of an FIR filter 517 15.3 Design procedure 518 15.3.1 Specifications 518 15.3.2 Coefficients calculation 519 15.3.2.1 Window method 519 15.3.3 Realisation structure 522 15.3.3.1 Direct structure 525 15.3.3.2 Linear phase structures 525 15.3.3.3 Cascade structures 527 15.4 Laboratory experiments 528 15.4.1 Filter implementation 529 15.4.2 Synchronisation 530 15.4.3 Building and running the DSP project 532 15.4.4 Building and running the PC project 534 15.5 Conclusion 540 References 540 16 IIR filter implementation 542 16.1 Introduction 542 16.2 Design procedure 543 16.3 Coefficients calculation 543 16.3.1 Pole–zero placement approach 543 16.3.2 Analogue-to-digital filter design 543 16.3.3 Bilinear transform (BZT) method 544 16.3.3.1 Practical example of the bilinear transform method 547 16.3.3.2 Coefficients calculation 547 16.3.3.3 Realisation structures 548 16.3.4 Impulse invariant method 552 16.3.4.1 Practical example of the impulse invariant method 553 16.4 IIR filter implementation 556 16.5 Laboratory experiment 561 16.6 Conclusion 561 Reference 562 17 Adaptive filter implementation 563 17.1 Introduction 563 17.2 Mean square error 564 17.3 Least mean square 565 17.4 Implementation of an adaptive filter using the LMS algorithm 565 17.5 Implementation using linear assembly 567 17.6 Implementation in C language with compiler switches 572 17.7 Laboratory experiment 572 17.8 Conclusion 573 References 573 18 FFT implementation 574 18.1 Introduction 574 18.2 FFT algorithm 574 18.2.1 Fourier series 574 18.2.2 Fourier transform 575 18.2.3 Discrete Fourier transform 575 18.2.4 Fast Fourier transform 576 18.2.4.1 Splitting the DFT into two DFTs 576 18.2.4.2 Exploiting the periodicity and symmetry of the twiddle factors 577 18.3 FFT implementation 579 18.4 Laboratory experiment 582 18.4.1 Part 1: Implementation of DIF FFT 582 18.4.2 Part 2: Using ping-pong EDMA 585 18.5 Conclusion 590 References 590 19 Hough transform 591 19.1 Introduction 591 19.2 Theory 591 19.3 Limits of r and ? 593 19.4 Hough transform implementation 595 19.5 Laboratory experiment 596 19.6 Conclusion 603 References 603 20 Stereo vision implementation 604 20.1 Introduction 604 20.2 Algorithm for performing depth calculation 605 20.3 Cost functions 606 20.4 Implementation 607 20.4.1 Laboratory experiment 610 20.4.1.1 SAD implementation 610 20.4.1.2 NCC implementation 611 20.4.1.3 ZNCC implementation 611 20.5 Conclusion 613 References 616 Index 617
Naim Dahnoun is Reader in Teaching and Learning in Signal Processing in the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Bristol, UK.
This text offers special coverage of the fundamentals of multicore DSP for implementation on the TMS320C66x SoC This content provides readers with an understanding of the TMS320C66x SoC as well as its constraints. It offers critical analysis of each element, which not only broadens their knowledge of the subject, but aids the reader in gaining a better understanding of how these elements work so well together. Written by Texas Instrument' First DSP Educator Award winner, Naim Dahnoun, the text teaches readers how to use the development tools, take advantage of the maximum performance and functionality of this processor and have an understanding of the rich content which spans from architecture, development tools and programming models, such as OpenCL and OpenMP, to debugging tools. The text also covers various multicore audio and image applications in detail and is supplemented with: A rich set of tested laboratory exercises and solutions Audio and Image processing applications source code for the Code Composer Studio (integrated development environment from Texas Instruments) Multiple tables and illustrations With its rich content of twenty chapters, Multicore DSP: From Algorithms to Real-time Implementation on the TMS320C66x SoC is a rare and much-needed source of information for undergraduates and postgraduates in the field that allows them to make real-time applications work in a relatively short period of time. This content is also incredibly beneficial to hardware and software engineers involved in programming real-time embedded systems.

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