Details

Microstructure of Dairy Products


Microstructure of Dairy Products


1. Aufl.

von: Mamdouh El-Bakry, Antoni Sanchez, Bhavbhuti M. Mehta

151,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 13.07.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781118964200
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Provides the most recent developments in microscopy techniques and types of analysis used to study the microstructure of dairy products  This comprehensive and timely text focuses on the microstructure analyses of dairy products as well as on detailed microstructural aspects of them. Featuring contributions from a global team of experts, it offers great insight into the understanding of different phenomena that relate to the functional and biochemical changes during processing and subsequent storage.  Structured into two parts, Microstructure of Dairy Products begins with an overview of microscopy techniques and software used for microstructural analyses. It discusses, in detail, different types of the following techniques, such as: light microscopy (including bright field, polarized, and confocal scanning laser microscopy) and electron microscopy (mainly scanning and transmission electron microscopy). The description of these techniques also includes the staining procedures and sample preparation methods developed. Emerging microscopy techniques are also covered, reflecting the latest advances in this field. Part 2 of the book focuses on the microstructure of various dairy foods, dividing each into sections related to the microstructure of milk, cheeses, yogurts, powders, and fat products, ice cream and frozen dairy desserts, dairy powders and selected traditional Indian dairy products. In addition, there is a review of the localization of microorganism within the microstructure of various dairy products. The last chapter discusses the challenges and future trends of the microstructure of dairy products. Presents complete coverage of the latest developments in dairy product microscopy techniques Details the use of microscopy techniques in structural analysis An essential purchase for companies, researchers, and other professionals in the dairy sector  Microstructure of Dairy Products is an excellent resource for food scientists, technologists, and chemists—and physicists, rheologists, and microscopists—who deal in dairy products.
List of Contributors xiii Preface xv 1 Microscopy Techniques for Dairy Products – An Introduction 1Mark A.E. Auty 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Conventional Optical Microscopy Techniques 4 1.3 Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy 6 1.4 Electron Microscopy (EM) Techniques 16 1.5 Emerging Microscopy Techniques 20 1.6 Image Analysis 23 1.7 Conclusions 24 References 24 2 Light Microscopy and CSLM Techniques, Principles and Applications 33Johan Hazekamp 2.1 Introduction 33 2.2 Sample Preparation and Specific Staining and Labeling 41 References 47 3 Electron M?croscopy Techn?ques 51Semih Otles and Vasfiye Hazal Ozyurt 3.1 Introduction 51 3.2 Types of EM 51 3.3 Sample Preparation for EMs 53 3.4 Dairy Microstructure 54 3.5 Electron Microscopy for the Dairy Product 54 3.6 Summary 60 4 Emerging Techniques for Microstructural Analysis 67I. Hernando, E. Llorca, and A. Quiles 4.1 Introduction 67 4.2 Scanning Probe Microscopy 67 4.3 X?Ray Tomography 72 4.4 Small?Angle?Scattering (SAS) Methods: SAXS and SANS 74 4.5 Vibrational Spectroscopies (Fourier Transform Infrared?FTIR and Raman Microscopy) 75 4.6 Magnetic Resonance: NMR and MRI 80 4.7 Conclusions 82 References 82 5 Quantitative Image Analysis in Microscopy 89Gaetano Impoco 5.1 Aim and Scope 89 5.2 Image Analysis Software 90 5.3 Applications to Microscopy for Dairy Science 97 5.4 Image Analysis and Quantitative Measurement 100 5.5 Conclusions 122 Acknowledgements 123 References 123 6 Microstructure of Milk 127Michael H. Tunick 6.1 Components of Milk 127 6.2 Fat 127 6.2.1 Fat Globules 127 6.2.2 Milkfat Globule Membrane 128 6.2.3 Cream 129 6.3 Protein 133 6.3.1 Types of Protein 133 6.3.2 Casein Micelles in Bovine Milk 133 6.3.3 Casein Micelles in Caprine Milk 133 6.3.4 Casein Micelles in Milk of Other Species 136 6.3.5 Micelle Structure 136 6.4 Bacteria and Somatic Cells 137 6.5 Concentrated Milk 138 6.6 Digested Milk 140 6.7 Conclusion 142 Acknowledgments 142 References 142 7 Microstructure of Cheese Products 145Bhavbhuti M. Mehta 7.1 Introduction 145 7.2 Factors Affecting the Development of Microstructures in Cheeses 146 7.2.1 Addition of Calcium Chloride 148 7.2.2 Rennet Coagulation 149 7.2.3 Acid?Coagulation 150 7.2.4 Coagulation Temperature 150 7.2.5 Syneresis 151 7.2.6 Salting 151 7.2.7 Ripening 152 7.2.8 Homogenization and High Pressure Treatments 153 7.2.9 Evaporation and Ultrafiltration Treatments 155 7.2.10 Freezing 156 7.2.11 Fat Replacers 156 7.3 Microstructures of Various Components in Cheese Matrix 158 7.3.1 Protein in Cheese Matrix 158 7.3.2 Fat Globule in Cheese Matrix 159 7.3.3 Calcium in Cheese Matrix 162 7.4 Crystals in Cheese Matrix 162 7.5 Starter Bacteria in Cheese Matrix 163 7.6 Microstructure of Selected Varieties of Cheeses 164 7.6.1 Processed Cheese 164 7.6.1.1 Curd Granules and Fat 166 7.6.1.2 Occurrence of Crystals 166 7.6.2 Cheese Analogs 166 7.6.3 Feta Cheese 167 7.6.4 Domiati Cheese 167 7.6.5 Fresh Cheese 167 7.6.6 Cream Cheese 168 7.6.7 Mold?Ripened Cheeses 169 7.6.8 Cheese Powder 169 7.7 Cheese Matrix and Digestion 170 7.8 Conclusions 171 References 171 8 Microstructural Aspects of Yogurt and Fermented Milk 181P.H.P. Prasanna, C.S. Ranadheera, and J.K. Vidanarachchi 8.1 Yogurt and Fermented Milk: An Overview 181 8.2 Yogurt and Fermented Milk: Production Technologies 184 8.3 Microstructure of Yogurt and Fermented Milk 187 8.4 Factors Influencing Microstructure of Yogurt and Fermented Milk 188 8.4.1 Effects of Type of Milk on Structure 188 8.4.2 Rate of Inoculation Level and Starter Culture Composition on Microstructure of Yogurt and Fermented Milk 189 8.4.2.1 Rate of Inoculation 189 8.4.2.2 Culture Composition 189 8.4.3 Effect of Exopolysaccharide Producing Starter Culture on Microstructure 190 8.4.4 Incubation Temperature on Structure 191 8.4.5 Effect of Different Processing Steps 191 8.4.5.1 Homogenization of Milk 191 8.4.5.2 Heat Treatment of Milk 192 8.4.5.3 Effect of Stirring 192 8.4.6 Effect of Addition of Different Hydrocolloids and Fibers on Microstructure 193 8.5 Microscopy Methods Used for Analyzing Microstructure of Fermented Milk 194 8.5.1 Light Microscopy 194 8.5.1.1 Bright Field Light Microscopy 194 8.5.1.2 Polarized Light Microscopy 194 8.5.1.3 Fluorescence Microscopy 195 8.5.1.4 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 197 8.5.2 Electron Microscopy 198 8.5.2.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy 198 8.5.2.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy 200 8.6 Conclusions 201 References 202 9 Microstructure of Milk Fat and its Products 209Pere Randy R. Ramel and Alejandro G. Marangoni 9.1 Introduction 209 9.2 Milk Fat Crystal Structure 211 9.2.1 Mesoscale Structure of Milk Fat 211 9.2.1.1 Polymorphism 211 9.2.1.2 Phase Behavior and Fractionation 213 9.2.1.3 Solid Fat Content and Crystallization/Melting Behavior 214 9.2.2 Nanoscale Structure of Fat Crystal Networks 216 9.3 Effect of Different Factors on the Crystallization Behavior and Microstructure of Milk Fat 218 9.3.1 Processing Conditions 218 9.3.1.1 Different Crystallization Mechanisms 218 9.3.1.2 Crystallization Temperature and Cooling Rate 218 9.3.1.3 Agitation, Shear and Ultrasound 219 9.3.2 Composition 220 9.3.2.1 Minor Components 220 9.3.2.2 Blending with Different Fats and Oils, and Waxes 220 9.3.3 In a Dispersed State (Emulsion) 221 9.3.3.1 Emulsified State (Cream) vs Bulk State or Anhydrous Milk Fat (AMF) 222 9.3.3.2 Emulsion Droplet Size 222 9.3.3.3 Addition of Emulsifiers 223 9.3.4 In Food Matrices 223 9.3.4.1 Water?in?Oil Emulsion 223 9.3.4.2 Foamed Emulsions 224 9.3.4.3 Chocolate 225 9.3.4.4 Cheese 226 9.4 Impact of Resulting Microstructure on the Properties of Different Milk Fat Products 226 9.4.1 Rheology 226 9.4.2 Thermal Stability 229 9.4.3 Sensory Qualities 229 9.5 Conclusions 229 10 Microstructure of Ice Cream and Frozen Dairy Desserts 237Samantha R. VanWees and Richard W. Hartel 10.1 Overview of Frozen Desserts 237 10.1.1 Ingredients 238 10.1.2 Processing 239 10.2 Frozen Dessert Structure 240 10.2.1 Serum Phase 240 10.2.2 Ice Crystals 242 10.2.3 Fat Phase 245 10.2.4 Air Cells 247 10.2.5 Proteins and Hydrocolloids 250 10.3 Storage 251 10.3.1 Recrystallization 251 10.3.2 Sugar Crystallization 253 10.3.3 Air Coarsening 254 10.3.4 Shrinkage 255 10.4 Conclusion 256 References 256 11 Whey Wastes and Powders 261J. Chandrapala 11.1 Whey 261 11.2 Current Whey Uses 263 11.3 Processing of Liquid Whey 263 11.3.1 Recovery of Casein Fines and the Separation of Fat 264 11.3.2 Concentration of Total Solids 265 11.3.3 Drying 266 11.3.4 Fractionation of Total Solids 270 11.4 Whey Powders 274 11.4.1 Whey Protein Concentrates 275 11.4.2 Whey Protein Isolates 277 11.4.3 Whey Protein Hydroxylates 279 11.4.4 Other Whey Powders 280 11.4.4.1 Defatted Whey Protein Concentrates 280 11.4.4.2 Demineralized Whey Protein Concentrates 280 11.4.4.3 Delactosed Whey Powders 283 11.4.4.4 Acid Whey Powders 283 11.4.4.5 Salty Whey Powders 284 11.5 Utilization and Applications of Whey Powders 285 11.6 Conclusion 287 References 287 12 Microstructure of Selected Traditional Indian Dairy Products 293Bhavbhuti M. Mehta 12.1 Introduction 293 12.2 Heat Desiccated Dairy Products 294 12.2.1 Khoa and Khoa?Based Sweets 294 12.2.1.1 Microstructure of Khoa 294 12.2.1.2 Microstructure of Gulabjamun 295 12.2.1.3 Microstructure of Burfi and Kalakand 298 12.3 Heat?Desiccated Milk Cereal Based Desserts 299 12.3.1 Microstructure of Kheer 299 12.4 Heat?Acid Coagulated Dairy Products 300 12.4.1 Microstructure of Paneer 300 12.4.1.1 Fried Paneer 300 12.4.2 Microstructure of Chhana and Chhana Based Sweets 302 12.4.2.1 Microstructure of Rasogolla 302 12.4.2.2 Microstructure of Chhana Podo 305 12.5 Fermented Dairy Products 306 12.5.1 Microstructure of Dahi 306 12.5.2 Microstructure of Shrikhand 306 12.6 Conclusion 307 References 307 13 Using Microscopy for Microorganism Localization within Dairy Products 311I.T. Smykov 13.1 Introduction 311 PART 1 312 13.1.1 Microorganisms and Starters 312 13.1.2 Techniques Used in the Microstructure Analyses 313 13.1.3 Interactions Occurring in the Microstructure 315 PART 2 318 13.2 Materials and Methods 318 13.2.1 Bacterial Strains and Dairy Products 318 13.2.2 Electron Microscopy 318 13.2.2.1 Surface Topography Heavy Metal Shadowing 319 13.2.2.2 Negative Staining Transmission Electron Microscopy 319 13.2.3 Freeze?Fracture Replication 319 13.3 Results and Discussion 320 13.3.1 Casein Micelle 320 13.3.2 Bacteria 324 13.3.3 Bacteria in a Protein Matrix 327 13.3.4 Bacteria in Cheese Eyes 331 13.3.5 Bacteria in Yoghurt 333 13.3.6 Bacteriophages 336 13.4 Conclusions 338 Acknowledgment 339 References 339 14 Microstructure of Dairy Products: Challenges and Future Trends 345Maricê Nogueira de Oliveira 14.1 Introducing Microstructure of Dairy Products 345 14.2 Microstructure of Fermented Milks 346 14.3 Microstructure of Yogurt and Milk Drinks 347 14.3.1 Yogurt 347 14.3.2 Milk Drinks or Lactic Beverages 354 14.4 Microstructure of Cheeses 356 14.5 Conclusion 359 References 359 Index 363
Mamdouh El-Bakry is a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Universitat Autónoma of Barcelona, Spain. Antoni Sanchez is a Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Universitat Autónoma of Barcelona, Spain. Bhavbhuti M. Mehta – Associate Professor in Dairy Chemistry Department, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India  
Provides the most recent developments in microscopy techniques and types of analysis used to study the microstructure of dairy products This comprehensive and timely text focuses on the microstructure analyses of dairy products as well as on detailed microstructural aspects of them. Featuring contributions from a global team of experts, it offers great insight into the understanding of different phenomena that relate to the functional and biochemical changes during processing and subsequent storage.  Structured into two parts, Microstructure of Dairy Products begins with an overview of microscopy techniques and software used for microstructural analyses. It discusses, in detail, different types of the following techniques, such as: light microscopy (including bright field, polarized, and confocal scanning laser microscopy) and electron microscopy (mainly scanning and transmission electron microscopy). The description of these techniques also includes the staining procedures and sample preparation methods developed. Emerging microscopy techniques are also covered, reflecting the latest advances in this field. Part 2 of the book focuses on the microstructure of various dairy foods, dividing each into sections related to the microstructure of milk, cheeses, yogurts, powders, and fat products, ice cream and frozen dairy desserts, dairy powders and selected traditional Indian dairy products. In addition, there is a review of the localization of microorganism within the microstructure of various dairy products. The last chapter discusses the challenges and future trends of the microstructure of dairy products. Presents complete coverage of the latest developments in dairy product microscopy techniques Details the use of microscopy techniques in structural analysis An essential purchase for companies, researchers, and other professionals in the dairy sector Microstructure of Dairy Products is an excellent resource for food scientists, technologists, and chemists—and physicists, rheologists, and microscopists—who deal in dairy products.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Food Safety for the 21st Century
Food Safety for the 21st Century
von: Carol A. Wallace, William H. Sperber, Sara E. Mortimore
PDF ebook
121,99 €
Food Safety for the 21st Century
Food Safety for the 21st Century
von: Carol A. Wallace, William H. Sperber, Sara E. Mortimore
EPUB ebook
121,99 €