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Metrology and Standardization for Nanotechnology


Metrology and Standardization for Nanotechnology

Protocols and Industrial Innovations
Applications of Nanotechnology 1. Aufl.

von: Elisabeth Mansfield, Debra L. Kaiser, Daisuke Fujita, Marcel Van de Voorde

160,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 20.01.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9783527800056
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 626

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Beschreibungen

For the promotion of global trading and the reduction of potential risks, the role of international standardization of nanotechnologies has become more and more important. This book gives an overview of the current status of nanotechnology including the importance of metrology and characterization at the nanoscale, international standardization of nanotechnology, and industrial innovation of nano-enabled products. First the field of nanometrology, nanomaterial standardization and nanomaterial innovation is introduced. Second, major concepts in analytical measurements are given in order to provide a basis for the reliable and reproducible characterization of nanomaterials. The role of standards organizations are presented and finally, an overview of risk management and the commercial impact of metrology and standardization for industrial innovations.
Foreword XXVII Preface XXIX 1 Introduction: An Overview of Nanotechnolgy and Nanomaterial Standardization and Opportunities and Challenges 1Ajit Jillavenkatesa 1.1 Standards and Standardization 1 1.2 Nanotechnology Standardization 2 1.3 Nanomaterial Standardization 8 1.4 Challenges 9 1.5 Opportunities 12 1.6 Summary 13 Part One Nanotechnology Basics: Definitions, Synthesis, and Properties 15 2 Nanotechnology Definitions at ISO and ASTM International: Origin, Usage, and Relationship to Nomenclature and Regulatory and Metrology Activities 17Frederick C. Klaessig 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Context based on Size, Property, and Regulatory Framework 19 2.3 Nano-objects: Particles, Shapes, and Shape Descriptors 24 2.4 Collections of Nano-Objects 27 2.5 Layers and Coatings as Surface Chemistry 31 2.6 National Definitions 32 2.7 Nomenclature 34 2.8 Terminology as a Controlled Vocabulary and Nomenclature as Knowledge Organization 42 2.9 Concluding Remarks 44 Acknowledgments 44 References 45 3 Engineered Nanomaterials: a Discussion of the Major Categories of Nanomaterials 49Marcel Van de Voorde, Maciej Tulinski, and Mieczyslaw Jurczyk 3.1 Description of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials 49 3.2 Nanomaterials’ Morphologies 49 3.3 Types of Nanomaterials 53 3.4 Properties of Nanomaterials 58 3.5 Applications of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites 61 3.6 Conclusions and Outlook 69 References 70 4 Nanomaterials Synthesis Methods 75Maciej Tulinski and Mieczyslaw Jurczyk 4.1 Classification 75 4.2 Physical Methods 78 4.3 Chemical Methods 82 4.4 Mechanical Methods 87 4.5 Biological Synthesis 94 4.6 Summary 95 References 96 5 Physicochemical Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials 99Linda J. Johnston, Elisabeth Mansfield, and Gregory J. Smallwood 5.1 Introduction 99 5.2 Composition 100 5.3 Size and Size Distribution 102 5.4 Morphology and Shape 105 5.5 Aggregation and Agglomeration 107 5.6 Surface Properties 108 5.7 Conclusions and Outlook 110 References 111 6 Biological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials 115Dong Hyun Jo, Jin Gyeong Son, Jin Hyoung Kim, Tae Geol Lee, and Jeong Hun Kim 6.1 Introduction 115 6.2 Biological Properties of ENMs 116 6.3 Metrology and Standardization of ENMs in the Context of Biological Properties 123 6.4 Conclusions 125 References 125 Part Two Metrology for Engineered Nanomaterials 129 7 Characterization of Nanomaterials 131Alan F. Rawle 7.1 Introduction 131 7.2 Size 133 7.3 Shape 136 7.4 Surface 139 7.5 Solubility 142 7.6 International Standards and Standardization 144 7.7 Summary 146 Acknowledgments 146 References 147 8 Principal Metrics and Instrumentation for Characterization of Engineered Nanomaterials 151Aleksandr B. Stefaniak 8.1 Introduction 151 8.2 ENM Metrics and Instrumentation for Characterization 154 8.3 Summary 169 List of Abbreviations 169 Disclaimer 170 References 170 9 Analytical Measurements of Nanoparticles in Challenging and Complex Environments 175Bryant C. Nelson and Vytas Reipa 9.1 Introduction 175 9.2 Nanoparticle Measurements in Soils and Sediments 175 9.3 Nanoparticle Measurements in Air 177 9.4 Nanoparticle Measurements in Cosmetics 179 9.5 Nanoparticle Measurements in Aquatic Environments 180 9.6 Nanoparticle Measurements in Foods 182 9.7 Nanoparticle Measurements in Biological Matrices 184 9.8 Key Challenges for Characterizing Nanoparticle Sizes and Shapes in Biological Matrices 184 9.9 Key Challenges in the Quantitative Measurement of Nanoparticles in Biological Matrices 186 9.10 Key Challenges for Determining Nanoparticle Dose/Concentration in Biological Matrices 187 9.11 Key Challenges in Measuring Nanoparticle Agglomeration in Biological Matrices 188 9.12 Notable Instrumentation for Characterizing Nanoparticles in Biological Matrices 188 9.13 Concluding Remarks 190 NIST Disclaimer 191 List of Acronyms 191 References 192 10 Metrology for the Dimensional Parameter Study of Nanoparticles 197N. Feltin, S. Ducourtieux, and A. Delvallée 10.1 Introduction 197 10.2 Traceability of the Dimensional Measurements at the Nanoscale 198 10.3 Measuring the Nanoparticle Size 201 10.4 Conclusions 209 References 209 11 Analytical Nanoscopic Techniques: Nanoscale Properties 211Daisuke Fujita 11.1 Introduction 211 11.2 Historical Overview of Analytical Nanoscopic Techniques 212 11.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy 214 11.4 Electron Microscopy 219 11.5 Emerging Nanocharacterization Techniques 222 11.6 Summary 227 References 227 12 Tribological Testing and Standardization at the Micro- and Nanoscale 229Esteban Broitman 12.1 Introduction 229 12.2 A Brief History of Tribology 230 12.3 Scale Effects in Tribology Testing 232 12.4 Experimental Methods for Tribology Characterization 234 12.5 International Standardization in Micro- and Nanotechnology 243 Acknowledgments 246 References 246 13 Stochastic Aspects of Sizing Nanoparticles 249Krzysztof J. Kurzydlowski 13.1 Introduction 249 References 257 Part Three Nanotechnology Standards 259 14 ISO Technical Committee 229 Nanotechnologies 261Heather Benko 14.1 Introduction 261 14.2 ISO/TC 229 Nanotechnologies 262 References 267 15 Standards from ASTM International Technical Committee E56 on Nanotechnology 269Debra L. Kaiser and Kathleen Chalfin 15.1 Introduction 269 15.2 ASTM International 270 15.3 ASTM Technical Committee E56 271 15.4 ASTM E56 Standards 273 15.5 ASTM E56 Future Technical Focus Areas 276 15.6 Summary 277 References 277 16 International Electrotechnical Commission: Nanotechnology Standards 279Michael Leibowitz 16.1 International Electrotechnical Commission 279 16.2 IEC Technical Committee 113 280 16.3 Summary, Conclusions, and Future Focus Areas 286 References 286 17 Standardization of Nanomaterials: Methods and Protocols 289Dr. Jean-Marc Aublant 17.1 Genesis of CEN/TC 352 289 17.2 Nanostrand: a European Road Map of Standards Needs for Nanotechnologies 290 17.3 Mandate for a European Standardization Program for Nanotechnologies 291 17.4 Mandate for Developing European Standards for Nanotechnologies 293 17.5 Publication and Ongoing Work of CEN/TC 352 294 References 297 18 Nanomaterial Recommendations from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 299Elisabeth Mansfield, Richard Hartshorn, and Andrew Atkinson 18.1 IUPAC Organization 299 18.2 The Future of IUPAC in Nanotechnology 302 18.3 Summary, Conclusions, and Future Focus Areas 304 References 305 19 Reference Nanomaterials to Improve the Reliability of Nanoscale Measurements 307G. Roebben, V.A. Hackley, and H. Emons 19.1 Introduction 307 19.2 Reference Materials for Quality Control 308 19.3 Reference Materials for Instrument Calibration 310 19.4 Reference Materials for Method Validation 312 19.4.3 Example 3: Within-Laboratory Method Validation 315 19.5 Outlook/Future Trends 317 19.6 Conclusions 320 Acknowledgment 320 Disclaimer 320 References 321 20 Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) and its Role in Nanotechnology Standardization 323Stephen Freiman 20.1 Background 323 20.2 How Does VAMAS Help? 324 20.3 The VAMAS Role in Nanotechnology 325 20.4 Summary 326 Part Four Risk-Related Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials 327 21 Categorization of Engineered Nanomaterials For Regulatory Decision-Making 329Maria J. Doa 21.1 Introduction 329 21.2 Chemical Categories 330 21.3 Adoption of a Similar Approach for Nanomaterials 331 21.4 Categorization in a North American Regulatory Context 334 21.5 Physicochemical Properties 339 21.6 Conclusion 340 References 340 22 Nano-Exposure Science: How Does Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials Happen? 343Christie M. Sayes and Grace V. Aquino 22.1 Introduction 343 22.2 The Stages of a Product’s Lifecycle 343 22.3 Product Life Evaluation 344 22.4 Product Lifecycle versus Product Value Chain 344 22.5 Exposure at Each Stage of the ENM Product Lifecycle 348 22.6 Environmental Release of Engineered Nanomaterials from Common Nano-enabled Products 354 22.7 Conclusions 356 References 357 23 Nanotoxicology: Role of Physical and Chemical Characterization and Related In Vitro, In Vivo, and In Silico Methods 363Pavan M. V. Raja, Ghislaine Lacroix, Jacques-Aurélien Sergent, Frédéric Bois, Andrew R. Barron, Enrico Monbelli, and Dan Elgrabli 23.1 Importance of Toxicological Studies – Interaction of Nanoparticles and Living Species 363 23.2 Regulatory Aspects Applied to Nanomaterials 367 23.3 Essential Chemical and Physical Characterization for Nanotoxicological Studies 371 23.4 Methods in Nanotoxicology 372 23.5 Conclusions 376 References 376 24 Minimizing Risk: An Overview of Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Nanomaterials 381Jo Anne Shatkin, Kimberly Ong, and James Ede 24.1 How Risk Assessment and Risk Management Can Minimize Risk 381 24.2 Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials 383 24.3 Risk Management of Nanomaterials 395 24.4 Conclusions 402 References 403 Part Five Nanotechnology-based Products, Applications, and Industry 409 25 Nanoenabled Products: Categories, Manufacture, and Applications 411Wendel Wohlleben, Christian Punckt, Jasmin Aghassi-Hagmann, Friedrich Siebers, Frank Menzel, Daniel Esken, Claus-Peter Drexel, Henning Zoz, Hans Ulrich Benz, Andreas Weier, Martin Hitzler, Andrea Iris Schäfer, Luisa De Cola, and Eko Adi Prasetyanto 25.1 General Overview 411 25.2 Case Studies: Composite Systems 426 25.3 Case Studies: Nanoporous Systems 440 25.4 Case Studies: Particle-Based Systems 447 25.5 Summary and Outlook 457 References 460 26 Application of Nanomaterials to Industry: How Are Nanomaterials Used and What Drives Future Applications? 465Denis Koltsov and Iwona Koltsov 26.1 Introduction 465 26.2 Nanomaterial Application Types 466 26.3 Sources of Innovation for Nanomaterials 472 26.4 Barriers for Implementation 473 26.5 Applications 476 26.6 Conclusions 481 References 481 27 Ethics and Nanomaterials Industrial Production 485Daniel Bernard 27.1 Current Situation 487 27.2 Strategy 491 27.3 Safety 493 27.4 Data Generation and Expertise Implementation 496 27.5 Transparency 498 27.6 Conclusions 499 List of Acronyms 502 References 503 28 Nanomaterials for Energy Applications 505K. E. Hurst, J. M. Luther, C. Ban, and S. T. Christensen 28.1 Introduction 505 28.2 Photovoltaics 505 28.3 Solid-State Lighting 507 28.4 Fuel Cell 509 28.5 Biomass 510 28.6 Electrochemical Batteries 511 28.7 Electrochemical Capacitors 512 28.8 Hydrogen Storage 513 28.9 Conclusions 515 References 515 29 The Importance of Metrology and Standardization of Nanomaterials for Food Industry and Regulatory Authorities in Europe 519Reinhilde Schoonjans and Qasim Chaudhry 29.1 Introduction 519 29.2 Current Trends in the Use of Engineered Nanomaterials in Agri/Food/Feed Products 520 29.3 Nanometrology in Agri/Food/Feed 522 29.4 Regulatory Aspects Relating to Standardization and Safe Use of Nanomaterials 527 29.5 Safety Data for Regulatory Authorization in Europe 529 29.6 Current Status of Regultory Assessments in Europe 530 29.7 Concluding Remarks 533 References 534 30 Magnetic Properties and Applications of Engineered Nanomaterials 539Cindi L. Dennis 30.1 Introduction 539 30.2 Fundamentals of Nanomagnetism 539 30.3 Applications of Nanomagnets 547 30.4 Summary 557 References 557 31 Nanomaterials in Textiles 559Keana Scott, Vicenç Pomar-Portillo, and Socorro Vázquez-Campos 31.1 Introduction 559 31.2 Manufacturing Processes 560 31.3 Quality Assurance/Quality Control 564 31.4 Applications 566 31.5 Conclusions 569 References 569 Index 573
Elisabeth Mansfield is research chemist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado, USA. She obtained her PhD in analytical chemistry from the University of Arizona in Tucson, USA. During her career at NIST, she received both the Bronze and Silver Medal of the Department of Commerce/NIST for extending thermogravimetric analysis to the microscale and for pioneering work on carbon nanotube purification and analysis. Elisabeth Mansfield is member of various standards committees, among them the ASTM committee on thermal analysis and the ISO committee on nanoparticles. Debra L. Kaiser is a Technical Program Director in the Material Measurement Laboratory at NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. She obtained her ScD in Materials Science and Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). She worked as a postdoctoral fellow and consultant at the IBM Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, before joining NIST. After a productive research and management career, she now holds the position of Technical Program Director of the NIST Nanotechnology Environment, Health, and Safety Program. She is vice-chairman of ASTM International Committee E56 on Nanotechnology. Daisuke Fujita is the Executive Vice President of the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) in Tsukuba, Japan. He obtained his MSc and PhD degrees in materials science and engineering from the University of Tokyo. Daisuke Fujita was senior researcher at the National Institute for Metals (NRIM) before joining NIMS as group leader in 2001. Subsequently he became Associate Director of the Nanomaterials Laboratory at NIMS, Managing Director of the Advanced Nano Characterization Center, Coordinating Director of the Key Nanotechnologies Division, and Director of the Advanced Key Technologies Division before assuming his current responsibilities Marcel Van de Voorde has 40 years` experience in European Research Organisations including CERN-Geneva, European Commission, with 10 years at the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart, Germany. For many years, he was involved in research and research strategies, policy and management, especially in European research institutions. He holds a Professorship at the University of Technology in Delft, the Netherlands, as well as multiple visiting professorships in Europe and worldwide. He holds a doctor honoris causa and various honorary Professorships. He is senator of the European Academy for Sciences and Arts, in Salzburg and Fellow of the World Academy for Sciences. He is a Fellow of various scientific societies and has been decorated by the Belgian King. He has authored of multiple scientific and technical publications and co-edited multiple books in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

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