Methods for Community-Based Participatory Research for Health
This thoroughly revised and updated second edition of Methods for Community-Based Participatory Research for Health provides a step-by-step approach to the application of participatory approaches to quantitative and qualitative data collection and data analysis. With contributions from a distinguished panel of experts, this important volume shows how researchers, practitioners, and community partners can work together to establish and maintain equitable partnerships using a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach to increase knowledge and improve the health and well-being of the communities involved. Written for students, practitioners, researchers, and community members, the book provides a comprehensive presentation of innovative partnership structures and processes, and covers the broad spectrum of methods needed to conduct CBPR in the widest range of research areas—including social determinants of health, health inequities, health promotion, community interventions, disease management, health services, and environmental health. The contributors examine effective methods used within the context of a CBPR approach including survey questionnaire, in-depth interview, focus group interview, ethnography, exposure assessment, and geographic information system mapping. In addition, each chapter describes a case study of the application of the method using a CBPR approach. The book also contains examples of concrete tools and measurement instruments that may be adapted by others involved in CBPR efforts.
Figures and Tables xi Foreword xiii David Satcher Dedication xvii Acknowledgments ixx The Editors xxiii The Contributors xxvii PART ONE: INTRODUCTION TO METHODS FOR COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH FOR HEALTH 1 1. Introduction to Methods for CBPR for Health 3 Barbara A. Israel, Eugenia Eng, Amy J. Schulz, Edith A. Parker PART TWO: PARTNERSHIP FORMATION AND MAINTENANCE 39 2. Developing and Maintaining Partnerships with Communities 43 Bonnie Duran, Nina Wallerstein, Magdalena M. Avila, Lorenda Belone, Meredith Minkler, Kevin Foley 3. Strategies and Techniques for Effective Group Process in CBPR Partnerships 69 Adam B. Becker, Barbara A. Israel, Jeanette Gustat, Angela G. Reyes, Alex J. Allen III 4. Infrastructure for Equitable Decision Making in Research 97 Michael Yonas, Robert Aronson, Nettie Coad, Eugenia Eng, Regina Petteway, Jennifer Schaal, Lucille Webb PART THREE: COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSIS 127 5. Insiders and Outsiders Assess Who Is “The Community”: Participant Observation, Key Informant Interview, Focus Group Interview, and Community Forum 133 Eugenia Eng, Karen Strazza, Scott D. Rhodes, Derek Griffith, Kate Shirah, Elvira Mebane 6. Using Ethnography in Participatory Community Assessment 161 Jean J. Schensul, Marlene J. Berg, Saritha Nair PART FOUR: DEFINE THE ISSUE, DESIGN AND CONDUCT THE RESEARCH 189 7. Community-Based Participation in Survey Design and Implementation: The Healthy Environments Partnership Survey 197 Amy J. Schulz, Shannon N. Zenk, Srimathi Kannan, Barbara A. Israel, Carmen Stokes 8. Using a CBPR Approach to Develop an Interviewer Training Manual with Members of the Apsáalooke Nation 225 Suzanne Christopher, Linda Burhansstipanov, Alma Knows His Gun McCormick, Vanessa Watts Simonds 9. The Application of Focus Group Methodologies to CBPR 249 Edith C. Kieffer, Yamir Salabarría-Pen˜a, Angela M. Odoms-Young, Sharla K. Willis, Gloria Palmisano, J. Ricardo Guzmán 10. Development, Evolution, and Implementation of a Food Environment Audit for Diverse Neighborhoods 277 Shannon N. Zenk, Amy J. Schulz, Betty T. Izumi, Sharon Sand, Murlisa Lockett, Angela Odoms-Young 11. CBPR and Ethnography: The Perfect Union 305 Nicole S. Berry, Chris McQuiston, Emilio A. Parrado, Julio César Olmos-Mun˜iz 12. What’s with the Wheezing?: Methods Used by the Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project to Assess Exposure to Indoor Asthma Triggers 335 James Krieger, Carol A. Allen, Tim K. Takaro PART FIVE: DOCUMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF PARTNERSHIPS 365 13. Documentation and Evaluation of CBPR Partnerships: The Use of In-Depth Interviews and Closed-Ended Questionnaires 369 Barbara A. Israel, Paula M. Lantz, Robert J. McGranaghan, J. Ricardo Guzmán, Richard Lichtenstein, Zachary Rowe PART SIX: FEEDBACK, INTERPRETATION, DISSEMINATION, AND APPLICATION OF RESULTS 399 14. Developing and Implementing Guidelines for Dissemination: The Experience of the Community Action Against Asthma Partnership 405 Edith A. Parker, Thomas G. Robins, Barbara A. Israel, Wilma Brakefi eld-Caldwell, Katherine K. Edgren, Ashley O’Toole, Donele Wilkins, Stuart Batterman, Toby Lewis 15. Collaborative Data Collection, Interpretation, and Action Planning in a Rural African American Community: Men on the Move 435 Elizabeth A. Baker, Freda Motton, Ellen Barnidge, Frank Rose III 16. Collaborative Mapping for Health Equity: Making Place Visible 463 Jason Corburn, Anna Yun Lee, Nehanda Imara, Samara Swanston 17. Photovoice as a CBPR Method: A Case Study with African American Breast Cancer Survivors in Rural Eastern North Carolina 489 Ellen D. S. López, Naomi Robinson, Eugenia Eng 18. Methods for Community-Based Participatory Policy Work to Improve Food Environments in New York City 517 Emma Tsui, Milyoung Cho, Nicholas Freudenberg 19. Citizens, Science, and Data Judo: Leveraging Secondary Data Analysis to Build a Community-Academic Collaborative for Environmental Justice in Southern California 547 Rachel Morello-Frosch, Manuel Pastor, James Sadd, Michele Prichard, Martha Matsuoka APPENDIXES 579 A. Instructions for Conducting a Force Field Analysis 581 Adam B. Becker, Barbara A. Israel, Alex J. Allen III B. Full Value Contract 585 Michael Yonas, Robert Aronson, Nettie Coad, Eugenia Eng, Regina Petteway, Jennifer Schaal, Lucille Webb C. Collaborative Revised Bylaws: Adopted/Amended: (Month, Day, Year) 589 Michael Yonas, Robert Aronson, Nettie Coad, Eugenia Eng, Regina Petteway, Jennifer Schaal, Lucille Webb D. Community Member Key Informant Interview Guide 601 Eugenia Eng, Karen Strazza, Scott D. Rhodes, Derek M. Griffith, Kate Shirah, Elvira Mebane E. Selected Healthy Environments Partnership Measures by Survey Categories, Indicating Source of Identification for Inclusion and Scale Items 605 Amy J. Schulz, Shannon Zenk, Srimathi Kannan, Barbara A. Israel, Carmen Stokes F. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles Among Women: Focus Group Summary Analysis Form: Eastside and Southwest Detroit—Procedures and Example Questions 613 Edith C. Kieffer, Yamir Salabarría-Pen˜a, Angela M. Odoms-Young, Sharla K. Willis, Gloria Palmisano, J. Ricardo Guzmán G. Field Notes Guide 619 Nicole S. Berry, Chris McQuiston, Emilio A. Parrado, Julio César Olmos-Muñiz H. In-Depth, Semi-structured Interview Protocol: Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, Detroit URC Board Evaluation 1996–2002 623 Barbara A. Israel, Paula M. Lantz, Robert J. McGranaghan, J. Ricardo Guzmán I. Closed-Ended Survey Questionnaire: Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, Detroit URC Board Evaluation 1997–2007 627 Barbara A. Israel, Paula M. Lantz, Robert J. McGranaghan, J. Ricardo Guzmán, Richard Lichtenstein, Zachary Rowe J. Philosophy and Guiding Principles for Dissemination of Findings of Community Action Against Asthma Including Authorship of Publications and Presentations, Policies and Procedures, Access to Data, and Related Matters 639 Edith A. Parker, Thomas G. Robins, Barbara A. Israel, Wilma Brakefi eld-Caldwell, Katherine K. Edgren, Donele J. Wilkins K. Inspirational Images Project: Fact Sheet and Informed Consent Form for Study Participants 645 Ellen D. S. López, Naomi Robinson, Eugenia Eng L. Inspirational Images Project: Informed Consent Form for Adults Who May Appear in Photographs 651 Ellen D. S. López, Naomi Robinson M. Southern California Environmental Justice Collaborative: Partnership Agreed-Upon Mechanism for Deciding on Research Activities 655 Communities for a Better Environment, Liberty Hill Foundation, and the Research Team Index 659
Barbara A. Israel, DrPH, MPH, is professor, department of health behavior and health education at the School of Public Health, University of Michigan. Eugenia Eng, DrPH, MPH, is professor, department of health behavior at the Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Amy J. Schulz, PhD, MPH, is professor, department of health behavior and health education, at the School of Public Health, University of Michigan. Edith Parker, DrPH, MPH, is professor and chair, department of community and behavioral health at the College of Public Health, University of Iowa.
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