Mapping the Chemical Environment of Urban Areas
This comprehensive text focuses on the increasingly important issues of urban geochemical mapping with key coverage of the distribution and behaviour of chemicals and compounds in the urban environment. Clearly structured throughout, the first part of the book covers general aspects of urban chemical mapping with an overview of current practice and reviews of different aspects of the component methodologies. The second part includes case histories from different urban areas around Europe authored by those national or academic institutions tasked with investigating the chemical environments of their major urban centers.
Contributors. Foreword. Acknowledgements. Abbreviations and Acronyms. PART 1: GENERAL ASPECTS AND METHODOLOGIES. 1 Introduction. References. 2 Urban Geochemical Mapping: A Review of Case Studies in this Volume. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Methodologies and strategies for urban sampling. 2.3 Chemical analysis. 2.4 Quality control. 2.5 Interpreting and presenting the results. 2.6 Legislation. 2.7 Communication. 2.8 Future trends. References. 3 Sample Preparation and Inorganic Analysis for Urban Geochemical Survey Soil and Sediment Samples. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Field sample preservation. 3.3 Physical sample preparation. 3.4 Determination of bulk properties. 3.5 Analytical sample preparation. 3.6 Instrumental analysis for inorganic analytes. 3.7 Application of quality assurance. 3.8 Health and safety issues. References. 4 Organic Analysis for Urban Geochemical Survey Soil Samples. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Field sample preservation. 4.3 Organic sample preparation. 4.4 Instrumental analysis for organic analytes. 4.5 Application of quality assurance/quality control. References. 5 Understanding the Quality of Chemical Data from the Urban Environment - Part 1: Quality Control Procedures. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Preparing for quality control. 5.3 Operational aspects of quality control. 5.4 Assessing data quality. 5.5 Data storage. 5.6 Concluding remarks. Acknowledgements. References. 6 Understanding the Quality of Chemical Data from the Urban Environment - Part 2: Measurement Uncertainty in the Decision-Making Process. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Estimation of uncertainty due to sampling and analysis. 6.3 Practical detection limit and analytical precision. 6.4 Limitations of the geochemical data set: quality and reliability. 6.5 Effects of uncertainty and probabilistic risk assessment maps. 6.6 Worked examples. 6.7 Probabilistic risk assessment mapping using kriging. 6.8 Discussion and conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 7 Data Analysis for Urban Geochemical Data. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Preparations for data analysis. 7.3 Urban geochemistry of Berlin. 7.4 Conclusions. References. 8 Sources of Anthropogenic Contaminants in the Urban Environment. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Heavy metals. 8.3 Gaseous pollutants. 8.4 Organic compounds. 8.5 Discussion and conclusions. References. 9 Building Materials: An Important Source for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Urban Soils. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 What are PCBs? 9.3 PCBs in the urban environment: levels and concerns. 9.4 Discussion: the road ahead. References. 10 Children, Soils, and Health: How Do Polluted Soils Influence Children's Health? 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Sources of arsenic, lead, BaP and PCB in urban soils. 10.3 Exposure, uptake and health effects. 10.4 Discussion and conclusions. References. 11 Hazard and Exposure Assessment in Contaminated Land Investigations and Environmental Management. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Site conceptual model. 11.3 Hazard and exposure assessment. 11.4 Environmental management. 11.5 Risk perception and communication. 11.6 Discussion and conclusions. 11.7 Recommendations. References. 12 Regulation and Administration of Soil Pollution in Trondheim, Norway: Development of Awareness, Land-Use-Specific Criteria and Local Disposal Facilities. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Raising awareness of soil pollution in site development. 12.3 Increasing predictability. 12.4 Increasing disposal and storage facilities. 12.5 Conclusions. References. PART 2: CASE STUDIES. 13 Soil Geochemical Baselines in UK Urban Centres: The G-BASE Project. 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 G-BASE urban geochemistry methods. 13.3 Results. 13.4 Discussion of G-BASE urban geochemical data. 13.5 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 14 Geochemical Baseline Levels and Suggested Local Guideline Values in Urban Areas in Sweden. 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Methods. 14.3 Study area description. 14.4 Results. 14.5 Discussion and conclusions. References. 15 Using Geochemical Baselines in the Assessment of Soil Contamination in Finland. 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 Geochemical baselines in the assessment procedure. 15.3 Data producers and the national database. 15.4 Example: geochemical baseline data from the Pirkanmaa region and a study site. 15.5 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 16 The Scale of an Urban Contamination Footprint: Results from a Transect through Oslo, Norway. 16.1 Introduction. 16.2 Sampling and analytical methods. 16.3 Results. 16.4 Conclusions. References. 17 Urban Geochemistry of Berlin, Germany. 17.1 Introduction. 17.2 Geology and hydrogeology. 17.3 Soils. 17.4 Land use in Berlin. 17.5 Material and methods. 17.6 Results and discussion. 17.7 Conclusions. References. 18 Environmental Geochemical Survey of the City of Stassfurt: An Old Mining and Industrial Urban Area in Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany. 18.1 Introduction. 18.2 Site conditions. 18.3 Regional geology. 18.4 Soil properties. 18.5 Materials and methods. 18.6 Results and discussion. 18.7 Discussion and conclusions. References. 19 Systematic Urban Geochemistry of Madrid, Spain, Based on Soils and Dust. 19.1 Introduction. 19.2 Methods. 19.3 Results and discussion. 19.4 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 20 Urban Geochemistry of Tallinn (Estonia): Major and Trace Elements Distribution in Topsoil. 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 Methods of sampling and analysis. 20.3 Results. 20.4 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 21 Geochemical and Ecological Survey of the Prague City Area, Czech Republic. 21.1 Introduction. 21.2 Materials and methods. 21.3 Results and discussion. 21.4 Conclusions. References. 22 Geochemical Mapping of Ljubljana Urban and Suburban Area, Slovenia. 22.1 Introduction. 22.2 Study area. 22.3 Materials and methods. 22.4 Results and discusion. 22.5 Conclusions. References. 23 Geochemical Characteristics of Lithuanian Urban Areas. 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 History of geochemical investigations. 23.3 Application of results for health-risk assessment. 23.4 Discussion of results. 23.5 Conclusions. References. 24 Advancements in Urban Geochemical Mapping of the Naples Metropolitan Area: Colour Composite Maps and Results from an Urban Brownfield Site. 24.1 Introduction. 24.2 Study area. 24.3 Soils. 24.4 Methods. 24.5 Results and discussion. 24.6 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 25 The Lavrion Urban Geochemistry Study, Hellas. 25.1 Introduction. 25.2 Historical review. 25.3 Sampling and sample preparation. 25.4 Laboratory analysis. 25.5 Distribution of lead in parent rocks. 25.6 Metallurgical processing wastes. 25.7 Distribution of lead in overburden. 25.8 Distribution of lead in house dust. 25.9 Lead levels in child blood and teeth. 25.10 Geochemistry of groundwater. 25.11 Discussion. 25.12 Conclusions and recommendations. Acknowledgements. References. 26 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Surface Soil in Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim, Norway: PAH16 levels, Compositions and Ratios. 26.1 Introduction. 26.2 Materials and methods. 26.3 Results and discussion. 26.4 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 27 Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in Urban Surface Soil in Norway. 27.1 Introduction. 27.2 Areas investigated with an industrial past and present. 27.3 Sampling and analytical methods. 27.4 Results. 27.5 Interpretation and discussion. 27.6 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 28 Soil Contamination in the Urban Area of Belgrade, Serbia. 28.1 Geography. 28.2 Legal and institutional framework for soil management. 28.3 Availability of soil information for local soil protection. 28.4 Soil monitoring. 28.5 Presentation of soil pollution data. 28.6 Engineering geology in the service of environmental protection: Geological Institute of Serbia. 28.7 Reporting requirements. 28.8 Concluding remarks. References. 29 Clean Soil at Child-Care Centres and Public Playgrounds - An Important Part of Norway's Chemical Policy> 29.1 Introduction. 29.2 Survey area. 29.3 Materials and methods. 29.4 Health-risk evaluation. 29.5 Results and comments. 29.6 Discussion. 29.7 Conclusions. References. 30 Geochemical Mapping of the Denver, Colorado (USA) Urban Area: A Comparison of Studies in 1972 and 2005. 30.1 Introduction. 30.2 Study area. 30.3 Sample design. 30.4 Sample preparation and chemical analysis. 30.5 Results and discussion. 30.6 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 31 Geochemical Characterization of Soil and Sediments of the City of Beira, Mozambique: A Preliminary Approach. 31.1 Introduction. 31.2 Study area. 31.3 Materials and methods. 31.4 Results. 31.5 Discussion. 31.6 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 32 Urban Geochemical Mapping in Nigeria with Some Examples From Southern Nigeria. 32.1 Introduction. 32.2 Review of urban mapping in Nigeria. 32.3 Methods used in urban geochemical mapping in Nigeria. 32.4 Urban geochemical mapping in Nigeria: the way forward. References. 33 Geochemical Mapping of Trace Metal Pollutants in Urban Soils of Hong Kong. 33.1 Introduction. 33.2 Materials and methods. 33.3 Results and discussion. 33.4 Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. Index.
“The book Mapping the Chemical Environment of Urban Areas is a timely, authoritative production of high quality geoscientific information on the urban areas of Europe and beyond, produced mainly by geoscientists working in European Geological Surveys.” (Environmental Earth Sciences, 1 August 2012)
Christopher Charles Johnson CGeol FGS PhD, Head of Science, Environmental Geoscience Baselines, British Geological Survey Rolf Tore Ottesen, Geological Survey of Norway Alecos Demetriades, Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Hellas Juan Locutura, Geological and Mining Institute, Spain
Mapping the Chemical Environment of Urban Areas presents a comprehensive overview of the methods currently being employed to map and interpret the distribution of chemical elements and organic compounds in our towns and cities. Clearly structured throughout, the book is divided into two distinct sections. The first part covers more general aspects of urban chemical mapping with an overview of current practice, and reviews of different features of the component methodologies (chemical analysis, quality control, data interpretation and presentation, risk assessment, etc.). The second part includes a number of case studies from different urban areas, principally from Europe, but with some contributions from North America, Africa and Asia, authored by those national or academic institutions tasked with investigating the chemical environment of their major urban centres. An informative list of abbreviations and acronyms, used in the text, is included and many of the chapters define terms frequently employed in geochemical mapping that will help researchers give more clarity to the way in which such work will be described in the future. Chapters include strategies that can be employed to map urban environments, along with sampling procedures, which are used for a variety of sample media. Analytical methodologies for determining chemical elements and compounds are covered and their relative merits and disadvantages presented. Methods for defining element associations and what areas can be considered contaminated are documented, as are techniques for distinguishing between the natural chemical baseline and chemicals and compounds introduced by human activity. Many of the chapters discuss the potential impact on human health and describe the multi-disciplinary effort, usually supported by legislation, required to deal with the legacy of contamination found in many urban areas. Includes a review of methods currently being used to map the distribution of chemical elements and organic compounds in urban areas with recommendations on how future investigations should proceed Includes numerous key case studies, based on research undertaken in Europe, North America, Africa and Asia Supported by the EuroGeoSurveys Geochemistry Expert Group Edited by international experts in the field Illustrated in full colour throughout
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