LTE-Advanced and Next Generation Wireless NetworksChannel Modelling and Propagation
LTE- A and Next Generation Wireless Networks: Channel Modeling and Performance describes recent advances in propagation and channel modeling necessary for simulating next generation wireless systems. Due to the radio spectrum scarcity, two fundamental changes are anticipated compared to the current status. Firstly, the strict reservation of a specific band for a unique standard could evolve toward a priority policy allowing the co-existence of secondary users in a band allocated to a primary system. Secondly, a huge increase of the number of cells is expected by combining outdoor base stations with smaller cells such as pico/femto cells and relays. This evolution is accompanied with the emergence of cognitive radio that becomes a reality in terminals together with the development of self-organization capabilities and distributed cooperative behaviors. The book is divided into three parts: Part I addresses the fundamentals (e.g. technologies, channel modeling principles etc.) Part II addresses propagation and modeling discussing topics such as indoor propagation, outdoor propagation, etc. Part III explores system performance and applications (e.g. MIMO Over-the-air testing, electromagnetic safety, etc).
About the Editors xv List of Contributors xvii Preface xix Acknowledgements xxiii List of Acronyms xxv Part I BACKGROUND 1 Enabling Technologies for 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks 3 Narcis Cardona, Jose F. Monserrat and Jorge Cabrejas 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 General IMT-Advanced Features and Requirements 5 1.3 Long Term Evolution Advanced Requirements 11 1.4 Long Term Evolution Advanced Enabling Technologies 15 1.5 Summary 33 2 Propagation and Channel Modeling Principles 35 Andreas F. Molisch 2.1 Propagation Principles 35 2.2 Deterministic Channel Descriptions 41 2.3 Stochastic Channel Description 46 2.4 Channel Modeling Methods 51 Part II RADIO CHANNELS 3 Indoor Channels 67 Jianhua Zhang and Guangyi Liu 3.1 Introduction 67 3.2 Indoor Large Scale Fading 69 3.3 Indoor Small Scale Fading 83 4 Outdoor Channels 97 Petros Karadimas 4.1 Introduction 97 4.2 Reference Channel Model 98 4.3 Small Scale Variations 103 4.4 Path Loss and Large Scale Variations 117 4.5 Summary 119 5 Outdoor-Indoor Channel 123 Andres Alayon Glazunov, Zhihua Lai and Jie Zhang 5.1 Introduction 123 5.2 Modelling Principles 124 5.3 Empirical Propagation Models 127 5.4 Deterministic Models 137 5.5 Hybrid Models 142 6 Vehicular Channels 153 Laura Bernado, Nicolai Czink, Thomas Zemen, Alexander Paier, Fredrik Tufvesson, Christoph Mecklenbrauker and Andreas F. Molisch 6.1 Introduction 153 6.2 Radio Channel Measurements 154 6.3 Vehicular Channel Characterization 160 6.4 Channel Models for Vehicular Communications 171 6.5 New Vehicular Communication Techniques 180 7 Multi-User MIMO Channels 187 Fredrik Tufvesson, Katsuyuki Haneda and Veli-Matti Kolmonen 7.1 Introduction 187 7.2 Multi-User MIMO Measurements 188 7.3 Multi-User Channel Characterization 196 7.4 Multi-User Channel Models 200 8 Wideband Channels 215 Vit Sipal, David Edward and Ben Allen 8.1 Large Scale Channel Properties 216 8.2 Impulse Response of UWB Channel 219 8.3 Frequency Selective Fading in UWB Channels 226 8.4 Multiple Antenna Techniques 239 8.5 Implications for LTE-A 243 9 Wireless Body Area Network Channels 247 Rob Edwards, Muhammad Irfan Khattak and Lei Ma 9.1 Introduction 247 9.2 Wearable Antennas 249 9.3 Analysis of Antennas Close to Human Skin 251 9.4 A Survey of Popular On-Body Propagation Models 259 9.5 Antenna Implants-Possible Future Trends 263 9.6 Summary 265 Part III SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE 10 Ray-Tracing Modeling 271 Yves Lostanlen and Thomas Kurner 10.1 Introduction 271 10.2 Main Physical Phenomena Involved in Propagation 272 10.3 Incorporating the Influence of Vegetation 277 10.4 Ray-Tracing Methods 280 11 Finite-Difference Modeling 293 Guillaume de la Roche 11.1 Introduction 293 11.2 Models for Solving Maxwell’s Equations 294 11.3 Practical Use of FD Methods 298 11.4 Results 303 11.5 Perspectives for Finite Difference Models 308 11.6 Summary and Perspectives 314 12 Propagation Models for Wireless Network Planning 317 Thomas Kurner and Yves Lostanlen 12.1 Geographic Data for RNP 317 12.2 Categorization of Propagation Models 322 12.3 Empirical Models 325 12.4 Semi-Empirical Models for Macro Cells 326 12.5 Deterministic Models for Urban Areas 332 12.6 Accuracy of Propagation Models for RNP 339 12.7 Coverage Probability 344 13 System-Level Simulations with the IMT-Advanced Channel Model 349 Jan Ellenbeck 13.1 Introduction 349 13.2 IMT-Advanced Simulation Guidelines 350 13.3 The IMT-Advanced Channel Models 357 13.4 Channel Model Calibration 366 13.5 Link-to-System Modeling for LTE-Advanced 371 13.6 3GPP LTE-Advanced System-Level Simulator Calibration 379 13.7 Summary and Outlook 385 14 Channel Emulators for Emerging Communication Systems 389 Julian Webber 14.1 Introduction 389 14.2 Emulator Systems 390 14.3 Random Number Generation 391 14.4 Fading Generators 394 14.5 Channel Convolution 401 14.6 Emulator Development 403 14.7 Example Transceiver Applications for Emerging Systems 403 14.8 Summary 407 15 MIMO Over-the-Air Testing 411 Andres Alayon Glazunov, Veli-Matti Kolmonen and Tommi Laitinen 15.1 Introduction 411 15.2 Channel Modelling Concepts 414 15.3 DUTs and Usage Definition 418 15.4 Figures-of-Merit for OTA 419 15.5 Multi-Probe MIMO OTA Testing Methods 421 15.6 Other MIMO OTA Testing Methods 429 15.6.1 Reverberation Chambers 429 15.6.2 Two-Stage Method 436 15.7 Future Trends 437 16 Cognitive Radio Networks: Sensing, Access, Security 443 Ghazanfar A. Safdar 16.1 Introduction 443 16.2 Cognitive Radio: A Definition 443 16.3 Spectrum Sensing in CRNs 448 16.4 Spectrum Assignment–Medium Access Control in CRNs 452 16.5 Security in Cognitive Radio Networks 461 16.6 Applications of CRNs 468 16.7 Summary 470 17 Antenna Design for Small Devices 473 Tim Brown 17.1 Antenna Fundamentals 474 17.2 Figures of Merit and their Impact on the Propagation Channel 477 17.3 Challenges in Mobile Terminal Antenna Design 484 17.4 Multiple-Antenna Minaturization Techniques 485 17.5 Multiple Antennas with Multiple Bands 489 17.6 Multiple Users and Antenna Effects 491 17.7 Small Cell Antennas 492 17.8 Summary 492 18 Statistical Characterization of Antennas in BANs 495 Carla Oliveira, Michal Mackowiak and Luis M. Correia 18.1 Motivation 495 18.2 Scenarios 496 18.3 Concepts 498 18.4 Body Coupling: Theoretical Models 500 18.5 Body Coupling: Full Wave Simulations 508 18.6 Body Coupling: Practical Experiments 513 18.7 Correlation Analysis for BANs 517 18.8 Summary 522 Acknowledgements 523 References 523 Index 525
Dr. Guillaume de la Roche, University of Bedfordshire, UK Guillaume de la Roche received the Dipl.-Ing. in telecommunication from the School of Chemistry Physics and Electronics (CPE) Lyon, France, an M.S. degree in signal processing (2003) and a Ph.D. degree in wireless communication (2007) from the National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA), Lyon, France. Dr. Andres Alayon-Glazunov, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Andres Alayon-Glazunov obtained the M.Sc. (Engineer-Researcher) degree in Physical Engineering from Saint Petersburg’s State Polytechnical University, Russia, and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Lund University, Sweden, during 1988-1994 and 2006-2009, respectively. Prof. Ben Allen, University of Bedfordshire, UK Ben Allen received his PhD from the University of Bristol in 2001. In 2002 he joined Tait Electronics Ltd, Christchurch, New Zealand, before becoming a Research Fellow with the Centre for Telecommunications Research, King's College London.
This book discusses propagation and channel modeling for LTE Advanced and emerging wireless technologies LTE- Advanced and Next Generation Wireless Networks: Channel Modeling and Propagation describes recent advances in propagation and channel modeling necessary for designing, simulating and validating next generation wireless systems. The book is divided into three parts. Part I addresses the fundamentals (e.g. technologies, channel modeling principles etc.) Part II addresses propagation and modeling discussing topics such as indoor propagation, outdoor propagation, etc. Finally, Part III explores system performance and applications, including MIMO Over-the-air testing. Key Features: Introduces LTE-Advanced and emerging wireless networks and concepts, as well as the major new techniques which impact the channel/propagation Discusses models for path loss predictions, pico/femto and relay channels, wideband channel models, channels for high mobility etc. Presents advances in channel measurements, and compares LTE field trials and measurement results with theoretical models Covers application and performance analysis Written by leading experts in academia and industry who have experience in propagation and channel modeling Includes an accompanying website containing additional material, links to references and advertisements for the book (www.wiley.com/go/delaroche_next) This book is an excellent resource for academics and researchers working in telecommunications, and for wireless network designers, scientific (R&D) staff, and network engineers of mobile operators. Engineering students with wireless technology featuring in their work, product and solution architects, network planners, consultants on wireless communications consultants, femtocells hardware manufacturers will also find the book of interest.