Introduction to Community and Public Health
Learn the basics of the five core areas of community and public health Introduction to Community and Public Health covers the basics in each area of community and public health as identified by the Association of Schools of Public Health. In a student-friendly approach, authors Manoj Sharma, Paul W. Branscum, and Ashutosh Atri discuss epidemiology, biostatistics, social and behavioral sciences, environmental health, and healthy policy and management. Written to serve both graduate and undergraduate public health students, as well as to help prepare for the Certified in Public Health (CPH) exam, Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) exam and Master certified in Health Education Specialist (MCHES) exam, the book covers each of these five core disciplines, plus other important topics such as: Population dynamics and control Air, water, and noise pollution, and other environmental issues Program planning, budgeting, management, and evaluation Systems thinking and leadership in community and public health Students will gain insight into the descriptive, inferential, and analytical aspects of community and public health, as well as models, methods, and theories in health education and health promotion. Introduction to Community and Public Health provides the foundation necessary to build the skills of tomorrow's community and public health leaders.
Figures and Tables xiii Preface xxi Acknowledgments xxiii The Authors xxv Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH 1 Learning Objectives 1 Defining Community and Public Health 1 Basic Terms in Community and Public Health 5 Issues in Community and Public Health 10 Factors Affecting Community and Public Health 12 Community and Public Health Organizations 19 Historical Timeline for Community and Public Health 24 Current Challenges in Community and Public Health 37 Summary 40 Key Terms 41 Review Questions 42 Skill-Building Activity 42 Websites to Explore 43 References 45 Chapter 2 DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY IN COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH 49 Learning Objectives 49 Definition, Scope, and Evolution of Epidemiology 49 Descriptive Epidemiology and Analytical Epidemiology 51 Contributions of Epidemiology 52 Uses and Functions of Epidemiology 54 Agent, Host, and Environment 56 Rates, Ratios, Proportions, and Percentages 57 Summary 79 Key Terms 80 Review Questions 81 Skill-Building Activity 81 Websites to Explore 82 References 83 Chapter 3 ANALYTICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY IN COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH 87 Learning Objectives 87 Types of Analytical Epidemiological Studies 87 Association and Causation 100 Infectious Disease Epidemiology 103 Chronic Disease Epidemiology 107 Selected Lifestyle Risk Factors 110 Summary 114 Key Terms 115 Review Questions 115 Skill-Building Activity 116 Websites to Explore 116 References 117 Chapter 4 DESCRIPTIVE BIOSTATISTICS IN COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH 123 Learning Objectives 123 Basic Terms in Biostatistics 123 Frequency Distribution 127 Measures of Central Tendency 129 Measures of Dispersion 130 Graphing Methods in Biostatistics 132 Positively Skewed and Negatively Skewed Distributions 132 Summary 138 Key Terms 138 Review Questions 139 Skill-Building Activity 139 Websites to Explore 140 References 142 Chapter 5 INFERENTIAL BIOSTATISTICS IN COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH 143 Learning Objectives 143 Estimation 143 Hypothesis Testing 145 Testing Differences Between Two Group Means 148 Nonparametric Tests for Testing Differences Between Two Groups 151 Testing Differences Between Three or More Groups 152 Nonparametric Counterparts of ANOVA 158 Testing Differences in Proportions 158 Testing Associations Between Two or More Variables 160 Summary 164 Key Terms 165 Review Questions 166 Skill-Building Activity 166 Websites to Explore 167 References 168 Chapter 6 SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES IN COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH 171 Learning Objectives 171 Reasons for Studying Social and Behavioral Sciences 171 Examples from Cardiovascular Disease, Obesity, and HIV/AIDS 180 Community Organization and Community Building 186 Summary 192 Key Terms 193 Review Questions 193 Skill-Building Activity 194 Websites to Explore 194 References 195 Chapter 7 MODELS IN HEALTH EDUCATION AND HEALTH PROMOTION 199 Learning Objectives 199 Planning Health Education and Health Promotion Interventions 199 PRECEDE-PROCEED 200 PATCH 209 MATCH 212 Intervention Mapping 217 APEXPH 219 PEN-3 220 Summary 226 Key Terms 226 Review Questions 227 Skill-Building Activity 227 Websites to Explore 228 References 229 Chapter 8 THEORIES IN HEALTH EDUCATION AND HEALTH PROMOTION 231 Learning Objectives 231 Using Theories and Models 231 Health Belief Model 233 Trans theoretical Model 237 Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Integrative Model 242 Social Cognitive Theory 248 Social Marketing 251 Diffusion of Innovations Theory 254 Summary 259 Key Terms 259 Review Questions 261 Skill-Building Activity 261 Websites to Explore 261 References 262 Chapter 9 METHODS IN HEALTH EDUCATION AND HEALTH PROMOTION 265 Learning Objectives 265 Methods of Teaching and Learning 265 Cognitive Methods in Health Education 268 Affective Methods in Health Education 271 Environmental Methods in Health Promotion 281 Summary 285 Key Terms 286 Review Questions 287 Skill-Building Activity 287 Websites to Explore 287 References 288 Chapter 10 POPULATION DYNAMICS AND CONTROL 291 Learning Objectives 291 Demographic Cycle 291 World Population Trends 292 World Population Stabilization or Decline Post peak 299 Summary 310 Key Terms 311 Review Questions 312 Skill-Building Activity 312 Websites to Explore 312 References 314 Chapter 11 AIR, WATER, AND NOISE POLLUTION 315 Learning Objectives 315 Air Pollution 315 Water Pollution 323 Noise Pollution 330 Solid Waste Management 335 Climate Change and Global Warming 337 Summary 342 Key Terms 344 Review Questions 344 Skill-Building Activity 345 Websites to Explore 345 References 346 Chapter 12 INJURY CONTROL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 349 Learning Objectives 349 Unintentional Injuries 349 Intentional Injuries 354 Pests and Pesticides 358 Radiation 363 Disaster Management 366 Occupational Safety and Health 369 Summary 377 Key Terms 379 Review Questions 380 Skill-Building Activity 380 Websites to Explore 380 References 381 Chapter 13 ORGANIZATION, FINANCING, AND DELIVERY OF HEALTH SERVICES AND PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES 387 Learning Objectives 387 Understanding the Structure and Functioning of the US HealthCare System 387 Organization of US HealthCare 389 The Uninsured Population 393 Lack of Insurance and Access to Health Care Services 396 Financing Health Systems 399 US HealthCare in the International Context 400 Utilization Trends 402 Private Health Insurance and Managed Care 404 Cost Containment Initiatives 406 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 408 Organization of Public Health in the United States 410 Summary 415 Key Terms 418 Review Questions 419 Skill-Building Activity 419 Websites to Explore 420 References 421 Chapter 14 PROGRAM PLANNING, BUDGETING, MANAGEMENT, AND EVALUATION IN COMMUNITY INITIATIVES 425 Learning Objectives 425 Planning Public Health Programs 425 Preparing Budgets for Public Health Programs 432 Administration and Management of Public Health Programs 440 Evaluation of Public Health Programs 445 Summary 451 Key Terms 452 Review Questions 453 Skill-Building Activity 453 Websites to Explore 454 References 455 Chapter 15 SYSTEMS THINKING AND LEADERSHIP IN COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH 457 Learning Objectives 457 Systems Thinking: The Approach 457 Basics of Leadership 462 Leadership Styles 465 Leadership in HealthCare 466 NCHL Health Leadership Competency Model 467 Cultural Competence 469 Summary 479 Key Terms 481 Review Questions 482 Skill-Building Activity 482 Websites to Explore 483 References 484 Glossary 489 Index 527
Manoj Sharma, MBBS, MCHES, PHD, FAAHB is a professor at the Jackson State University’s MPH and Dr. PH programs in Behavioral Health Promotion & Education Paul W. Branscum, PHD, RD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Health and Exercise Science at the University of Oklahoma. Ashutosh Atri, MD, MS, is a practicing psychiatrist in Kearney, Nebraska, and has completed graduate training in health promotion and education from the University of Cincinnati.
Introduction to Community and Public Health Introduction to Community and Public Health is a foundational and introductory textbook for students in community and public health curricula. This resource provides knowledge based on models, methods, and theories of health education, health promotion, and related disciplines, and provides thorough preparation for public health certifications, including Certified in Public Health (CPH), Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES), and Master Certified Health Education Specialist (MCHES). In a student-friendly approach, the authors introduce the five core areas of community and public health as identified by the Association of Schools of Public Health: epidemiology, biostatistics, social and behavioral sciences, environmental health, and health policy and management. Concerns about population dynamics and control, and environmental issues such as air, water, and noise pollution are also discussed. Each chapter has a Focus Feature that describes a particular discovery or application and encourages further study, while case studies and skill-building activities help students master important concepts. Introduction to Community and Public Health is a comprehensive learning resource that will inspire students to pursue and excel in public health careers.
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