Details

Introduction to Cities


Introduction to Cities

How Place and Space Shape Human Experience
2. Aufl.

von: Xiangming Chen, Anthony M. Orum, Krista E. Paulsen

28,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 03.04.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119167723
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 432

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Beschreibungen

The revised and updated second edition of Introduction to Cities explores why cities are such a vital part of the human experience and how they shape our everyday lives. Written in engaging and accessible terms, Introduction to Cities examines the study of cities through two central concepts: that cities are places, where people live, form communities, and establish their own identities, and that they are spaces, such as the inner city and the suburb, that offer a way to configure and shape the material world and natural environment. Introduction to Cities covers the theory of cities from an historical perspective right through to the most recent theoretical developments. The authors offer a balanced account of life in cities and explore both positive and negative themes. In addition, the text takes a global approach, with examples ranging from Berlin and Chicago to Shanghai and Mumbai. The book is extensively illustrated with updated maps, charts, tables, and photographs. This new edition also includes a new section on urban planning as well as new chapters on cities as contested spaces, exploring power and politics in an urban context. It contains; information on the status of poor and marginalized groups and the impact of neoliberal policies; material on gender and sexuality; and presents a greater range of geographies with more attention to European, Latin American, and African cities. Revised and updated, Introduction to Cities provides a complete introduction to the history, evolution, and future of our modern cities.
List of illustrations  xi List of tables  xvii List of boxes  xviii About the authors  xx Acknowledgments  xxi Walk-through tour  xxiii Part I The foundations  5 1 Cities as places and spaces  6 Cities as places  9 Exploring further 1.1  11 Identity, community, and security  14 Places as the site of our identity  14 Places as the site of community  15 Places as sites of security  16 Studying the city 1.1  17 Human beings make and remake places  17 Place and space  20 Studying the city 1.2  21 Making the city better 1.1  24 Cities shape the fates of human beings  25 Cities and people  26 2 Social theories of urban space and place: The early perspectives  28 The social and theoretical roots of modern urban theory  29 Studying the city 2.1  31 Ferdinand Tönnies: Community and society  32 Georg Simmel: The metropolis and mental life  33 Tönnies and Simmel: Further reflections  35 The Chicago School of Sociology  38 The city as social space  39 The city, social change, and social order  40 Studying the city 2.2  42 Life in the city as a way of life  44 Making the city better 2.1  46 Early social theories of urban life  47 3 Social theories of urban space and place: Perspectives in the post-World War II era  49 Theoretical descendents of Marx  50 Manuel Castells and the urban question  50 David Harvey: Injustice and inequality in the city  51 John Logan and Harvey Molotch: The city as a growth machine  53 Making the city better 3.1  54 Making the city better 3.2  56 Further reflections: Marx and the critique of modern cities  57 The return to place and the turn to culture  58 Jane Jacobs and the discovery of community in the modern metropolis  58 Studying the city 3.1  59 Sharon Zukin and the turn to culture  61 Exploring further 3.1  63 Going global: The 1980s and the creation of the global city  66 Evaluating theories of the city  69 4 Methods and rules for the study of cities  72 First rules for doing a social science of cities  74 The rule of validity  74 The rule of reliability  76 Exploring further 4.1  77 Cities and the question of numbers  78 Studying the city 4.1  79 The city as a case study  80 The city as the typical case  82 The city as a prototypical case  85 Ethnographic and historical case studies  87 Ethnographic case studies  87 Studying the city 4.2  89 Historical case studies  90 From one to multiple cases  91 Studying the city 4.3  94 A last but very important rule on doing a good social science of cities: Fitting good theory to good methods  94 And what about insight?  95 Part II The changing metropolis  99 5 The metropolis and its expansion: Early insights and basic principles  100 Metropolitan growth: Basic features  102 The metropolis and its expansion  104 The center of the city  105 The zone of transition  106 The zone of commuters  106 Assessing the concentric zone theory  106 The natural areas of the city  107 Alternative views of the city  107 Studying the city 5.1  108 The mobility of people and groups in the metropolis  109 Social differences and migration in the metropolis  109 Exploring further 5.1?  110 Migration and the expansion of the metropolis  113 The metropolitan center and its links to the hinterlands  115 Human agents and social institutions in the expansion of the metropolis  116 Studying the city 5.2  117 Making the city better 5.1  120 Planning and metropolitan development (new) Urban growth, institutions, and human agents  121 6 The origins and development of suburbs  123 What is a suburb? Definitions and variations  125 Alternative suburban forms  127 A brief history of suburban development  129 The original suburbs  129 Culture and the demand for suburban living  131 Making the city better 6.1  133 Exploring further 6.1  134 Early suburban diversity  135 Transportation technologies and suburban expansion  136 Making the city better 6.2  139 The role of policy in suburban expansion  140 The mass production of US suburbs  142 Changes and challenges in contemporary suburbs  144 Privatization and gated communities  144 The varied fates of older suburbs  147 Suburbs as places  149 Studying the city 6.1  151 7 Changing metropolitan landscapes after World War II  154 Los Angeles: The prototype of the postwar metropolis  156 Exploring further 7.1  160 The changing metropolitan order  162 The decline of older industrial cities  162 The rise of the postindustrial/postmodern metropolitan regions  163 The importance of transportation, again  164 The remaking of places and spaces: The profound human and political consequences  165 Making the city better 7.1  166 The emerging global economy: A brief overview  168 Studying the city 7.1  171 People, place, and space in a global world  173 Part III The metropolis and social inequalities  177 8 The early metropolis as a place of inequality  178 Colonial cities as unequal places  180 Early urban diversity  182 Cities of immigrants  184 Immigrant lives: New York’s Five Points  185 Studying the city 8.1  189 The Five Points case in context  190 Early reform and intervention efforts  193 Making the American ghetto  193 Integrated beginnings  193 Making the city better 8.1  194 New neighbors, new tensions  195 The perpetuation and implications of black ghettos  196 Studying the city 8.2  197 Exploring further 8.1  199 The significance of urban diversity and inequality  201 9 Inequality and diversity in the post-World War II metropolis  204 Inequality and the metropolis  205 Poverty and race  205 Exploring further 9.1  207 Poverty and homelessness  209 Making the city better 9.1  211 Gentrification and the remaking of the metropolis  212 Exploring further 9.2  214 Studying the city 9.1  216 Social diversity and the transformed metropolis  217 The new immigration and the transformation of the metropolis  217 Europe  217 The United States and Canada  219 Reconstructing the contemporary metropolis     221 New ethnic enclaves  221 LGBT neighborhoods   2xx Studying the city 9.2  224 Other dimensions of urban diversity  226 Making the city better 9.2?  227 The Western metropolis in flux  228 10 Power, authority, and cities as contested spaces States and markets  2xx The changing global economy  2xx Exploring further 10.1 (supplied) 2xx Cities today as contested spaces  2xx The nature of local governance and politics 2xx Studying the city 10.1 (Forms of municipal government in the U.S.) 2xx Local authorities and marginalized peoples 2xx African-Americans and local authorities 2xx The homeless and local authorities 2xx The very poor and local authorities  2xx Contesting mistreatment by local authorities: Resistance and aid  2xx Making the city better 10.1   2xx Major contests over deep meanings and spaces in the metropolis  2xx Jerusalem: The quintessential contested city 2xx Diagram here of Jerusalem today 2xx The contested spaces of Berlin Pictures of divided Berlin in 1961, and reunified Berlin in 1990 2xx Photo of Bernstein’s Celebration of Reunification in 1989 when he came to Berlin to conduct Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony that he renamed “Ode to Freedom”) Conclusion Part IV The metropolis in the developing world  331 11 Urbanization and cities in developing countries  232 Urbanization: The basic path and its impact on place  233 Developing-country cities in historical perspective  235 Studying the city 11.1  236 The basic dimensions of urbanization  237 Urban hierarchy  237 Urban primacy  239 Over-urbanization versus under-urbanization  239 Studying the city 11.2  241 Natural increase and in-migration  242 From process and system to place  243 A basic profile with multiple wrinkles  243 Megacities as places: Opportunities and challenges  245 Size, density, and diversity  245 Creating wealth and sustaining poverty  246 Exploring further 11.1  250 Making the city better 11.1  251 The developing megacity as a lived place  252 Making the city better 11.2  255 Governing the megacities  255 Studying the city 11.3  256 Reassessing the developing city  258 12 Cities in the global economy  261 Cities in a globalizing world: Theoretical background  262 Emerging cities in the global economy  264 Yiwu, China  264 Rajarhat, India  265 Further Reflections on Yiwu  268 Re-emerging cities in the global economy  269 Berlin, Germany: A once-prosperous, then challenged, and now re-emerging local culture  269 Shanghai, China: Local change in a rising renaissance city  271 Moving more deeply into the global economy  275 Dongguan, china: A place transformed from a rural township into a global factory-city  275 Studying the city 12.1  278 Dubai, United Arab Emirates: From desert to urban miracle to mirage  279 Cities in a fully networked global economy  281 The regional dimension and mediation of cities  281 Becoming globally networked  284 Exploring further 12.1  285 Interdependence between cities and the global economy  287 Studying the city 12.2  288 Systematic constraint and individual flexibility  289 The Global restructuring of cities  290 Making the city better 12.1  291 Part V Challenges of today and the metropolis of the future  295 13 Urban environments and sustainability  296 Making use of nature  297 Natural attributes and urban development  297 Interpreting and manipulating nature  298 Studying the city 13.1  301 Inviting “disaster”  302 Why rebuild?  303 Urban environments  307 Local environmental concerns  308 Making the city better 13.1  308 Environment and inequality  310 Making the city better 13.2  311 Global environmental concerns  312 Urbanization’s environmental impacts  313 Cities and climate change  313 Addressing environmental issues: Toward sustainability  315 Exploring further 13.1  317 14 The remaking and future of cities  321 Between place and space: Reinforcing a theoretical vision  322 Remaking cities from above and at critical moments  324 The crisis of Detroit  324 The remaking of Detroit  326 Making the city better 14.1  327 Place-remaking on a larger scale  328 Daily place-remaking from below  330 Remaking neighborhoods and communities  331 The remaking of Brooklyn, New York  331 From Detroit and New York to China and Shanghai – again  332 Remaking cities for the future  334 Scaling up and looking forward  334 Studying the city 14.1  335 The China and India scenarios and their wider implications  336 Cities of the future and the future of cities  340 Making the city better 14.2  341 Exploring further 14.1  346 A final look at the twenty-first-century city  347 Glossary  350 References  358 Index  371
Xiangming Chen is the founding Dean and Director of the Center for Urban and Global Studies and Paul Raether Distinguished Professor of Global Urban Studies and Sociology at Trinity College, Hartford, and a guest professor in the School of Social Development and Public Policy at Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Anthony M. Orum is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. He was the founding editor of the journal City & Community. Krista E. Paulsen is Associate Professor of Sociology and Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of North Florida, USA.
The revised and updated second edition of Introduction to Cities explores why cities are such a vital part of the human experience and how they shape our everyday lives. Written in engaging and accessible terms, Introduction to Cities examines the study of cities through two central concepts: that cities are places, where people live, form communities, and establish their own identities, and that they are spaces, such as the inner city and the suburb, that offer a way to configure and shape the material world and natural environment. Introduction to Cities covers the theory of cities from an historical perspective right through to the most recent theoretical developments. The authors offer a balanced account of life in cities and explore both positive and negative themes. In addition, the text takes a global approach, with examples ranging from Berlin and Chicago to Shanghai and Mumbai. The book is extensively illustrated with updated maps, charts, tables, and photographs. This new edition also includes a new section on urban planning as well as new chapters on cities as contested spaces, exploring power and politics in an urban context. It contains; information on the status of poor and marginalized groups and the impact of neoliberal policies; material on gender and sexuality; and presents a greater range of geographies with more attention to European, Latin American, and African cities. Revised and updated, Introduction to Cities provides a complete introduction to the history, evolution, and future of our modern cities.

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