Details

Hybrid Electric Vehicles


Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives
1. Aufl.

von: Chris Mi, M. Abul Masrur, David Wenzhong Gao

93,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 12.05.2011
ISBN/EAN: 9781119998907
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 472

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Beschreibungen

Modern Hybrid Electric Vehicles provides vital guidance to help a new generation of engineers master the principles of and further advance hybrid vehicle technology. The authors address purely electric, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, hybrid hydraulic, fuel cell, and off-road hybrid vehicle systems. They focus on the power and propulsion systems for these vehicles, including issues related to power and energy management. They concentrate on material that is not readily available in other hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) books such as design examples for hybrid vehicles, and cover new developments in the field including electronic CVT, plug-in hybrid, and new power converters and controls. Covers hybrid vs. pure electric, HEV system architecture (including plug-in and hydraulic), off-road and other industrial utility vehicles, non-ground-vehicle applications like ships, locomotives, aircrafts, system reliability, EMC, storage technologies, vehicular power and energy management, diagnostics and prognostics, and electromechanical vibration issues. Contains core fundamentals and principles of modern hybrid vehicles at component level and system level. Provides graduate students and field engineers with a text suitable for classroom teaching or self-study.
About the Authors xiii Preface xvii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Sustainable Transportation 3 1.1.1 Population, Energy, and Transportation 4 1.1.2 Environment 5 1.1.3 Economic Growth 6 1.1.4 New Fuel Economy Requirement 7 1.2 A Brief History of HEVs 8 1.3 Why EVs Emerged and Failed in the 1990s, and What We Can Learn from It 10 1.4 Architectures of HEVs 11 1.4.1 Series HEVs 12 1.4.2 Parallel HEVs 13 1.4.3 Series–Parallel HEVs 14 1.4.4 Complex HEVs 15 1.4.5 Diesel Hybrids 15 1.4.6 Other Approaches to Vehicle Hybridization 16 1.4.7 Hybridization Ratio 16 1.5 Interdisciplinary Nature of HEVs 17 1.6 State of the Art of HEVs 18 1.6.1 The Toyota Prius 19 1.6.2 The Honda Civic 21 1.6.3 The Ford Escape 21 1.6.4 The Two-Mode Hybrid 21 1.7 Challenges and Key Technology of HEVs 22 1.8 The Invisible Hand–Government Support 23 References 25 2 Concept of Hybridization of the Automobile 27 2.1 Vehicle Basics 27 2.1.1 Constituents of a Conventional Vehicle 27 2.1.2 Vehicle and Propulsion Load 27 2.1.3 Drive Cycles and Drive Terrain 30 2.2 Basics of the EV 31 2.2.1 Why EV? 31 2.2.2 Constituents of an EV 32 2.2.3 Vehicle and Propulsion Loads 34 2.3 Basics of the HEV 35 2.3.1 Why HEV? 35 2.3.2 Constituents of a HEV 35 2.4 Basics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) 36 2.4.1 Why PHEV? 36 2.4.2 Constituents of a PHEV 37 2.4.3 Comparison between the HEV and PHEV 38 2.5 Basics of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) 38 2.5.1 Why FCV? 38 2.5.2 Constituents of a FCV 39 2.5.3 Some Issues Related to Fuel Cells 39 Reference 39 3 HEV Fundamentals 41 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Vehicle Model 42 3.3 Vehicle Performance 44 3.4 EV Powertrain Component Sizing 47 3.5 Series Hybrid Vehicle 51 3.6 Parallel Hybrid Vehicle 56 3.6.1 Electrically Peaking Hybrid Concept 57 3.6.2 ICE Characteristics 63 3.6.3 Gradability Requirement 63 3.6.4 Selection of Gear Ratio from ICE to Wheel 64 3.7 Wheel Slip Dynamics 65 References 67 4 Advanced HEV Architectures and Dynamics of HEV Powertrain 69 4.1 Principle of Planetary Gears 69 4.2 Toyota Prius and Ford Escape Hybrid Powertrain 72 4.3 GM Two-Mode Hybrid Transmission 76 4.3.1 Operating Principle of the Two-Mode Powertrain 76 4.3.2 Mode 0: Vehicle Launch and Backup 77 4.3.3 Mode 1: Low Range 78 4.3.4 Mode 2: High Range 79 4.3.5 Mode 3: Regenerative Braking 80 4.3.6 Transition from Mode 0 to Mode 3 80 4.4 Dual-Clutch Hybrid Transmissions 83 4.4.1 Conventional DCT Technology 84 4.4.2 Gear Shift Schedule 84 4.4.3 DCT-Based Hybrid Powertrain 85 4.4.4 Operation of DCT-Based Hybrid Powertrain 87 4.5 Hybrid Transmission Proposed by Zhang et al. 89 4.5.1 Motor-Alone Mode 90 4.5.2 Combined Power Mode 91 4.5.3 Engine-Alone Mode 91 4.5.4 Electric CVT Mode 91 4.5.5 Energy Recovery Mode 92 4.5.6 Standstill Mode 92 4.6 Renault IVT Hybrid Transmission 92 4.7 Timken Two-Mode Hybrid Transmission 93 4.7.1 Mode 0: Launch and Reverse 94 4.7.2 Mode 1: Low-Speed Operation 94 4.7.3 Mode 2: High-Speed Operation 94 4.7.4 Mode 4: Series Operating Mode 94 4.7.5 Mode Transition 96 4.8 Tsai’s Hybrid Transmission 96 4.9 Hybrid Transmission with Both Speed and Torque Coupling Mechanism 98 4.10 Toyota Highlander and Lexus Hybrid, E-Four-Wheel Drive 99 4.11 CAMRY Hybrid 101 4.12 Chevy Volt Powertrain 102 4.13 Dynamics of Planetary-Based Transmissions 103 4.13.1 Non-ideal Gears in the Planetary System 103 4.13.2 Dynamics of the Transmission 104 4.14 Conclusions 105 References 106 5 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 107 5.1 Introduction to PHEVs 107 5.1.1 PHEVs and EREVs 107 5.1.2 Blended PHEVs 108 5.1.3 Why PHEV? 108 5.1.4 Electricity for PHEV Use 110 5.2 PHEV Architectures 110 5.3 Equivalent Electric Range of Blended PHEVs 112 5.4 Fuel Economy of PHEVs 112 5.4.1 Well-to-Wheel Efficiency 113 5.4.2 PHEV Fuel Economy 113 5.4.3 Utility Factor 114 5.5 Power Management of PHEVs 115 5.6 PHEV Design and Component Sizing 118 5.7 Component Sizing of EREVs 119 5.8 Component Sizing of Blended PHEVs 119 5.9 HEV to PHEV Conversions 120 5.9.1 Replacing the Existing Battery Pack 120 5.9.2 Adding an Extra Battery Pack 122 5.9.3 Converting Conventional Vehicles to PHEVs 123 5.10 Other Topics on PHEVs 123 5.10.1 End-of-Life Battery for Electric Power Grid Support 123 5.10.2 Cold Start Emissions Reduction in PHEVs 123 5.10.3 Cold Weather/Hot Weather Performance Enhancement in PHEVs 124 5.10.4 PHEV Maintenance 124 5.10.5 Safety of PHEVs 124 5.11 Vehicle-to-Grid Technology 125 5.11.1 PHEV Battery Charging 126 5.11.2 Impact of G2V 126 5.11.3 The Concept of V2G 129 5.11.4 Advantages of V2G 134 5.11.5 Case Studies of V2G 134 5.12 Conclusion 136 References 138 6 Special Hybrid Vehicles 139 6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles 139 6.1.1 Regenerative Braking in HHVs 142 6.2 Off-road HEVs 144 6.3 Diesel HEVs 149 6.4 Electric or Hybrid Ships, Aircraft, Locomotives 150 6.4.1 Ships 150 6.4.2 Aircraft 154 6.4.3 Locomotives 156 6.5 Other Industrial Utility Application Vehicles 159 References 160 Further Reading 160 7 HEV Applications for Military Vehicles 163 7.1 Why HEVs Can Be Beneficial to Military Applications 163 7.2 Ground Vehicle Applications 164 7.2.1 Architecture – Series, Parallel, Complex 164 7.2.2 Vehicles Which Are of Most Benefit 166 7.3 Non-ground Vehicle Military Applications 168 7.3.1 Electromagnetic Launchers 169 7.3.2 Hybrid-Powered Ships 170 7.3.3 Aircraft Applications 171 7.3.4 Dismounted Soldier Applications 171 7.4 Ruggedness Issues 173 References 174 Further Reading 175 8 Diagnostics, Prognostics, Reliability, EMC, and Other Topics Related to HEVs 177 8.1 Diagnostics and Prognostics in HEVs and EVs 177 8.1.1 Onboard Diagnostics 178 8.1.2 Prognostics Issues 180 8.2 Reliability of HEVs 182 8.2.1 Analyzing the Reliability of HEV Architectures 183 8.2.2 Reliability and Graceful Degradation 185 8.2.3 Software Reliability Issues 187 8.3 EMC Issues 190 8.4 Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH), Electromechanical, and Other Issues 192 8.5 End-of-Life Issues 194 References 195 Further Reading 195 9 Power Electronics in HEVs 197 9.1 Introduction 197 9.2 Principle of Power Electronics 198 9.3 Rectifiers Used in HEVs 200 9.3.1 Ideal Rectifier 200 9.3.2 Practical Rectifier 201 9.3.3 Single-Phase Rectifier 202 9.3.4 Voltage Ripple 204 9.4 Buck Converter Used in HEVs 207 9.4.1 Operating Principle 207 9.4.2 Nonlinear Model 208 9.5 Non-isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter 209 9.5.1 Operating Principle 209 9.5.2 Maintaining Constant Torque Range and Power Capability 211 9.5.3 Reducing Current Ripple in the Battery 212 9.5.4 Regenerative Braking 213 9.6 Voltage Source Inverter 213 9.7 Current Source Inverter 213 9.8 Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter 217 9.8.1 Basic Principle and Steady State Operations 218 9.8.2 Voltage Ripple 222 9.9 PWM Rectifier in HEVs 226 9.9.1 Rectifier Operation of Inverter 226 9.10 EV and PHEV Battery Chargers 229 9.10.1 Forward/Flyback Converters 230 9.10.2 Half-Bridge DC–DC Converter 231 9.10.3 Full-Bridge DC–DC Converter 231 9.10.4 Power Factor Correction Stage 232 9.10.5 Bidirectional Battery Chargers 234 9.10.6 Other Charger Topologies 234 9.10.7 Inductive Charging 235 9.10.8 Wireless Charging 236 9.11 Modeling and Simulation of HEV Power Electronics 237 9.11.1 Device-Level Simulation 238 9.11.2 System-Level Model 239 9.12 Emerging Power Electronics Devices 239 9.13 Circuit Packaging 240 9.14 Thermal Management of HEV Power Electronics 240 9.15 Conclusions 243 References 243 10 Electric Machines and Drives in HEVs 245 10.1 Introduction 245 10.2 Induction Motor Drives 246 10.2.1 Principle of Induction Motors 246 10.2.2 Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor 248 10.2.3 Speed Control of Induction Machine 250 10.2.4 Variable Frequency, Variable Voltage Control of Induction Motors 252 10.2.5 Efficiency and Losses of Induction Machine 253 10.2.6 Additional Loss in Induction Motors due to PWM Supply 254 10.2.7 Field-Oriented Control of Induction Machine 265 10.3 Permanent Magnet Motor Drives 271 10.3.1 Basic Configuration of PM Motors 272 10.3.2 Basic Principle and Operation of PM Motors 273 10.3.3 Magnetic Circuit Analysis of IPM Motors 277 10.3.4 Sizing of Magnets in PM Motors 286 10.3.5 Eddy Current Losses in the Magnets of PM Machines 291 10.4 Switched Reluctance Motors 291 10.5 Doubly Salient Permanent Magnet Machines 293 10.6 Design and Sizing of Traction Motors 297 10.6.1 Selection of A and B 298 10.6.2 Speed Rating of the Traction Motor 298 10.6.3 Determination of the Inner Power 299 10.7 Thermal Analysis and Modeling of Traction Motors 299 10.8 Conclusions 306 References 306 11 Batteries, Ultracapacitors, Fuel Cells, and Controls 315 11.1 Introduction 315 11.2 Battery Characterization 317 11.3 Comparison of Different Energy Storage Technologies for HEVs 321 11.4 Modeling Based on Equivalent Electric Circuits 325 11.4.1 Battery Modeling 325 11.4.2 Battery Modeling Example 327 11.4.3 Modeling of Ultracapacitors 329 11.4.4 Battery Modeling Example for Hybrid Battery and Ultracapacitor 331 11.5 Battery Charging Control 334 11.6 Charge Management of Storage Devices 337 11.7 Flywheel Energy Storage System 341 11.8 Hydraulic Energy Storage System 344 11.9 Fuel Cells and Hybrid Fuel Cell Energy Storage System 345 11.9.1 Introduction to Fuel Cells 345 11.9.2 Fuel Cell Modeling 349 11.9.3 Hybrid Fuel Cell Energy Storage Systems 352 11.9.4 Control Strategy of Hybrid Fuel Cell Power System 355 11.10 Summary and Discussion 360 References 361 12 Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 363 12.1 Introduction 363 12.2 Fundamentals of Vehicle System Modeling 364 12.3 HEV Modeling Using ADVISOR 366 12.4 HEV Modeling Using PSAT 369 12.5 Physics-Based Modeling 370 12.6 Bond Graph and Other Modeling Techniques 378 12.7 Consideration of Numerical Integration Methods 381 12.8 Conclusion 382 References 382 13 HEV Component Sizing and Design Optimization 385 13.1 Introduction 385 13.2 Global Optimization Algorithms for HEV Design 386 13.2.1 DIRECT 386 13.2.2 Simulated Annealing 391 13.2.3 Genetic Algorithms 393 13.2.4 Particle Swarm Optimization 395 13.2.5 Advantages/Disadvantages of Different Optimization Algorithms 398 13.3 Model-in-the-Loop Design Optimization Process 399 13.4 Parallel HEV Design Optimization Example 400 13.5 Series HEV Design Optimization Example 405 13.5.1 Control Framework of a series HEV Powertrain 405 13.5.2 Series HEV Parameter Optimization 407 13.5.3 Optimization Results 408 13.6 Conclusion 410 References 412 14 Vehicular Power Control Strategy and Energy Management 413 14.1 A Generic Framework, Definition, and Needs 413 14.2 Methodology to Implement 415 14.2.1 Methodologies for Optimization 420 14.2.2 Cost Function Optimization 423 14.3 Benefits of Energy Management 428 References 429 Further Reading 429 15 Commercialization and Standardization of HEV Technology and Future Transportation 431 15.1 What Is Commercialization and Why Is It Important for HEVs? 431 15.2 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Enablers of Commercialization 431 15.3 Standardization and Commercialization 432 15.4 Commercialization Issues and Effects on Various Types of Vehicles 433 15.5 Commercialization and Future of HEVs and Transportation 434 Further Reading 434 Index 435
Hybrid Electric Vehicles provides vital guidance to help a new generation of engineers master the principles of and further advance hybrid vehicle technology. The authors address purely electric, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, hybrid hydraulic, fuel cell, and off-road hybrid vehicle systems. They focus on the power and propulsion systems for these vehicles, including issues related to power and energy management. They concentrate on material that is not readily available in other hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) books such as design examples for hybrid vehicles, and cover new developments in the field including electronic CVT, plug-in hybrid, and new power converters and controls. Covers hybrid vs. pure electric, HEV system architecture (including plug-in and hydraulic), off-road and other industrial utility vehicles, non-ground-vehicle applications like ships, locomotives, aircrafts, system reliability, EMC, storage technologies, vehicular power and energy management, diagnostics and prognostics, and electromechanical vibration issues. Contains core fundamentals and principles of modern hybrid vehicles at component level and system level. Provides graduate students and field engineers with a text suitable for classroom teaching or self-study. Provides pedagogical features including problems indicating specific design situations, home work problems, and computer simulation case studies in MATLAB® housed on an accompanying website.

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