History of Modern Latin America1800 to the Present
Wiley Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World 2. Aufl.
Now available in a fully-revised and updated second edition, A History of Modern Latin America offers a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the rich cultural and political history of this vibrant region from the onset of independence to the present day. Includes coverage of the recent opening of diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba as well as a new chapter exploring economic growth and environmental sustainability Balances accounts of the lives of prominent figures with those of ordinary people from a diverse array of social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds Features first-hand accounts, documents, and excerpts from fiction interspersed throughout the narrative to provide tangible examples of historical ideas Examines gender and its influence on political and economic change and the important role of popular culture, including music, art, sports, and movies, in the formation of Latin American cultural identity Includes all-new study questions and topics for discussion at the end of each chapter, plus comprehensive updates to the suggested readings
Preface to the Second Edition xiii Acknowledgments xvii 1 Introduction to the Land and Its People 1 Geography 2 People 2 Economies 7 Politics 8 Culture and Entertainment 13 Latin America: Past and Present 22 Topics and Questions for Discussion 23 2 Latin America in 1790 24 Colonial Background 25 Power and Privilege 29 Wealth 30 Colonial Administration 34 Enlightened Monarchy 36 The Agents of the Reform 37 Disorder and Rebellion 39 Discontent and Disorder in Brazil 41 Changing Gender Roles 42 On the Road to Independence 44 Nationalism and American Culture 44 Conclusion 49 Topics and Questions for Discussion 49 3 Competing Notions of Freedom 51 Five Roads to Independence 52 African Slavery in the Americas 53 Slavery and the Countryside 57 Slavery in the Cities 58 Treatment and Punishment 60 Slavery and the Church 60 African Medicine and Religious Practices 61 Resistance and Rebellion 63 The Sugar Colony of Saint-Domingue 65 The Slave Revolt 66 The Revolution Betrayed 68 Brazil’s Independent Empire 69 Independence in Mexico 71 South American Independence 73 Post-independence Changes in Racial and Gender Status 77 The Last Holdout of Slavery in Spanish America 78 Latin America in a ChangingWorld Order 80 Conclusion 81 Topics and Questions for Discussion 82 4 Fragmented Nationalisms 84 Searching for Political and Economic Unity 84 NewWorld “Feudalism” 86 Post-independence Politics 90 Argentina and the Tyrants 92 Populist Caudillismo: Paraguay and Bolivia 93 After Caudillismo 96 Race, Race Mixture, and Liberalism 97 Gender and Liberalism 100 Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class 103 Nationalism 105 Conclusion 108 Topics and Questions for Discussion 108 5 Latin America’s Place in the Commodity Chain 110 The Guano Boom 111 Nitrates in Chile 113 The Growth of S˜ao Paulo 116 Colombian Coffee 118 The Rubber Boom 119 Expanding Exports 121 Mexico and US Expansionism 122 The North American Invasion 124 General L´opez de Santa Anna 126 The New Age of Imperialism 127 Central America and the Panama Canal 128 Ecuador and the “Panama” Hat 130 Independence at Last? Cuba and Puerto Rico 131 Conclusion 138 Topics and Questions for Discussion 138 6 Immigration, and Urban and Rural Life 140 Asian Immigration 141 European Immigration 142 The Southern Cone 144 Life on the Pampas 146 British Investment 148 The Changing Cultural Landscape 149 Urban Renewal 152 Mexico and Benito Ju´arez 154 French Invasions 155 The Rise of Porfirio D´yaz 156 Intellectual Theories: Positivism and Eugenics 157 Conclusion 159 Topics and Questions for Discussion 160 7 Revolution from Countryside to City: Mexico 161 The Porfiriato 162 Opposition to the Porfiriato 164 Constitutional Opposition 165 Madero Assassinated 167 US Intervention 168 Women in Combat 169 Carranza as President 170 The Constitution of 1917 171 Aftermath of Struggle 174 Agrarian Revolts in Latin America 175 Conclusion 177 Topics and Questions for Discussion 178 8 The Left and the Socialist Alternative 180 Socialism on theWorld Stage 180 Social Reform and the Middle Class 181 Anarchism, Socialism, and Anarcho-syndicalism 182 Women in theWorkforce 183 Colombia: Resistance to the United Fruit Company 185 The Labor Movement 186 Socialism and the Arts 188 Tenentes Revolt and Brazilian Communism 190 Modern ArtWeek in Brazil 191 Women in the Arts 192 Socialism versus Capitalism 194 Jos´e Carlos Mari´ategui 195 Conclusion 196 Topics and Questions for Discussion 196 9 Populism and the Struggle for Change 198 Get ´ ulio Vargas and “New State” Politics 200 Juan Per´on and Peronism 202 Per´on’s Fall from Grace 205 Politics Engendered 206 Revolutionizing Mexico: L´azaro C´ardenas 208 Populism in Colombia and Peru 209 Central America 211 The Long Twentieth Century 215 Conclusion 216 Topics and Questions for Discussion 216 10 Post-WorldWar II Struggles for Sovereignty 218 WorldWar II 218 TemporaryWorker Program 220 Post-war Latin America 223 Military versus Civilian Rule 224 The Absolute Dictator: Rafael Trujillo 227 Americas in Transition: Guatemala and Bolivia 230 Guatemala 231 Revolution in Bolivia 233 Mining and the Voice of Bolivian Activism 235 The Revolution in Decline 237 Conclusion 239 Topics and Questions for Discussion 240 11 Cuba: Guerrillas Take Power 241 “HistoryWill Absolve Me” 243 Causes for Discontent 243 The RevolutionaryWar 244 Ernesto “Che” Guevara 247 What Difference Did the Revolution Make? 250 The Special Period in Peacetime 252 Democratic Shortcomings 253 Cuba and theWorld 255 Conclusion 258 Topics and Questions for Discussion 258 12 Progress and Reaction 260 Modernization and Progress 260 Brazil’s Military Coup 262 The National Security State 263 Latin America’s Youth Movement 264 Mexico 265 The Massacre at Tlatelolco 265 The Chilean Road to Socialism 267 The Chilean Road to Socialism Dead Ends 269 Urban GuerrillaWarfare: Uruguay 270 Urban GuerrillaWarfare: Argentina 272 Dictatorship and State Terror 274 Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo 277 TheWar of the Malvinas/Falkland Islands 278 Movements for Revolutionary Change: Peru 280 Sendero Luminoso, Shining Path 281 Women and Shining Path 283 Repression and Fujimori 284 Conclusion 285 Topics and Questions for Discussion 286 13 Revolution and Its Alternatives 287 A Changing Catholic Church 288 Marxism and Catholic Humanism 289 The Opposition 291 The Somozas versus Sandino: the Next Generation 292 The Sandinista Opposition 293 Sandinistas in Power 296 United States and the Sandinistas 299 Effects of the ContraWar 300 Central America in Turmoil: El Salvador and Guatemala 301 Politics of Repression in El Salvador 302 The Opposition 304 The Fighting Ends 305 Guatemala: The BloodiestWar 306 The Evangelical Alternative 309 Colombia: The LongestWar 311 TheWar on Drugs in Latin America 314 Conclusion 316 Topics and Questions for Discussion 317 14 The Americas in the Twenty-first Century 318 TheWashington Consensus 319 Brazil and theWorkers’ Alternative 321 TheWorkers’ Party in Power 322 Bolivia: Twenty-first-century Indigenismo 324 Venezuela and the Legacy of Hugo Ch´avez 326 The Bolivarian Mission 329 The Pink Tide Stalls 330 Chile’s Transition to Democracy 331 New Social Movements 332 Movements for Racial and Gender Equality 334 Conclusion 338 Topics and Questions for Discussion 338 15 A Future of Sustainable Cooperation? 340 Opponents Confront Free Trade 341 The Latin Americanization of the United States 344 Immigration and Neoliberalism 346 Central American Refugees 347 Sharing the Environment and the Cost of Stewardship 349 Conclusion 353 Topics and Questions for Discussion 354 Further Reading 355 Index 369
?Not only does Teresa Meade?s book do justice to the crucial political and economic trends in Latin America since independence, but it does so in a very readable and accessible fashion. Students enjoy reading this book and are drawn into the historical narrative from many angles, including the accounts of individual men and women, portraits of figures in popular culture, and discussions of environmental challenges. This new edition retains all the virtues of the first, while offering more images, updated lists of recommended readings, and study questions at the end of each chapter.? ? Barbara Weinstein, Silver Professor History, New York University "Teresa Meade uses broad themes like class, gender, and ethnicity to make connections to cultural and political events. This new edition of A History of Modern Latin America challenges students to think critically about the past while providing innovative perspectives on the region." ?Jeffrey Lesser, Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of History, Emory University ?An ideal textbook in how it balances well a coherent narrative thread that ties together the modern history in the region with case studies of both individual countries and broader theoretical themes.? ? Joel Wolfe, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Teresa Meade is Florence B. Sherwood Professor of History and Culture at Union College, New York. She is the author of A Brief History of Brazil (2nd edition, 2009), “Civilizing” Rio: Reform and Resistance in a Brazilian City (2005), and co-editor of A Companion to Gender History (Wiley, 2004) and Science, Medicine and Cultural Imperialism (1991). She has written widely on Latin America as well as on women and gender history.
Now available in a fully-revised and updated second edition, A History of Modern Latin America offers a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the cultural and political history of this vibrant region from the onset of independence to the present day. Throughout the text, examples of what transpired in a single nation at a specific time – such as the slave revolt in Haiti, the patriarchal rules governing marriage in Brazil, construction of the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution – are examined as representative of wider phenomena and serve as segues into the ideas, conflicts, social movements, and cultural trends that populate Latin America’s rich historical landscape. The lives of prominent figures are introduced alongside those of ordinary people from a diverse array of social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. These first-hand accounts are interspersed throughout the narrative, along with documents and excerpts from fiction, as a means of providing tangible examples of historical ideas. With added coverage of the recent opening of diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba and an all new chapter exploring challenges posed by economic growth and environmental sustainability, the new edition of this popular text will be an invaluable resource for students and teachers of Latin American history.
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