Global Dimensions of Public Administration and GovernanceA Comparative Voyage
A comparative, interdisciplinary examination of the mechanisms behind public administration Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governance is a comprehensive, comparative text on the structure and function of governments around the world. Written by two of the field's leading public administration scholars, this book provides an interdisciplinary perspective and a global, historical, and theoretical examination of the management and governance of the modern state. Readers learn how territory, bureaucracy, and political systems influence policy and reform in over thirty countries, and how these mechanisms affect the everyday lives of citizens. This comparative approach features rich examples of how policy is shaped by culture, and how modern policy principles are filtered to fit a country's needs and expectations. Chapters conclude with comparative analyses that help readers better-understand the role and position of government in the contemporary world, both in democratic societies and less-than-democratic environments. Governance doesn't happen in a vacuum. Those responsible for policy, regulation, and reform take cues from history, current events, and visions for the future to inform thinking on matters that can potentially affect a large number of everyday lives. This book illustrates the thought process, providing the necessary insight these important decisions require. Understand the relationship between structure and function of government Learn how policy is culture-dependent Examine the political and societal contexts of reform Discover the myriad forms of modern bureaucracy The various social sciences provide valuable information and perspectives for those involved in public administration. Those perspectives converge here to form a thorough, well-rounded, examination of the success and failure possible, and the mechanisms through which they take place. Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governance provides a detailed, wide-ranging look at how modern governments operate, how they got this far, and where they're headed for the future.
List of Tables and Figures xiii Foreword xv Acknowledgments xix The Authors xxiii 1 Globalization and Government: Combining Global and Comparative Perspectives upon the State of Modern Government 1 Levels of Analysis and Understanding 5 Globalization 6 Combining a Global and Comparative Perspective 7 Combining the Studies of Administration and Politics 9 Audience for and Structure of This Book 10 Concluding Remarks: “Flying” and Comparing across the Globe 12 PART ONE THE ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT, AND DISSEMINATION OF GOVERNMENT: STRUCTURING TERRITORY AND ORGANIZATION 15 2 The Roots and Development of Governance, Government, and Public Administration: The Envelopment of Local Communities in Upper-Local Polities over Time 17 Types of Governing Associations 19 All Government and Governance Started Local 23 The Emergence of Territorial States as Upper-Local Polities 29 A Global Model of Government Development 32 The Development of Thinking about Government: From Political Theory to Public Administration 37 Comparing Government Models: Concluding Remarks 39 3 Structuring Governance and Government: The Layered Territorial and Bureaucratic Organization of the World 41 Territoriality and Property 42 Territorialization of the World 46 International Boundaries 48 Subnational Jurisdictions: Historical Trends 51 Subnational Jurisdictions: The Contemporary Situation 55 Bureaucracy as Organizational Structure: The Bureaucratization of the World 62 The Influence of Colonization 66 Concluding Remarks: Boundaries Creating Polities 68 4 State Making, Nation Building, and Citizenship 71 Defining State and Nation 74 State Making: Models and Explanations 82 The Separation of Organized Religion and the State: A Recent Phenomenon? 85 Nation Building: From Subjects to Citizens 89 Citizenship as Layered Phenomenon 91 A Future for State, Nation, and Citizenship? 94 5 Political-Administrative Systems and Multilevel Government 97 Basic Distinctions of Political Systems 98 Five Types of Political Systems in Relation to Political Party System 98 Unitary and Federal Systems 102 Typologies of Democratic Systems 108 Presidential and Parliamentary Systems 113 Party-Political and Bureaucratic-Prominent Systems 115 The Three Branches of Government and Core Features of Democratic Political Systems 118 The Structure of Government Departments 120 Multilevel and Multiactor Government and Governance 123 Concluding Remarks 128 6 Bureaucratic Organization and Culture 129 Defining Bureaucracy: The Influence of Max Weber and His Fears 130 Bureaucracy in the Evolution of Human Communities: The Origin of the Stereotype? 135 Societal Culture 138 Organizational Culture 146 Perceptions of Public Individuals 152 Sucking Water from Straws or Opening the Tap in the Kitchen 155 7 Organization, Management, and Policy: Comparing the Competencies of Government and Public Administration 157 The Human Side of Public Enterprise: Management, Organizations, and Behavior in Comparative Public Administration 158 The Public Management Revolution: Comparative Views 161 Comparing the Sectors 163 The Implementation of NPM in Western Democracies 165 The United States: Measuring Performance 165 Britain: Who Comes First, the Public or the Nation? 166 The European Continent: Cultural Gaps beyond a Few Generic Similarities 167 Australia: The Administrative Responsibility Approach 168 Canada: Collaboration in Research and the Shaping of Public Policy 169 New Zealand: The Reshaping of Welfare Policy 170 Israel: Decentralization and Privatization 171 The Implementation of NPM in Other World Regions 172 Asia 173 Africa 175 Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Other Countries 177 The “Dinosaur Syndrome” and the Comparative Movement: A Midrange Comment 182 The Organization and Management of Global Policy and Public Administration 184 Summary 186 8 Bureaucracy as Personnel System and Political-Administrative Relations 187 The Importance of the Personnel Function for Responsive Government 188 Defining Bureaucracy as Personnel System: Max Weber’s Juridical Perspective 191 Categories of Public Servants in a Sociological Perspective 193 Variation in the Size of the Civil Service 198 Political-Administrative Relations: Intertwinement, Politicization, and Consultation 202 Development of the Personnel Function in Developed Countries 206 The Organizational Level: Personnel Management Focused on the Organization 211 The Individual Level: The Employee as a Person with Rights, Needs, and Feelings 213 The Societal Environment: Public Pressure for Change 215 Concluding Comments 217 PART TWO MANAGING POLICIES: CONTINUITY, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY 219 9 Traditional Government Activities I: National Defense, Police, Law and Order 221 Atrocities of Man and Nature: National Defense and Emergency Management 221 France: Europeanization, Professionalization, and the End of Conscription 222 Israel: Militarized Society or Civilianized Military? 225 United States: Resting on Its Laurels—FEMA’s Vicissitudes from Ignominy to Luster and Vice Versa 231 Internal Security: Enforcing Law and Order 236 Colombia: A Quagmire of Guerillas, Drug Cartels, and Paramilitaries—Demilitarization Bogging Down 237 South Africa: Post-Apartheid Community Policing—Transmuting the Police Force to a Police Service 244 Britain: Integrating Offender Management—Performance, Contestability, and Amalgamation 248 The Judiciary System: One State under the Rule of Law 254 The People’s Republic of China: The Silent Revolution— Rationalization, Modernization, and Constitutionalization 254 The UN Security Council: Reforming a Perplexed Peacekeeper 259 Germany: A Nonimmigration Nation, Rife with Immigrants—Article 16 of the Basic Law in the Limelight 264 Comparing Defense, Police, and Judiciary across Nations 268 10 Traditional Government Activities II: Economy, Finance, and Taxation Systems 275 Economy and Finance 276 Romania: Restructuring Agriculture in a Transition Economy 276 Spain: Faltering Growth, Wavering Employment Rates—An Economy Veering between Prosperity and Downspin 279 Greece: Footing the Bill for Laxity during the Ostensive Boom Years 283 Iran: The Paradox of Plenty—Replete with Hydrocarbon Reserves and Yet in a Pickle 287 Tax Reforms: Taking for Giving 292 Denmark: Searching for the Magic Bullet to Reduce Income Tax Pressures and Labor Costs 292 Belgium: Spurring Unemployed and Low Earners into Labor 295 Estonia: Going Flat—An Avant Garde That Has Become a Common Practice 298 Comparing Economy, Finance, and Taxation Systems across Nations 302 11 Social-Economic Services: Energy Management, Planning and Zoning, Industry and Trade 311 Energy Management 312 Russia: The Kremlin’s Bear Hug 312 Germany: Renewable Energy Sources Come to the Throne 315 California: A Calamity Precipitated by Deregulation 317 India: A Public Leopard with Private Spots 319 Planning and Zoning 322 Zimbabwe: Land Reform in a Ruptured Ex-Colony 322 New Zealand’s Resource Management Act: A Spearhead of Sustainable Development 324 Brazil: Frontiers, Landlords, Squatters, and a Vacillating Government 327 Laos: The Desperate Ecocide of the Poor 330 Industry and Trade 332 Morocco: Liberalization of Trade and Tariff Reforms 333 The Czech Republic: Cars, Motors, and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) 335 Canada: Trade Agreements with the Northern Empire 338 Mexico: The Poor Cousin of NAFTA’s Triad 341 Comparing Energy Management, Planning and Zoning, and Industry and Trade across Nations 344 12 Welfare Services and Policies: Health Care, Education, and Social Services 349 Health Care 350 Singapore: The “3Ms” triad—Medisave, Medishield, and Medifund 351 The Netherlands: Dutch-Managed Competition—Getting the Full Monty 354 Argentina: Promoting a Health Care System under a Sick Economy 357 Australia: A Public-Private Seesaw 360 Education 364 Wisconsin: Vouchering Together—Unlikely Allies in Milwaukee 364 France: Contractualization au Courant—Le Central Unleashes Higher Education 368 The People’s Republic of China: Between a Soviet Rock and a Western Hard Place—Higher Education on the Horns of a Dilemma 372 Britain: New Right, New ERA, Old Cleavages 376 Social Security 381 Chile: Social Security Gone Outright Private 381 Japan: A Double-Edged Sword—Super-Aged, Poorly Funded 386 Poland: Farewell Redistribution, Hello Funded Defined Contribution 390 Sweden: Transforming Corporatism and Remodeling Labor Market Policies 394 Comparing Health Care, Education, and Social Services across Nations 398 13 A Vision for Comparative Theory and Practice: Horizons of the Comparative Voyage 407 Comparison in Motion: Divergence and Convergence across Time and States 409 The Comparative Approach in Service of Interconnectedness, Emulation, and Policy Transfer 411 Comparative Public Administration and Governance: Between Transfer and Diffusion 414 Horizons for Comparative Public Administration and Governance 418 Summary and Final Remarks 421 Appendix One Structural Similarities—Cultural Differences: The Need for and Development of Comparative Government Studies 427 The Function of Comparison in Society and in the Social Sciences 428 The Importance of Comparison in the Study of Public Administration 430 Geographical Fragmentation of Comparative Research and Understanding 432 Substantive Fragmentation of Comparative Research and Understanding 435 Methodological and Epistemological Fragmentation of Comparative Research and Understanding 440 The Development of Comparative Public Administration 443 Appendix Two Motives, Types and Theories, Methods for, and Challenges of Comparative Perspectives 449 Motives for Comparison 451 Theories, Methods, and Types of Comparison 454 Approaches to and Theories in Comparative Public Administration and Governance 454 Three Basic Methods of Comparison 458 Types of Comparisons 461 Challenges of Comparative Research 464 Conceptual, Linguistic, and Semantic Problems 465 Theoretical and Methodological Problems 468 Research Technical Problems 472 Problems of Application 473 Bibliography 475 Index 525
JOS C.N. RAADSCHELDERS is Professor and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the John Glenn School of Public Affairs, The Ohio State University. A prolific, well-known scholar and teacher globally, Raadschelders' work is widely published in books and in the leading journals in the field. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration. ERAN VIGODA-GADOT is Professor, founder and Director of the Center for Public Management and Policy (CPMP) at the School of Political Science, University of Haifa, Israel. With expertise in Public Administration, Public Management, and Organizational Behavior, Vigoda-Gadot is well known nationally and internationally. He has more than 170 scholarly publications as well as 12 books, and the voyage still continues.
Praise for GLOBAL DIMENSIONS of PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND GOVERNANCE "This book offers an effective GPS for our complex maps of public administration and governance. Raadschelders and Vigoda-Gadot show us where and why we are now (roots, culture, traditional activities), where we could go (modern government, state making, and nation building), and how to do so (development of governance, visions for practice). With this book, we are not on a 'lonely planet' but in the company of excellent guides in a complex world of different countries, organizations, and policies." —Geert Bouckaert, Professor, KU Leuven; President, International Institute of Administrative Sciences "Professors Raadschelders and Vigoda-Gadot, leading scholars with particularly well-developed international perspectives, provide a genuinely valuable resource for understanding the globalization that increasingly infuses the theory and practice of public administration and public policy. Moving across 33 nations, they analyze the similar challenges that nations face in advancing public policies, but also the differences in the ways they address those challenges." —Hal G. Rainey, Alumni Foundation Distinguished Professor, School of Public and International Affairs, The University of Georgia "This is a necessary policy and administration tour for public administrators who are dedicated to delivering public services as promised in the founding documents of hundreds of nation states and millions of their component units of government. Raadschelders and Vigoda-Gadot have written a path-breaking volume that is a vital guide for all public sector stakeholders in a globalized society. The authors distill theory and clarify practice in an effective style that makes the book all the more valuable. If it were required reading across the curriculum, if all practitioners of governance kept it at the ready, then the efficacy and performance of public organizations would help rebuild trust in our most basic institutions." —Dean Marc Holzer, PhD, Board of Governors Distinguished Professor of Public Affairs and Administration, Rutgers University-Newark "This is the first compendium about comparative politics, administration, and policy truly written for a globalized world. The emphasis is on seeking out both commonalities in institutional structures that appear repeatedly and also on differences emerging from variations in history and culture. Material does not just come from the 'usual suspect' countries, but includes discussions from Laos, Romania, and Columbia, as well as considerable material on China. This book will be read with profit by a wide audience." —Steve Kelman, Weatherhead Professor of Public Management, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
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