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Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials


Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials


1. Aufl.

von: Jasim Ahmed, Mohammad Shafiur Rahman, Yrjo H. Roos

162,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 09.02.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781118935699
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 496

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Beschreibungen

Glass and State Transitions in Food and Biological Materials describes how glass transition has been applied to food micro-structure, food processing, product development, storage studies, packaging development and other areas.  This book has been structured so that readers can initially grasp the basic principles and instrumentation, before moving through the various applications. In summary, the book will provide the “missing link” between food science and material science/polymer engineering. This will allow food scientists to better understand the concept and applications of thermal properties.
List of Contributors xiii Preface xvii 1 Thermal and Relaxation Properties of Food and Biopolymers with Emphasis onWater 1 Jan Swenson and Helén Jansson 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Glass Transition and Relaxation Dynamics of Sugar Solutions and Sugar-Rich Food 3 1.3 Glass Transition and Relaxation Dynamics of Proteins 8 1.4 Confined Aqueous Solutions and the Failure of Gordon-Taylor Extrapolations to High-Water Contents 18 1.5 Concluding Discussion 22 References 24 2 Glass Transition Thermodynamics and Kinetics 31 K. Muthukumarappan and G.J. Swamy 2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 Theories of Glass Transition 32 2.3 Reaction Kinetics – Basic Principle 35 2.4 Reaction Kinetics – Temperature Dependence 37 2.5 Glass Transition in Sugars 39 2.6 Glass Transition in Dairy Ingredients 41 2.7 Glass Transition in Fruit Powders 42 2.8 Conclusion and Direction for Future Studies 43 References 44 3 Glass Transition of Globular Proteins from Thermal and High Pressure Perspectives 49 Sobhan Savadkoohi, Anna Bannikova and Stefan Kasapis 3.1 Factors Affecting Protein Functionality 49 3.2 High-Pressure Processing 55 3.3 Specific Examples of Pressure Effects 64 3.4 The Time-temperature-pressure Effect on the Vitrification of High Solid Systems 70 3.5 High Pressure Effects on the Structural Properties of Condensed Globular Proteins 79 3.6 Concluding Remarks 98 References 102 4 Crystal-Melt Phase Change of Food and Biopolymers 119 Sudipta Senapati, Dipak Rana and Pralay Maiti 4.1 Introduction 119 4.2 Thermodynamics of Crystallization and Melting 120 4.3 Role ofWater in the Phase Transition of Food 124 4.4 Classification of Phase Transitions 124 4.5 Crystallization,Melting and Morphology 126 4.6 Crystal Growth 130 4.7 Crystallization Kinetics 131 4.8 Crystal Melting and Morphology 131 4.9 Conclusions 133 Acknowledgements 135 References 135 5 Thermal Properties of Food and Biopolymer Using Relaxation Techniques 141 Arun KumarMahanta, Dipak Rana, Akhil Kumar Sen and PralayMaiti 5.1 Introduction 141 5.2 RelaxationThrough Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) 142 5.3 RelaxationThrough Dielectric Spectroscopy 146 5.4 RelaxationThrough Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 149 5.5 RelaxationThrough Dynamic Mechanical Measurements 151 5.6 Conclusions 154 Acknowledgement 154 References 154 6 Plasticizers for Biopolymer Films 159 Yasir Ali Arfat 6.1 Introduction 159 6.2 Plasticizer Classification 160 6.3 Mechanisms of Plasticization 161 6.4 Plasticizers for Protein-Based Films 161 6.5 Polysaccharide-Based Films 166 6.6 Plasticizers for Poly(lactic acid) Films 171 6.7 Conclusion 175 References 176 7 Crystallization Kinetics and Applications to Food and Biopolymers 183 Jasim Ahmed and Santanu Basu 7.1 Introduction 183 7.2 Crystal Growth and Nucleation 183 7.3 Shape of Crystals 184 7.4 Polymorphism 185 7.5 Crystallization Kinetics 185 7.6 Isothermal Crystallization 186 7.7 Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics 190 7.8 Ozawa Model 193 7.9 Crystallization in Foods 194 7.10 Selected Case Studies 194 7.11 Conclusion 202 References 203 8 Thermal Transitions ,Mechanical Relaxations and Microstructure of Hydrated Gluten Networks 207 Vassilis Kontogiorgos 8.1 Introduction 207 8.2 Thermal Transitions of Hydrated Gluten Networks 208 8.3 Mechanical Relaxations of Hydrated Gluten Network 210 8.4 Calculation of Relaxation Spectra of Hydrated Gluten Networks 214 8.5 Microstructure of Gluten Network 217 8.6 Concluding Remarks 219 References 219 9 Implication of Glass Transition to Drying and Stability of Dried Foods 225 Yrjö H. Roos 9.1 Introduction 225 9.2 The Glass Transition 226 9.3 Structural Relaxations 229 9.4 Drying and Dehydrated Solids 232 9.5 Conclusion 235 References 236 10 Water-Glass Transition Temperature Profile During Spray Drying of Sugar-Rich Foods 239 Imran Ahmad and Loc Thai Nguyen 10.1 Introduction 239 10.2 Spray Dryer 239 10.3 Glass Transition 240 10.4 Issues Related with Sugar-Rich Foods 240 10.5 Stickiness, Deposition and Caking 241 10.6 Modeling and Prediction of Tg Profile 242 10.7 Strategies to Reduce Stickiness in Sugar-Rich Foods 243 10.8 Conclusions 246 References 247 11 State Diagram of Foods and Its Importance to Food Stability During Storage and Processing 251 Mohammad Shafiur Rahman 11.1 Introduction 251 11.2 State Diagram and Their Boundaries 251 11.3 BET-Momolayer Line 255 11.4 Water Boiling and Solids-Melting Lines 255 11.5 Macro-Micro Region in the State Diagram 256 11.6 Applications of State Diagram in Determining Food Stability 256 Acknowledgement 258 References 258 12 Thermal Properties of Polylactides and Stereocomplex 261 Jasim Ahmed 12.1 Introduction 261 12.2 PLA and its Isomers 262 12.3 Thermal Property Measurement 263 12.4 Glass Transition Temperatures 263 12.5 Melting Behavior of PLA 267 12.6 Thermal Properties of Stereocomplexed Polylactides 269 12.7 Crystallinity of PLA 272 12.8 Conclusions 276 References 276 13 Thermal Properties of Gelatin and Chitosan 281 Mehraj Fatema Mullah, Linu Joseph, Yasir Ali Arfat and Jasim Ahmed 13.1 Introduction 281 13.2 Thermal Properties of Gelatin 283 13.3 Thermal Properties of Gelatin-Based Film 287 13.4 Thermal Transition by TGA 290 13.5 Thermal Properties of Chitosan 293 13.6 Conclusion 298 References 299 14 Protein Characterization by Thermal Property Measurement 305 A. Seenivasan and T. Panda 14.1 Introduction 305 14.2 Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) 306 14.3 Isothermal Titration Calorimetry 342 14.4 Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF)/Thermal Shift Assay 363 14.5 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 369 14.6 Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) 370 14.7 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) 371 14.8 Dynamic Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (DMA) 371 14.9 Thermal Conductivity 372 14.10 Conclusion 373 14.11 Future Prospective of Thermal Methods of Characterization 373 References 374 15 High-PressureWater-Ice Transitions in Aqueous and Food Systems 393 Su Guangming, Zhu Songming and Ramaswamy H. S. 15.1 Introduction 393 15.2 Water-Ice Transitions Under High Pressure 394 15.3 High-Pressure Freezing 396 15.4 High-Pressure Thawing 408 15.5 Principle of High-PressureThawing 408 15.6 Effect of HPT on Quality of Selected Foods 415 15.7 HPT on Microbial Growth 418 References 419 16 Pasting Properties of Starch: Effect of Particle Size, Hydrocolloids and High Pressure 427 Jasim Ahmed and Linu Thomas 16.1 Introduction 427 16.2 Pasting Properties 428 16.3 Rheological Measurement 430 16.4 Starch Pasting Cell 430 16.5 Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Pasting Properties of Starch 437 16.6 Effect of Particle Size on Pasting Properties of Flour Rich in Starch 438 16.7 Effect of Drying on Pasting Properties 442 16.8 Effect of High Pressure on Pasting Properties 445 16.9 Pasting Properties of Blends of Starches 446 16.10 Conclusions 448 References 448 Index 453
About the Editor:Jasim Ahmed is Research Scientist, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait.Associate Editors: Mohammad Shafiur Rahman is Professor, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman.Yrjö H. Roos is Professor, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland.
Glass transition has proved useful in the understanding of structure-function relationships of food and biomaterials, and can govern food processing, product properties, quality, safety, and stability. Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials presents the most up-to-date information on the glass transition of various food and biopolymers, their measurement technique, influence on the thermomechanical properties, and above all discussions on the most demanding biopolymers in today’s market, including polylactides, gelatin and chitosan.  Additionally, the book describes how the glass transition concept has been employed to food micro-structure, food processing, product development, storage studies, packaging development among others. Thermal properties of food powders and influencing parameters, including sticking, collapse, caking, agglomeration, crystallization, and storage, have been addressed. Various mathematical treatments related to thermal properties are also woven throughout the text. This book will serve as a comprehensive reference book for students, researchers and food, biopolymer, pharmaceutical and biotechnology professionals, providing invaluable and up-to-date insight into thermal properties in food.

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