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Forensic Anthropology


Forensic Anthropology

Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis
Forensic Science in Focus 1. Aufl.

von: C. Clifford Boyd, Donna C. Boyd

106,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 12.12.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781119226420
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 368

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Beschreibungen

Provides comprehensive coverage of everything that students and practitioners need to know about working in the field of forensic anthropology Forensic anthropology has been plagued by questions of scientific validity and rigor despite its acceptance as a section in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences nearly half a century ago. Critics have viewed it as a laboratory-based applied subfield of biological anthropology, and characterised it as emphasising methodology over theory. This book shows that these views are not only antiquated, but inadequate and inaccurate. Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis introduces readers to all of the theoretical and scientific foundations of forensic anthropology — beginning with how it was influenced by the early theoretical approaches of Tyler, Morgan, Spencer and Darwin. It instructs on how modern forensic science relies on an interdisciplinary approach — with research being conducted in the fields of archaeology, physics, geology and other disciplines. This modern approach to theory in forensic anthropology is presented through the introduction and discussion of Foundational, Interpretive and Methodological theories. Sections cover: Bias and Objectivity in Forensic Anthropology Theory and Practice; The Theory and Science Behind Biological Profile and Personal Identification; Scientific Foundation for Interpretations of Antemortem, Perimortem, and Postmortem Processes; and Interdisciplinary Influences, Legal Ramifications and Future Directions. Illustrates important aspects of the theory building process and reflects methods for strengthening the scientific framework of forensic anthropology as a discipline Inspired by the “Application of Theory to Forensic Anthropology” symposium presented at the 67th annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Chapters written by experts in the field who were presenters at the symposium Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis is ideal for university courses in anthropological science, forensic science, criminal science and forensic archaeology.
About the Editors, xv Notes on contributors, xvii Foreword, xxiiiSeries preface, xxv Acknowledgments, xxvii 1 The theoretical and scientific foundations of forensic anthropology, 1C. Clifford Boyd and Donna C. Boyd 1.1 Introduction, 1 1.2 A selective history of theory in forensic anthropology, 2 1.3 A modern perspective on forensic anthropology theory, 5 1.3.1 Three forms of logical reasoning, 8 1.3.2 Theory building in forensic anthropology: Linking logic and theory, 10 1.4 Forensic anthropology theory and modern practice, 12 1.5 Final comments, 15 References, 15 Part 1 Bias and objectivity in forensic anthropology theory and practice, 19 2 Subjective with a capital S? Issues of objectivity in forensic anthropology, 21Allysha Powanda Winburn 2.1 Introduction, 21 2.2 Objectivity, subjectivity, and forensic anthropological theory, 22 2.3 Subjectivity in science, 24 2.3.1 Subjectivity in forensic anthropology, 24 2.3.2 Effects of bias on forensic anthropology, 25 2.3.3 Subjective science is not bad science, 26 2.4 Mitigated objectivity: A path forward…, 27 2.4.1 Constraining subjectivity and bias, 28 2.4.2 The continuing process of constraint, 33 2.5 Conclusion, 34 References, 34 3 Navigating cognitive bias in forensic anthropology, 39Michael W. Warren, Amanda N. Friend and Michala K. Stock 3.1 Introduction, 39 3.2 Types of cognitive bias, 40 3.3 Research versus applied science, 41 3.4 Recommended solutions to mitigate confirmation bias, 43 3.5 Challenges unique to forensic anthropology, 44 3.5.1 Anthropologists work in a variety of professional contexts, 44 3.5.2 The uniqueness of the forensic anthropology testing sample, 45 3.5.3 Multiple tests to reach a single conclusion, 45 3.6 An example of how bias affects procedures, 46 3.7 Workable solutions, 49 3.8 Summary, 49 References, 50 4 Theoretically interesting: Different perspectives of the application of theory to forensic anthropology practice and research, 53Soren Blau 4.1 Introduction, 53 4.2 Practising in context, 56 4.3 Ethical considerations for the development of theory, 58 4.4 Can theories be applied universally?, 59 4.5 Conclusion, 59 Acknowledgements, 61 References, 61 Part 2 The theory and science behind biological profile and personal identification, 65 5 From Blumenbach to Howells: The slow, painful emergence of theory through forensic race estimation, 67Stephen Ousley, Richard L. Jantz and Joseph T. Hefner 5.1 Introduction, 67 5.2 Race as a concept and theory, 68 5.2.1 Evolution, rather than race, explains human biological variation, 70 5.2.2 Human variation is continuous, 72 5.2.3 Human biological variation involves many traits that typically vary independently, 73 5.2.4 Genetic variation within so?]called races is much greater than the variation among them, 74 5.2.5 There is no way to consistently classify human beings by race, 75 5.3 Anthropology and race, 79 5.4 Forensic anthropology and race, 85 5.5 Race and the future, 90 Acknowledgments, 92 References, 92 6 The application of theory in skeletal age estimation, 99Natalie R. Langley and Beatrix Dudzik 6.1 Introduction, 99 6.2 Skeletal age, 101 6.3 Historical context, 101 6.4 Forensic anthropology and evolutionary biology, 102 6.5 Potential solutions to the problem of age estimation, 105 6.6 Final comments, 107 References, 109 7 Theory and histological methods, 113Christian M. Crowder, Deborrah C. Pinto, Janna M. Andronowski and Victoria M. Dominguez 7.1 Introduction, 113 7.2 Foundational theory in bone biology, 114 7.3 Interpretive theory in bone biology, 115 7.3.1 Form and function, 115 7.3.2 The mechanostat and Utah paradigm, 116 7.3.3 Exploring the effectors of the mechanostat, 117 7.4 Methodological theory in bone biology, 119 7.4.1 Histological age estimation, 120 7.4.2 Determining human versus nonhuman bone, 121 7.5 Conclusions, 122 References, 123 8 Forensic applications of isotope landscapes (“isoscapes”): A tool for predicting region?]of?]origin in forensic anthropology cases, 127Lesley A. Chesson, Brett J. Tipple, James R. Ehleringer, Todd Park and Eric J. Bartelink 8.1 Introduction, 127 8.2 What are isotopes?, 128 8.3 Why do isotope compositions of human tissues differ?, 129 8.3.1 Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, 130 8.3.2 Strontium isotopes, 130 8.3.3 Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotopes, 132 8.4 How do we interpret isotope data collected for forensic human identification?, 133 8.4.1 Oxygen isotopes in drinking water and hair keratin, 134 8.4.2 Oxygen isotopes in drinking water and skeletal bioapatite, 137 8.4.3 Strontium isotopes of local bedrock and skeletal remains, 138 8.5 Examples of the application of isotope analysis to unidentified remains, 139 8.5.1 Jane Doe from Salt Lake County, 139 8.5.2 Isolated mandible from Siskiyou County, 141 8.6 What are the future applications of isotope analysis?, 144 Acknowledgments, 144 References, 145 Part 3 Scientific foundation for interpretations of antemortem, perimortem, and postmortem processes, 149 9 The anatomical basis for fracture repair: Recognition of the healing continuum and its forensic applications to investigations of pediatric and elderly abuse, 151Donna C. Boyd 9.1 Introduction: Diagnosing pediatric and elderly non?]accidental injury, 151 9.2 Theoretical basis for antemortem healing and TSI estimation, 153 9.3 Anatomical basis for fracture healing, 154 9.3.1 Bone growth and development, 155 9.3.2 Fracture healing, 157 9.4 Factors affecting the rate of bone healing, 162 9.4.1 The biological profile (age, sex, ancestry), 162 9.4.2 Type, location, cause, severity, and number of injuries, 163 9.4.3 Injury treatment and local biomechanical factors, 164 9.4.4 Systemic and other factors, 165 9.5 Antemortem fracture healing stages and dating systems, 166 9.6 A new model for fracture repair, 174 9.7 Expanding and refining TSI estimation through the Antemortem Fracture Archive, 181 9.8 Theory and the future of TSI estimation, 184 References, 184 Appendix A, 195 Major fracture repair stages and TSI estimations, 195 10 Theoretical foundation of child abuse, 201Jennifer C. Love and Miriam E. Soto Martinez 10.1 Introduction, 201 10.2 Case study, 201 10.3 Anthropologists and child abuse, 202 10.4 Foundational theory, 203 10.5 Interpretive theory, 204 10.5.1 Bone biomechanics, 205 10.5.2 Motor skill development, 207 10.6 Methodological theory, 207 10.7 Conclusion, 209 References, 209 11 Bone trauma analysis in a forensic setting: Theoretical basis and a practical approach for evaluation, 213Hugh E. Berryman, John F. Berryman and Tiffany B. Saul 11.1 Introduction, 213 11.2 Theory, 214 11.2.1 Foundational theory, 215 11.2.2 Interpretive theory, 216 11.2.3 Methodological theory, 217 11.3 Fundamental principles in bone fracture interpretation, 218 11.4 A practical approach to bone trauma evaluation and hypothesis building, 226 11.5 Conclusion, 232 References, 232 12 Thinking outside the box: Theory and innovation in sharp trauma analysis, 235John A. Williams and Ronald W. Davis 12.1 Introduction, 235 12.2 Transfer of evidence, 235 12.3 Theory connections, 236 12.4 The human skeleton as transfer evidence, 237 12.5 A primer on saws and dismemberment, 238 12.6 Geographic information system, 240 12.7 Applications of GIS in forensic anthropology and human osteology, 241 12.8 GIS: innovation in cut mark striation interpretation, 242 12.9 Locard and the twenty?]first century: It’s all a matter of scale, 247 References, 248 13 The forensic anthropologist as broker for cross?]disciplinary taphonomic research related to estimating the postmortem interval in medicolegal death investigations, 251Daniel J. Wescott 13.1 Introduction, 251 13.2 Taphonomy and taphonomic theory, 252 13.3 Forensic taphonomy, 254 13.4 Taphonomy and the estimation of time since death, 255 13.5 The necrobiome, 256 13.6 Cross?]disciplinary research, 257 13.6.1 Need for cross?]disciplinary research in PMI estimation, 257 13.6.2 Cross?]disciplinary approaches, 258 13.7 Overcoming barriers to cross?]disciplinary research, 262 13.8 Forensic anthropologists as brokers for unified theories in forensic taphonomy, 264 13.8.1 Forensic anthropologists are already major players, 264 13.8.2 Anthropologists have a long history of conducting taphonomic research, 264 13.8.3 Anthropology is traditionally a holistic field, 265 13.8.4 Forensic anthropology has its roots in academic research, 265 13.9 Conclusions, 265 Acknowledgments, 266 References, 266 Part 4 Interdisciplinary influences, legal ramifications, and future directions, 271 14 Archaeological inference and its application to forensic anthropology, 273C. Clifford Boyd and William W. Baden 14.1 Introduction, 273 14.2 Agency and nonlinear systems theories, 274 14.3 Nonlinear modeling of the decomposition process, 277 14.4 Discussion, 284 References, 292 15 Arrows of influence: The give and take of theory between forensic anthropology, archaeology, and geophysics, 297John F. Schweikart and Cheryl A. Johnston 15.1 Introduction, 297 15.2 Influences of archaeology on forensic anthropology, 299 15.3 Influences of geophysics on forensic anthropology, 301 15.4 “Backflow” to other disciplines: Site formation processes in archaeology, 302 15.5 Backflow: Interpretation/understanding of geophysical signatures, 303 15.6 Conclusion, 305 References, 305 16 Forensic anthropology, scientific evidence, and the law: Why theory matters, 307Donna C. Boyd and C. Clifford Boyd 16.1 Introduction: Theory in practice, 307 16.1.1 Commonwealth of Virginia v Morgan Lockett: Why theory matters, 307 16.2 Science and the law: The disconnect, 309 16.3 Science and the law: Commonalities, 310 16.3.1 Legal and scientific dialogue, 310 16.3.2 Abductive reasoning, 311 16.3.3 Probabilistic evaluation of the strength of evidence, 312 16.4 Forensic anthropologists as expert witnesses, 315 16.5 Admissibility of forensic anthropology evidence in the post?]Daubert world, 316 16.6 The legal application of forensic anthropology: Why theory matters, 318 16.7 Final comments, 319 Acknowledgments, 320 References, 320 17 Epilogue: Theory and science in forensic anthropology: Avenues for further research and development, 325C. Clifford Boyd and Donna C. Boyd 17.1 The science of forensic anthropology, 325 17.2 Looking forward, 327 References, 328 Index, 329
Edited by C. Clifford Boyd Jr, PhD, RPA, is currently a Professor of Anthropological Sciences at Radford University, Virginia, Co-Director of the RU Forensic Science Institute, and Consultant for the Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. Donna C. Boyd, PhD, D-ABFA, is Eminent Professor of Anthropological Sciences at Radford University, Co-Director of the RU Forensic Science Institute, Professor of Biomedical Science at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, and Consultant for the Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner.
Provides comprehensive coverage of everything that students and practitioners need to know about working in the field of forensic anthropology Forensic anthropology has been plagued by questions of scientific validity and rigor despite its acceptance as a section in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences nearly half a century ago. Critics have viewed it as a laboratory-based applied subfield of biological anthropology, and characterised it as emphasising methodology over theory. This book shows that these views are not only antiquated, but inadequate and inaccurate. Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis introduces readers to all of the theoretical and scientific foundations of forensic anthropology — beginning with how it was influenced by the early theoretical approaches of Tyler, Morgan, Spencer and Darwin. It instructs on how modern forensic science relies on an interdisciplinary approach — with research being conducted in the fields of archaeology, physics, geology and other disciplines. This modern approach to theory in forensic anthropology is presented through the introduction and discussion of Foundational, Interpretive and Methodological theories. Sections cover: Bias and Objectivity in Forensic Anthropology Theory and Practice; The Theory and Science Behind Biological Profile and Personal Identification; Scientific Foundation for Interpretations of Antemortem, Perimortem, and Postmortem Processes; and Interdisciplinary Influences, Legal Ramifications and Future Directions. Illustrates important aspects of the theory building process and reflects methods for strengthening the scientific framework of forensic anthropology as a discipline Inspired by the "Application of Theory to Forensic Anthropology" symposium presented at the 67th annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Chapters written by experts in the field who were presenters at the symposium Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis is ideal for university courses in anthropological science, forensic science, criminal science and forensic archaeology.

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