Food Safety, Risk Intelligence and Benchmarking
This book comprehensively argues for more future benchmarking between nations. Since the initial food safety benchmarking report was published in 2008, the sharing of data and protocols among nations has dramatically increased. It was intended to identify and evaluate common elements among global food safety systems. More specifically, benchmarking identifies those countries that employ comparatively best practices to assess, manage, and communicate the risks related to the safety of food and their respective food systems. The overarching intent of this benchmarking assessment, however, is to stimulate exchange and discussion on food safety performance among nations.
Preface and Acknowledgment ix 1 Introduction: Facing Global Realities 1 Facing Global Realities 1 Food Systems 4 Food Safety Systems 7 Supply Connecting with Demand 9 Comparing Food Safety Systems 12 Methodology for the First Two Surveys 14 Limitations 15 Highlights 19 2 How Was Canada Doing in 2010? A Comparative Analysis 21 How Was Canada Doing? A Comparative Analysis 21 Highlights 22 Consumer Affairs 23 Biosecurity 23 Governance and Recall 23 Traceability and Management 24 How Canada Got Here 24 Industry and the Canadian Government 30 Industry and the United States 34 Beyond BSE: Food Safety and Trades 35 3 Consumer Affairs 41 Connecting with the consumer 41 Analysis of Ranking Data 42 Incidences of Reported Illness by Foodborne Pathogens 42 Rates of Inspections and Audits 46 Food Safety Education Programs 49 Labeling and Indications of Allergens 50 Ease of Access to Public Health Information 52 Investigation on Consumer Affairs 53 Incidences of Reported Illness by Foodborne Pathogens 53 Rates of Inspections and Audits 56 Food Safety Education Programs 56 Labeling and Indications of Allergens 57 Discussion 57 4 Biosecurity 63 Bioterrorism 66 Analysis of Ranking Data 68 Rate of Use of Agricultural Chemicals 68 Bioterrorism Strategy 70 Investigation on Biosecurity 72 Rate of Use of Agricultural Chemicals 72 Discussion 75 5 Governance and Recalls 85 Governance and Recalls in the Food Safety Performance World Ranking Initiative 87 Existence of Risk Management Plans 88 Analysis of Ranking Data 88 Level of Clarity and Stability of Food Recall Regulations 90 Number of Protectionist Measures Against Trading Partners 92 Number of Recalls 94 Investigation on Governance and Recalls 96 Existence of Risk Management Plans 96 Level of Clarity and Stability of Food Recall Regulations 98 Number of Protectionist Measures Against Trading Partners 100 Number of Recalls 100 Discussion 101 6 Traceability and Management 107 Traceability and Management in the Food Safety Performance World Ranking Initiative 107 Analysis of Ranking Data 109 Depth of Traceability Systems in Food Chain 109 Investigation on Traceability and Management 111 Discussion 114 Canada’s Traceability Unpacked 116 The Role of Business: Top?–Down or Bottom?–Up Traceability 118 2008 Listeriosis Outbreak 119 2003 BSE Cow 121 Traceability and Trade 124 Technology and the Future 125 7 The 2014 Survey 129 A New Approach 129 Purpose 130 Methodology 131 Food Safety Risk Assessment 132 Chemical Risks 133 Microbial Risks 136 National Food Consumption Reporting 144 Inspections and Audits 148 Food Safety Risk Management 148 National Food Safety Response Capacity 149 Food Recalls 151 Food Traceability 154 Radionuclide Standards 155 Food Safety Risk Communication 157 Allergenic Risks and Labeling 158 Public Trust 160 National Food Safety System Performances Compared 161 What This New 2014 Version Means 162 8 The Future of Global Food Safety Systems and Risk Intelligence 167 Changing Agricultural Production Strategies 168 One Earth Farms 169 Terroir Potential 171 Possible Effects on Global Food Safety Systems 173 Other Policy and Managerial Implications 174 On the Question of GMOs 176 Assessment of Current and Evolving Systemic Risks in Food Safety 185 Increased Global Trade 185 Taking Everyone Off the Farm in an Era of Rapid Change 187 Shifting Food Safety Responsibilities Between Public and Private Sectors 190 Risk Aversion 191 References 193 Index 213
Dr. Sylvain Charlebois is Dean of the Faculty of Management and Professor of the Faculty of Agriculture at Dalhousie University, Canada. He acts as special advisor to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to Health Canada on food safety issues, and to Agriculture and Food Canada on agricultural policy.
The era of accountability in food safety is upon us. With social media empowering consumers and an increase in global trades, food industry pundits and food safety regulators alike will be expected to become more responsive and transparent. Protectionism is no longer enough, or even appropriate. With less means, public regulators from around the world are pressed to monitor risks that are often challening to anticipate. Constant learning will be crucial for more effective mitigating strategies and policies. This learning process can be supported by many different sources, including other countries.Once deemed controversial, benchmarking amongst nations has become a powerful tool allowing food safety experts to anticipate systemic risks which could threaten the welfare of an economy. This book analyzes the strengths and weaknesses in food safety systems around the world in order to assist academics, industry professionals and policymakers to implement effective food safety management systems and processes. The food safety performances of 17 OCDE countries have been compared across four major categories: consumer affairs; biosecurity; governance and recalls; and traceability and management. The purpose of this benchmarking framework is to identify and evaluate common elements among global food safety sustems. The primary objective of this book is not only to identify which country offers the safest food prodcuts to its citizens, but to recognize which countries employ comparatively best practices to contain risks related to the safety of food sustems.
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