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Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization


Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization


IFST Advances in Food Science 1. Aufl.

von: Anil Kumar Anal

162,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 09.10.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781118432938
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 592

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Beschreibungen

Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization An in-depth look at the economic and environmental benefits that food companies can achieve—and the challenges and opportunities they may face—by utilizing food processing by-products Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization is the first book dedicated to food processing by-products and their utilization in a broad spectrum. It provides a comprehensive overview on food processing by-products and their utilization as source of novel functional ingredients. It discusses food groups, including cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, meat, dairy, marine, sugarcane, winery, and plantation by-products; addresses processing challenges relevant to food by-products; and delivers insight into the current state of art and emerging technologies to extract valuable phytochemicals from food processing by-products. Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization offers in-depth chapter coverage of fruit processing by-products; the application of food by-products in medical and pharmaceutical industries; prebiotics and dietary fibers from food processing by-products; bioactive compounds and their health effects from honey processing industries; advances in milk fractionation for value addition; seafood by-products in applications of biomedicine and cosmeticuals; food industry by-products as nutrient replacements in aquaculture diets and agricultural crops; regulatory and legislative issues for food waste utilization; and much more. The first reference text to bring together essential information on the processing technology and incorporation of by-products into various food applications Concentrates on the challenges and opportunities for utilizing by-products, including many novel and potential uses for the by-products and waste materials generated by food processing Focuses on the nutritional composition and biochemistry of by-products, which are key to establishing their functional health benefits as foods Part of the "IFST Advances in Food Science" series, co-published with the Institute of Food Science and Technology (UK)  This bookserves as a comprehensive reference for students, educators, researchers, food processors, and industry personnel looking for up-to-date insight into the field. Additionally, the covered range of techniques for by-product utilization will provide engineers and scientists working in the food industry with a valuable resource for their work.
About the IFST Advances in Food Science Book Series xvii List of Contributors xix 1 Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization: Introduction 1Anil Kumar Anal 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Food Processing Wastes and By-Products for Industrial Applications 2 1.3 By-Products from Cereal Processing Industries 2 1.4 Fruits and Vegetables By-Products 3 1.5 By-Products from the Meat and Poultry Processing Industries 5 1.6 Seafood Processing By-Products 6 1.7 By-Products from the Dairy Processing Industries 7 1.8 Conclusion 7 References 7 2 Fruit Processing By-Products: A Rich Source for Bioactive Compounds and Value Added Products 11Medina-Meza Ilce Gabriela, and Ganjyal Girish 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 Phenolic Compounds as Functional foods 12 2.2.1 Phenolic Acids 12 2.2.2 Flavonoids 13 2.2.3 Tannins 14 2.2.4 Stilbenes and Lignans 15 2.3 Fruit By-Products Sources 15 2.3.1 Agro-Industrial By-Products 15 2.4 Dietary Fibers-Rich By-Products 18 2.4.1 Hemicelluloses 19 2.4.2 Pectins 19 2.5 Value-Added Products from Fruit By-Products 19 2.5.1 Meat Products 19 2.5.2 Dairy Products 20 2.5.3 Baking Products 20 2.5.4 Ready-To-Eat Products 20 2.6 Future Perspectives 21 References 21 3 Utilization of Waste from Tropical Fruits 27H.K. Sharma and Mandeep Kaur 3.1 Introduction 27 3.1.1 Waste Utilization and Challenges 28 3.2 Pineapple 29 3.2.1 Bioethanol 30 3.2.2 Biogas 31 3.2.3 Bromelain 31 3.2.4 Cellulase 32 3.2.5 Citric Acid 33 3.2.6 Extruded Product 33 3.2.7 Jam 34 3.2.8 Lactic Acid 34 3.2.9 Animal Feed 34 3.3 Guava 35 3.3.1 Pectin 36 3.3.2 Juice Fortified with Dietary Fibre 37 3.3.3 Alcoholic Fermentation 37 3.3.4 Use in Bakery Industry 38 3.3.5 Single Cell Protein 38 3.3.6 Lycopene 38 3.3.7 Utilization as Feed 39 3.4 Papaya 40 3.4.1 Papaya Seeds as Antioxidants 41 3.4.2 Extraction of Papain 42 3.4.3 Extraction of Oil from Seeds 43 3.4.4 Alcohol and Vinegar 43 3.4.5 Utilization of Seed Flour for Food Enrichment 43 3.4.6 Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) 44 3.4.7 Single Cell Protein 44 3.5 Summary and Future Trends 45 References 45 4 Valorization of Vegetable Wastes 53Taslima Ayesha Aktar Nasrin and Md. Abdul Matin 4.1 Introduction 53 4.2 Losses of Vegetables from Production to Consumption 54 4.3 Extent of Vegetable Losses 54 4.4 Reasons and Overall Prevention of Vegetable Wastes 55 4.4.1 Production Exceeds Demand 56 4.4.2 Premature Harvesting 56 4.4.3 Strict Quality Standards 56 4.4.4 Poor Storage Facilities 57 4.4.5 Unsafe Vegetables 57 4.4.6 Throwing Rather than Using or Re-using 57 4.4.7 Lack of Processing Facilities 57 4.4.8 Wide Range of Products/Brands 58 4.4.9 Inadequate Market Systems 58 4.4.10 Abundance and Consumer Attitudes 58 4.5 Loss Quantification of Some Important Vegetables after Harvest 59 4.5.1 Cabbage 59 4.5.2 Cauliflower 59 4.5.3 Broccoli 59 4.5.4 Sweet Corn 59 4.5.5 Carrots 60 4.5.6 Beetroot 60 4.5.7 Lettuce 60 4.5.8 Capsicums 60 4.5.9 Beans 60 4.6 Utilization of Vegetable Wastes 61 4.6.1 Utilization of Wastes by Priority Basis 61 4.6.2 Vegetable Demand should be Increased 62 4.6.3 Vegetables for Better Health 62 4.6.4 Bio Gas and Electricity Generation from Vegetable Wastes 63 4.6.5 Bioactive Compounds Extraction from Vegetable Wastes 64 4.6.6 Increment of Bioactive Compounds in Vegetables 66 4.6.7 Bioactive Compounds Affected by Stimulators 67 4.6.8 Extraction Techniques of Bioactive Compounds 70 4.6.9 Dietary Fibres from Vegetable Waste 73 4.6.10 Resistant Starch from Vegetable Waste 75 4.6.11 Vegetable Waste as Vermicomposting Agent 76 4.6.12 Biofuel and Biochar from Vegetable Waste 76 4.6.13 Fish Food from Vegetable Waste 77 4.6.14 Aquaponic using Vegetable Waste 78 4.6.15 Waste as Animal Feed 78 4.6.16 Activated Carbon from Vegetable Waste 80 4.6.17 Biodegradable Plastic 80 4.6.18 Vegetable Wastes as Substrates in Citric Acid Production 80 4.7 Conclusion 81 References 81 5 Application of Food By-Products in Medical and Pharmaceutical Industries 89Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Manisha Singh, and Anil Kumar Anal 5.1 Introduction 89 5.2 Agroindustry By-Products and Potential Recovery of Bioactive Compounds 90 5.2.1 Fruits 90 5.2.2 Vegetables 94 5.3 By-Products from Animal Origin 96 5.3.1 By-Products from Meat Processing 96 5.3.2 Fish and Seafood Processing 99 5.4 Conclusion 103 References 103 6 Dietary Fibers, Dietary Peptides and Dietary Essential Fatty Acids from Food Processing By-Products 111Seema Medhe, Manisha Anand, and Anil Kumar Anal 6.1 Introduction 111 6.2 Dietary Fiber from Food Processing By-Products 112 6.2.1 Structural Features of Dietary Fiber 112 6.2.2 Technological Functionality of Dietary Fiber 113 6.2.3 Health Benefits of Dietary Fibers 114 6.2.4 Dietary Fiber from Fruits and Vegetables 115 6.2.5 Dietary Fiber from Legumes 116 6.2.6 Dietary Fiber from Cereals 117 6.2.7 Coffee, Tea and Cocoa 118 6.2.8 Spices 119 6.2.9 Utilization of Dietary Fiber in Different Food Industries 119 6.3 Dietary Proteins and Peptides from Food Processing By-Products 120 6.3.1 Oil Seed Processing By-Products Valorization to Produce Proteins 120 6.3.2 Proteins from Dairy Waste 123 6.3.3 Proteins from Sugar Industry Waste 124 6.3.4 Proteins from Marine Waste 124 6.3.5 Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine By-Products 125 6.3.6 Peptides from Meat and Meat Processing Waste 125 6.4 Dietary Essential Fatty Acids 126 6.4.1 Health Benefits of Omega Fatty Acids 127 6.4.2 Essential Fatty Acids from Marine Waste 127 6.4.3 Methods of Extraction of Omega Fatty Acid 127 References 129 7 Prebiotics and Dietary Fibers from Food Processing By-Products 137Santad Wichienchot and Wan Rosli Bin Wan Ishak 7.1 Introduction 137 7.2 Oligosaccharides from Food Processing By-Products 140 7.2.1 Pectic Oligosaccharide (POS) 140 7.2.2 Xylo-Oligosaccharide (XOS) 143 7.2.3 Chito-Oligosaccharide (COS) 146 7.2.4 Inulin and Fructo-Oligosaccharide (FOS) 148 7.2.5 Soybean Oligosaccharide (SOS) 151 7.3 Polysaccharides from Food Processing and Agricultural By-Products 155 7.3.1 ?-Glucans 155 7.3.2 Non-Starch Dietary Fibers 158 7.3.3 Resistant Starch 162 7.4 Conclusion 164 References 165 8 Utilization of By-Products from Food Processing as Biofertilizers and Biopesticides 175Avishek Datta, Hayat Ullah, and Zannatul Ferdous 8.1 Introduction 175 8.2 Concept of Food Processing By-Products 176 8.2.1 Existing Methods of By-Product/Wastes Management Practiced by Food Industries 177 8.3 Plant-Based Food By-Products and their Importance as Biofertilizers 178 8.3.1 Sugarcane By-Products 178 8.3.2 Utilization of Oilseed Processing By-Products as Biofertilizer 179 8.3.3 Food Processing Industrial Sludge as Sources of Biofertilizers 182 8.3.4 Rice Straw and Rice Bran 182 8.3.5 Coffee Processing By-Products 183 8.3.6 Tea Processing Wastes 183 8.3.7 Turmeric Solid Waste 184 8.3.8 Cassava Processing By-Product as Biofertilizers 184 8.4 Importance of Plant-Based Food Processing By-Products as Biopesticides 185 8.4.1 Maize Gluten Meal 185 8.4.2 Cuphea Oil 185 8.4.3 Jatropha Oil 186 8.4.4 Olive Compounds 186 8.4.5 Plant Extracts Classified as Minimal Risk Pesticides 187 8.4.6 Rotenone as Biopesticide 187 8.5 Concluding Remarks 187 References 188 9 Banana Peels and their Prospects for Industrial Utilization 195Prerna Khawas, Arup Jyoti Das, and Sankar Chandra Deka 9.1 Introduction 195 9.2 Chemical Properties and Bioactive Compounds Present in Banana Peel 196 9.2.1 Nutrients 196 9.2.2 Phytochemicals and Antioxidants 197 9.2.3 Flavonoids and Polyphenols 197 9.2.4 Micronutrient 198 9.2.5 Bioactive Components 199 9.3 Utilization of Banana Peel 199 9.3.1 Yellow Noodles 199 9.3.2 Dietary Fibre Concentrate 199 9.3.3 ?-amylase 199 9.3.4 Xylose 200 9.3.5 Lipase 200 9.3.6 Wine Vinegar 200 9.3.7 Wine 201 9.3.8 Feed 201 9.3.9 Sustainability 201 9.3.10 Bioethanol 202 9.3.11 Alkali 202 9.3.12 Biogas 203 9.4 Conclusion 203 References 203 10 Utilization of Carrot Pomace 207H.K. Sharma and Navneet Kumar 10.1 Introduction 207 10.1.1 Carrot 208 10.1.2 Processing of Carrot 208 10.1.3 Carrot By-Products 212 10.1.4 Carrot Pomace 212 10.2 Value-Added Products from Carrot Pomace Powder 216 10.2.1 Biscuits 216 10.2.2 Cookies 216 10.2.3 Wheat Rolls 217 10.2.4 Wheat Bread 217 10.2.5 Fish Sausage 218 10.2.6 Extrudates 218 10.2.7 Fiber 222 10.2.8 Bio-ethanol 222 10.2.9 Functional Components 222 10.2.10 Citric Acid Production 223 10.2.11 Animal Feed 223 10.2.12 Composting and Biogas 224 10.3 Nutritional, Functional and Medicinal Value of Carrot and Carrot By-Products 224 References 225 11 Processing and Utilization of Soy Food By-Products 231M.K. Tripathi and Rahul Shrivastava 11.1 Introduction 231 11.1.1 Soybean: Global Scenario and its Future 232 11.1.2 Post-Production Management of Soyabean 235 11.1.3 Soybeans Product History 237 11.1.4 Nutrient Composition Soyabean 239 11.2 Soy Products and Human Diet 242 11.2.1 Nutritionally Balanced Diets 242 11.2.2 Lipid Metabolism 245 11.2.3 Glucose Tolerance 245 11.2.4 Caloric Reduction 245 11.2.5 Zinc Bioavailability 246 11.2.6 Iron Bioavailability 246 11.3 Functionality of Soyabean in Various Food Products 247 11.3.1 Fermented Products 247 11.3.2 Dairy Type Products 248 11.3.3 Cereal-Based Products 248 11.3.4 Meat and Seafood Products 249 11.3.5 Beverages 249 11.3.6 Daily Intake 249 11.3.7 Soybean in Meals 250 11.4 Processing and Soyabean Composition 250 11.4.1 Proteins 250 11.4.2 Soybean Processing and Trypsin Inhibitors 250 11.4.3 Soybean Processing and Phytic Acid Composition 252 11.4.4 Soybean Processing and Saponins Composition 252 11.4.5 Soybean Processing and Isoflavones 253 11.5 Raw Soy and Soybean Inhibitors in Digestive Enzymes of the Pancreas 254 11.6 Soybean Inhibitors and Inactivation of Digestive Enzymes 255 11.7 Beneficial Effects of Soy-Containing Diets 255 11.7.1 Cholesterol-Lowering 255 11.7.2 Soybean Bowman Birk Inhibitor as an Anticarcinogen 255 11.7.3 Soybean Lectins 256 11.8 Traditional Soy-Foods 257 11.8.1 Tofu 257 11.8.2 Soy Milk 257 11.8.3 Green Vegetable Soybeans 257 11.8.4 Tempeh 257 11.8.5 Miso 258 11.8.6 Soy Sauce 258 11.8.7 Natto 258 11.8.8 Okara 258 11.8.9 Soy Sprouts 258 11.8.10 Soybean Oil 258 11.8.11 Second-Generation Soy-Foods 259 11.8.12 Soy Nuts 259 11.8.13 Meat Alternatives 259 11.8.14 Cheese Alternatives 259 11.8.15 Soymilk Yogurt 259 11.8.16 Non-Dairy Frozen Desserts 259 11.9 Source of Various Enzymes having Industrial Significance 260 11.9.1 Cellulases 260 11.9.2 ?- and ?-Amylases 260 11.9.3 Proteases 260 11.9.4 Phytases 260 11.9.5 Transglutaminases 261 11.9.6 Ureases 261 11.9.7 Peroxidases 261 11.9.8 ?-Galactosidases 261 11.10 Major Soybean By-Products 262 11.10.1 Okara and its Uses 262 11.10.2 Livestock Fodder 262 11.10.3 Organic Compost 262 11.10.4 Pet Food 262 11.10.5 Soysage 262 11.10.6 Baked Goods 263 11.10.7 Okara Tempeh 263 11.10.8 Okara Party Mix 263 11.10.9 Soysage Paté 263 11.10.10 Okara and Vegetable Saute 263 11.10.11 Okara Burgers 263 11.10.12 Okara Onchom 263 11.10.13 Other Food Uses 264 11.11 Tofu Whey and its Uses 264 11.11.1 Natural Organic Soap 265 11.11.2 Livestock Fodder 265 11.11.3 Organic Fertilizer 265 11.11.4 Fuel Alcohol 265 11.11.5 Soymilk Curds 265 11.11.6 Soybean Hulls or Seed Coats 266 11.12 Applications of important soybean products 266 11.12.1 Okara as Source of Dietary Fiber in Functional Food Development 266 11.12.2 Okara as Source of Protein in Functional Food Development 266 11.12.3 Production of Natural Cellulose Fibers from Soybean Straw 267 11.12.4 Recovery of Phytosterols from Waste Residue of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate 267 11.12.5 Production of ?-Galactosidase from Soybean Vinasse 268 11.12.6 Production of Bio-Ethanol from Soybean Molasses 268 11.12.7 Production of Citric Acid from Okara 269 11.12.8 Antioxidant Extraction from Soybean By-Products 269 References 270 12 Value-Added By-Products from Rice Processing Industries 277Kittima Triratanasirichai, Manisha Singh, and Anil Kumar Anal 12.1 Introduction 277 12.2 Rice Bran 279 12.2.1 Protein and Peptide 279 12.2.2 Protein Extraction Method 280 12.2.3 Gamma-Oryzanol (?-Oryzanol) and Wax 284 12.3 Rice Hull and Rice Bran Fiber 286 12.4 Conclusions 287 References 287 13 Bioprocessing of Beverage Industry Waste for Value Addition 295Surangna Jain and Anil Kumar Anal 13.1 Introduction 295 13.2 Coffee 295 13.2.1 Coffee Processing 295 13.2.2 By-Products and Wastes from Coffee Processing 296 13.2.3 Utilization of Coffee By-Products and Wastes 296 13.3 Tea 298 13.3.1 Processing and Production of Tea 298 13.3.2 Tea By-Products and Wastes and their Utilization 298 13.4 Fruit Juice and Soft Drinks 299 13.5 Alcoholic Beverages 299 13.5.1 Beer Production 299 13.5.2 By-Products and Wastes from the Brewing Industry and their Utilization 300 13.5.3 Wine Production 302 13.5.4 Brandy 304 13.6 Conclusion 304 References 305 14 Bioactive Compounds and their Health Effects from Honey Processing Industries 309Zjahra Vianita Nugraheni and Taslim Ersam 14.1 Introduction 309 14.2 Biological Applications of Honey 313 14.2.1 Antibacterial Effects 313 14.2.2 Antioxidant Effects 314 14.2.3 Antiviral Effects 316 14.2.4 Anti-inflammatory Effects 316 14.3 Conclusion 317 References 318 15 Advances in Milk Fractionation for Value Addition 323Juan M. Gonzalez, Deepak Bhopatkar, and Dattatreya Banavara 15.1 Dairy Ingredient Development 323 15.2 Milk Proteins 324 15.3 Milk Proteins Classification 325 15.3.1 Caseins 326 15.3.2 Whey Proteins 326 15.3.3 Milk Fat Globule Membrane Proteins 327 15.3.4 Milk Protein Fractionation Technologies 327 15.3.5 Milk Protein Ingredients 328 15.3.6 Milk Protein Hydrolysates 331 15.4 Milk Fats 334 15.4.1 Milk Fat Classification 334 15.4.2 Milk Fat Ingredients 334 15.5 Milk Carbohydrates 342 15.5.1 Lactose 342 15.5.2 Enzymatic and Chemical Modification 344 15.6 Milk Oligosaccharides 347 15.6.1 Oligosaccharide Processing 349 15.7 Future Outlook 349 References 349 16 Bioprocessing of Chicken Meat and Egg Processing Industries’ Waste to Value-Added Proteins and Peptides 367Surangna Jain, Damodar Dhakal, and Anil Kumar Anal 16.1 Introduction 367 16.2 By-Products and Wastes Generated During Chicken Meat and Egg Processing 369 16.2.1 Feather 370 16.2.2 Skin 371 16.2.3 Bones 371 16.2.4 Trachea 371 16.2.5 Blood 371 16.2.6 Feet 371 16.2.7 Eggshell and Eggshell Membrane 372 16.3 Proteins and Peptides derived from Chicken Processing By-Products and Waste 372 16.3.1 Collagen 372 16.3.2 Gelatin 374 16.3.3 Keratin 376 16.3.4 Plasma Proteins 378 16.3.5 Bioactive Peptides 380 16.4 Valorization of Egg Waste 387 16.5 Conclusion 388 References 388 17 Bioprocessing of Beef and Pork Meat Processing Industries, ‘Waste to Value-Add‘ 395Damodar Dhakal, Sajal Man Shrestha, and Anil Kumar Anal 17.1 Introduction 395 17.2 Different By-Products and Waste coming from Beef and Pork Meat Processing Industries 396 17.2.1 Skin 397 17.2.2 Bones 398 17.2.3 Hides and Hooves 398 17.2.4 Horn 399 17.2.5 Blood 400 17.2.6 Lard 400 17.2.7 Viscera 401 17.3 Valorization of Beef and Pork Meat Processing Waste 401 17.3.1 Collagen 401 17.3.2 Gelatin 402 17.3.3 Blood Products 403 17.3.4 Bioactive Peptides 404 17.3.5 Biodiesel 405 17.3.6 Keratin 407 17.4 Conclusion 411 References 411 18 Aquaculture and Marine Products Contribution for Healthcare Application 417Maushmi S. Kumar 18.1 Introduction 417 18.2 Various Classes of Freshwater and Marine Products and their Healthcare Application 418 18.2.1 Proteins and Peptides 418 18.2.2 Marine Enzymes 420 18.2.3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids 421 18.2.4 Seafood Processing By-Products 422 18.3 Recent Patents in Healthcare Applications 426 18.3.1 Chitin and Chitosan 426 18.3.2 Phycocolloids 428 18.3.3 Carotenoids 428 18.4 Conclusion 430 References 431 19 Seafood By-Products in Applications of Biomedicine and Cosmeticuals 437Ngo Dang Nghia 19.1 Introduction 437 19.1.1 Global Fishery Production 438 19.1.2 Important Species 438 19.1.3 Seafood By-Products 439 19.2 Seafood By-Products and Biomedicine 442 19.2.1 Fish Protein Hydrolysate 443 19.2.2 Carotenoprotein 445 19.2.3 Bioactive Peptides 447 19.2.4 Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) 448 19.2.5 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids 450 19.2.6 Chitin/Chitosan 452 19.2.7 Collagen, Gelatin 454 19.3 Marine Cosmeticuals 457 19.3.1 Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals 457 19.3.2 Skin Care 458 19.3.3 Bioactive Compounds from Seafood By-Products for Skin Care 459 19.4 Conclusions 461 References 461 20 Food Industry By-Products as Protein Replacement in Aquaculture Diets of Tilapia and Catfish 471Gabriel Arome Ataguba, Manoj Tukaram Kamble, and Krishna R. Salin 20.1 Introduction 471 20.1.1 Overview of Aquaculture 471 20.1.2 Use of Fishmeal 472 20.1.3 Siluridae 473 20.1.4 Cichlidae 473 20.1.5 Food Industry By-Products 474 20.2 Alternatives to Fishmeal in Catfish Diets 475 20.2.1 Ingredients of Plant Origin 475 20.2.2 Ingredients of Animal Origin 480 20.2.3 Other By-Products and Immuno-Modulation 482 20.3 Alternatives to Fishmeal in Tilapia Diets 482 20.3.1 Plant By-Product Protein Source 482 20.3.2 Animal By-Product Protein Source 486 20.3.3 Other By-Product Protein Source 490 References 491 21 Value-Added By-Products from Sugar Processing Industries 509Ali Akbar and Imran Ali 21.1 Introduction 509 21.2 Pulp and Paper Production 512 21.2.1 Pulp Production 512 21.2.2 Paper Production from Bagasse Pulp 513 21.3 Agglomerated Products Production from Bagasse 513 21.3.1 Particle Board Production 514 21.3.2 Fiber Board Production 514 21.4 Alcohols 515 21.4.1 Production of Alcohol 515 21.4.2 Substrate Preparation 515 21.4.3 Preparation and Inoculation of Yeast 516 21.4.4 The Process of Fermentation 516 21.4.5 Alcohol Purification 516 21.4.6 Kinds of Alcohols Obtained from Sugar Industries 517 21.5 Animal Feed 519 21.5.1 Animal Feed from Beet Sugar Industries 519 21.5.2 Animals Feed from Cane Sugar Industries 520 21.6 Acids 521 21.7 Pectins 522 21.8 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals 522 21.9 Anti-Desiccants 523 21.10 Biodegradable Plastics and Biopolymers 523 21.11 Food Products, Flavorings and Aromas 524 21.12 Char and Biofertilizers 525 21.13 Waste Water Treatment and Environmental Bioremediation 526 21.14 Energy and Biogas from Sugar Industries 527 21.15 Sprays and Colors 527 21.16 Solvents 528 21.17 Bio-Filters 528 21.18 Microbial Substrates 528 21.19 Summary and Future Prospects 528 References 529 22 Regulatory and Legislative Issues for Food Waste Utilization 535Lavaraj Devkota, Didier Montet, and Anil Kumar Anal 22.1 Introduction 535 22.2 Possible Mitigation Measures for Food Processing Wastes 536 22.2.1 Composting and Land Spreading of Food Processing Waste 536 22.2.2 Feeding Food Processing Waste to Livestock 537 22.2.3 Utilization of Food Processing Waste as Feed/Food Supplement through Value Addition or Modification in Processing Method 537 22.2.4 Food Processing Source Reduction and Waste Management 538 22.3 Impact of Waste Disposal on Environment and Human Health 539 22.4 Need of Legislative and Regulatory Guidelines 539 22.5 Concept of Policies, Legislations, Code of Conduct and Regulations for Food Waste Utilization 540 22.6 Prevailing Legislation and Regulatory Guidelines for Food Waste Utilization 541 22.6.1 European Union 541 22.6.2 The USA 543 22.6.3 Asian Region 544 22.7 Possible Amendments and Scope for the Development of New Regulations on Food Waste Utilization 544 22.8 Use of Recent Advancements in Food Waste Utilization 545 22.9 Conclusion 546 References 546 Index 549
About the Editor Anil Kumar Anal, is Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Food, Agriculture and Bioresources, School of Environment, Resources and Development, at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand
Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization is the first book dedicated to food processing by-products and their utilization in a broad spectrum. It provides a comprehensive overview on food processing by-products and their utilization as source of novel functional ingredients. It discusses food groups, including cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, meat, dairy, marine, sugarcane, winery, and plantation by-products; addresses processing challenges relevant to food by-products; and delivers insight into the current state of art and emerging technologies to extract valuable phytochemicals from food processing by-products. Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization offers in-depth chapter coverage of fruit processing by-products; the application of food by-products in medical and pharmaceutical industries; prebiotics and dietary fibers from food processing by-products; bioactive compounds and their health effects from honey processing industries; advances in milk fractionation for value addition; seafood by-products in applications of biomedicine and cosmeticuals; food industry by-products as nutrient replacements in aquaculture diets and agricultural crops; regulatory and legislative issues for food waste utilization; and much more. The first reference text to bring together essential information on the processing technology and incorporation of by-products into various food applications Concentrates on the challenges and opportunities for utilizing by-products, including many novel and potential uses for the by-products and waste materials generated by food processing Focuses on the nutritional composition and biochemistry of by-products, which are key to establishing their functional health benefits as foods Part of the "IFST Advances in Food Science" series, co-published with the Institute of Food Science and Technology (UK) This book serves as a comprehensive reference for students, educators, researchers, food processors, and industry personnel looking for up-to-date insight into the field. Additionally, the covered range of techniques for by-product utilization will provide engineers and scientists working in the food industry with a valuable resource for their work.

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