Details

Flexible Pipes


Flexible Pipes


1. Aufl.

von: Qiang Bai, Yong Bai, Weidong Ruan

216,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Scrivener
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 31.03.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781119041283
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 640

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Recent changes in the codes for building pipelines has led to a boom in the production of new materials that can be used in flexible pipes.  With the use of polymers, steel, and other new materials and variations on existing materials, the construction and, therefore, the installation and operation of flexible pipes is changing and being improved upon all over the world.  The authors of this work have written numerous books and papers on these subjects and are some of the most influential authors on flexible pipes in the world, contributing much of the literature on this subject to the industry.  This new volume is a presentation of some of the most cutting-edge technological advances in technical publishing. This is the most comprehensive and in-depth book on this subject, covering not just the various materials and their aspects that make them different, but every process that goes into their installation, operation, and design.  The thirty-six chapters, divided up into four different parts, have had not just the authors of this text but literally dozens of other engineers who are some of the world’s leading scientists in this area contribute to the work.  This is the future of pipelines, and it is an important breakthrough.  A must-have for the veteran engineer and student alike, this volume is an important new advancement in the energy industry, a strong link in the chain of the world’s energy production.
Preface xxi About the Authors xxiii Part I Design and Analysis 1 Flexible Pipes and Limit-States Design 3 1.1 I ntroduction 3 1.2 Applications of Flexible Pipe 3 1.2.1 Metal-Based Flexible Pipes 5 1.2.2 Composite-Based Flexible Pipes 7 1.2.3 D esign Codes and Specifications 10 1.3 Comparison between Flexible Pipes and Rigid Pipes 12 1.3.1 Unbonded Flexible Riser vs. Rigid Steel Riser 12 1.3.2 Flexible Jumper vs. Rigid Steel Jumper 12 1.3.3 Flexible Composite Pipe vs. Rigid Pipe 13 1.3.3.1 Material Costs 14 1.3.3.2 I nstallation Costs 14 1.3.3.3 Operational Costs 15 1.3.3.4 Comparison Example 15 1.4 Failure Mode and Design Criteria 15 1.4.1 Unbonded Flexible Pipe 15 1.4.1.1 Failure Modes 15 1.4.1.2 D esign Criteria 17 1.4.2 Flexible Composite Pipe 20 1.4.2.1 Failure Modes 20 1.4.2.2 D esign Criteria 20 1.5 L imit State Design 24 1.5.1 L imit States 24 1.5.2 Reliability-Based Methods 25 References 26 2 Materials and Aging 29 2.1 I ntroduction 29 2.1.1 Unbonded Flexible Pipes 30 2.1.2 Flexible Composite Pipes 34 vi Contents 2.2 Metallic Material 35 2.2.1 Stainless Steel 35 2.2.2 Carbon Steel 36 2.3 Polymer Material 36 2.3.1 Annulus 36 2.3.2 Chemical Resistance 39 2.3.3 Permeation and Permeation Control Systems 41 2.3.3.1 Theory of Gas Permeation 41 2.3.3.2 Permeation Calculation 42 2.3.4 Anti H2S Layer 44 2.4 Aging 45 2.4.1 N onmetallic Material 46 2.4.2 Metallic Material 48 References 49 3 Ancillary Equipment and End Fitting Design 51 3.1 I ntroduction 51 3.1.1 D esign Criteria 51 3.2 Bend Stiffeners and Bellmouths 53 3.2.1 I ntroduction 53 3.2.2 D esign Criteria and Failure Modes 55 3.2.3 D esign Considerations 56 3.2.4 Bellmouths 57 3.3 Bend Restrictor 58 3.4 Buoyancy Modules 59 3.5 Cathodic Protection 60 3.6 Annulus Venting System 61 3.7 E nd Fittings 63 3.7.1 Unbonded Flexible Pipes 64 3.7.1.1 D esign Criteria 64 3.7.1.2 Metallic Materials 66 3.7.1.3 E nd Fittings by Different Manufacturers 66 3.7.2 Flexible Composite Pipes 68 3.7.2.1 D esign Criteria 70 3.7.2.2 Materials 70 3.7.2.3 E nd Fitting Types 71 3.7.2.4 I nstallation 72 References 74 4 Reliability-Based Design Factors 75 4.1 Introduction 75 4.2 Failure Probability 76 4.2.1 L imit State and Failure Mode 76 4.2.2 Failure Probability 76 4.3 Safety Factor Based on Reliability 77 4.3.1 Uncertainties of Resistance and Load Effect 78 4.3.2 L RFD Formulation 79 4.3.3 D esign Process 79 Contents vii 4.4 D esign Example 82 4.4.1 L imit State Function 83 4.4.1.1 Resistance Model for Inner Pressure Load 83 4.4.1.2 L imit State Function 83 4.4.2 Probability Model of Resistance 83 4.4.2.1 Probability Distribution of Resistance Parameters 83 4.4.2.2 Probability Model of Resistance 84 4.4.3 Probability Model of Load Effect 85 4.4.4 Target Reliability 85 4.4.5 Safety Factor Design Results 85 References 87 Part II Unbonded Flexible Pipes 5 Unbonded Flexible Pipe Design 91 5.1 I ntroduction 91 5.2 Applications of Flexible Pipe 92 5.2.1 Flexible Risers 92 5.2.2 Flexible Flowlines 94 5.2.3 L oading and Offloading Hoses 94 5.2.4 Jumper Lines 96 5.2.5 D rilling Risers 97 5.3 Flexible Pipe System and Components 97 5.3.1 I nterlocked Steel Carcass 98 5.3.2 I nternal Polymer Sheath 99 5.3.3 Armor Layers 99 5.3.3.1 Pressure Armor 99 5.3.3.2 Tensile Armor 100 5.3.3.3 Composite Armor 100 5.3.4 E xternal Polymer Sheath 102 5.3.5 Other Layers and Configurations 102 5.3.6 Main Ancillaries 103 5.3.6.1 E nd Fittings 103 5.3.6.2 Bend Stiffener and Bellmouths 104 5.3.6.3 Bend Restrictor 105 5.3.6.4 Buoyancy Modules 106 5.3.6.5 Annulus Venting System 106 References 106 6 Design and Analyses of Unbonded Flexible Pipe 109 6.1 I ntroduction 109 6.2 Flexible Pipe Guidelines 110 6.2.1 API Specification 17K 110 6.2.2 API Specification 17J 111 6.2.2.1 Safety Against Collapse 112 6.2.2.2 D esign Criteria 112 6.2.3 API RP 17B 112 viii Contents 6.3 Material and Mechanical Properties 113 6.3.1 Properties of Sealing Components 114 6.3.1.1 Polymer 114 6.3.1.2 Steel 114 6.3.1.3 Fibres 115 6.3.2 Properties of Armor Components 115 6.3.2.1 Submerged Weight 116 6.3.2.2 Bending Stiffness and Curvature Radius 116 6.3.2.3 Axial Stiffness and Tension Capacity 116 6.3.2.4 Torque Stiffness and Torque Capacity 117 6.4 Analytical Solutions in Flexible Pipe Design 117 6.4.1 Overview 117 6.4.2 Analytical Modeling of Flexible Pipes 117 6.4.3 Analytical Method of Unbonded Flexible Pipes 118 6.4.4 Axis-Symmetric Behavior 120 6.4.4.1 Kinematic Restraint 120 6.4.4.2 Governing Equations 121 6.4.5 Bending Behavior 122 6.5 FE Analysis of Unbonded Flexible Pipe 123 6.5.1 Static Analysis 123 6.5.2 Fatigue Analysis 124 References 126 7 Unbonded Flexible Pipe Under Internal Pressure 129 7.1 I ntroduction 129 7.2 Analytical Solution 130 7.2.1 Polymeric Layer 131 7.2.2 Helically Wound Steel Layer 132 7.2.3 Assembly of Layers 134 7.3 FE Analysis 134 7.4 Results and Discussion 137 7.4.1 General 137 7.4.2 Axial Tension and End Displacement 138 7.4.3 Hoop Stress 138 7.4.4 Axial Stress 141 7.4.4.1 Axial Stress of Model A and Model B 141 7.4.4.2 Axial Stresses of Model C and Model D_141 7.4.5 Comparison of Mises Stress 144 7.5 Conclusions 145 References 146 8 Unbonded Flexible Pipe Under External Pressure 149 8.1 I ntroduction 149 8.2 Finite Element Analysis 151 8.2.1 Simplification 152 8.2.2 Modeling Description 152 8.2.3 Models with Different Stiffness Ratios 153 8.2.4 Models with Different D/t Ratios 154 Contents ix 8.3 FEM Results and Discussion 155 8.3.1 Prediction of Confined External Pressure 155 8.3.1.1 Same D/t Ratio with Different Stiffness Ratios 155 8.3.1.2 D ifferent D/t Ratios with Different Stiffness Ratios 157 8.3.2 Confined Post-Buckling Behavior 158 8.4 Analytical Solution 158 8.5 Test Study 161 8.5.1 Material Characteristics 162 8.5.2 Confined Collapse Tests 163 8.5.3 Test Results 165 8.6 Comparison of Three Methods 167 8.7 Conclusions 168 References 169 9 Unbonded Flexible Pipe Under Tension 171 9.1 I ntroduction 171 9.2 Tension Load 172 9.2.1 Helical Layer 172 9.2.2 Tube Layer 175 9.2.3 Principle of Virtual Work 175 9.3 Results and Discussion 177 9.4 Parametric Study 180 9.4.1 L ay Angle 181 9.4.2 D iameter-to-Thickness 183 9.5 Conclusions 184 References 185 10 Unbonded Flexible Pipe Under Bending 187 10.1 I ntroduction 187 10.2 Helical Layer within No-Slip Range 188 10.2.1 Geometry of Helical Layer 188 10.2.2 Bending Stiffness of Helical Layer 191 10.3 Helical Layer within Slip Range 192 10.3.1 Critical Curvature 192 10.3.2 Axial Force in Helical Wire within Slip Range 194 10.3.3 Axial Force in Helical Wire within No-Slip Range 194 10.3.4 Bending Stiffness of Helical Layer 196 References 197 11 Unbonded Flexible Pipe Under Tension and Internal Pressure 199 11.1 I ntroduction 199 11.2 Analytical Solution 200 11.3 FE Analysis 200 11.3.1 Case 1: Tension Only 201 11.3.2 Case 2: Internal Pressure Only 202 11.3.3 Case 3: Combined Tension and Internal Pressure 202 x Contents 11.4 Results and Discussion 202 11.5 Conclusions 208 References 208 12 Cross-Sectional Design and Case Study for Unbonded Flexible Pipes 211 12.1 I ntroduction 211 12.2 Cross-Sectional Design 212 12.2.1 General Design Requirements 212 12.2.2 Manufacturing Configuration and Material Qualification 213 12.2.2.1 Carcass 213 12.2.2.2 Pressure Sheath 213 12.2.2.3 Pressure Armor 213 12.2.2.4 Tensile Armor 214 12.2.2.5 Tape 214 12.2.2.6 Shield 214 12.3 Case Study 214 12.3.1 D esign Procedure 214 12.3.2 D esign Requirement 214 12.3.3 D esign Method 215 12.3.3.1 Strength Design for Axisymmetric Loads 215 12.3.3.2 Collapse Resistance Design 216 12.3.4 D esign Results 216 12.3.5 L oad Analysis 217 12.3.6 FE Analysis 218 12.4 Conclusions 219 References 220 13 Fatigue Analysis of Unbonded Flexible Pipe 223 13.1 I ntroduction 223 13.2 Theoretical Approach 224 13.2.1 Assumptions 224 13.2.2 E nvironment Conditions 224 13.2.3 Transposition of Forces and Bending Moments 225 13.2.4 Fatigue Design Criteria 225 13.2.4.1 S-N Curves 225 13.2.4.2 Miner’s rule 225 13.3 Case Study 226 13.3.1 I ntroduction 226 13.3.2 Base Case 227 13.4 Conclusions 230 References 230 Contents xi Part III Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipes 14 Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe Under Internal Pressure 235 14.1 I ntroduction 235 14.2 Applications 235 14.2.1 Offshore 236 14.2.2 Onshore 236 14.2.3 Rehabilitation 237 14.3 D esign and Manufacturing 237 14.3.1 D esign Codes 237 14.3.2 Manufacturing 237 14.3.2.1 I ntroduction 237 14.3.2.2 I nner and Outer Layers 238 14.3.2.3 Steel Strip Reinforcement Layers 238 14.3.2.4 E nd Fitting 238 14.4 Analytical Solution 240 14.4.1 Mechanical Properties 240 14.4.2 Assumptions 242 14.4.3 Stress Analysis 242 14.4.3.1 L ayer Properties 244 14.4.3.2 Stress-Strain Relations of HDPE Layers 246 14.4.3.3 Stress-Strain Relations of Steel Strip Layers 247 14.4.4 Boundary Condition 248 14.4.4.1 Stress Boundary Condition 248 14.4.4.2 I nterface Condition 248 14.4.4.3 E quilibrium Equation of Axial Force 248 14.4.4.4 Torsion Balance Equation 248 14.5 FE Analysis 249 14.6 Results and Discussion 249 14.6.1 Stress Analysis on Layer 2 249 14.6.2 Stress Analysis Between Layers 252 14.7 Conclusions 253 References 254 15 Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe Under External Pressure 255 15.1 I ntroduction 255 15.2 E xperimental Tests 256 15.2.1 Material Characteristics 256 15.2.2 Collapse Experiment 256 15.2.3 E xperimental Results 258 15.3 FE Analysis 258 15.4 Simplified Estimation for Collapse Pressure 262 15.5 Parametric Study 264 15.6 Conclusions 266 References 267 xii Contents 16 Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe Under Pure Tension 269 16.1 I ntroduction 269 16.2 E xperimental Tests 270 16.2.1 Test Processes 270 16.2.2 Test Results and Discussions 270 16.3 FE Analysis 273 16.3.1 E lements and Interactions 273 16.3.2 L oad and Boundary Conditions 274 16.3.3 Material Properties 274 16.4 Comparison and Discussions 275 16.4.1 Comparison between Test and FE Analysis 275 16.4.2 Mechanical Response of PE Layers 276 16.4.3 Mechanical Response of Steel Strips 279 16.5 Conclusions 281 References 282 17 Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe Under Bending 283 17.1 I ntroduction 283 17.2 FE Analysis 284 17.2.1 Model and Material Properties 284 17.2.2 L oads and Boundary Conditions 285 17.2.3 Analysis Results 285 17.3 Mechanical Behaviors and Discussions 287 17.3.1 I nner PE Layer 287 17.3.2 Outer PE Layer 289 17.3.3 Steel Strip Layers 290 17.4 Conclusions 291 References 291 18 Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe Under Combined Internal Pressure and Tension 293 18.1 I ntroduction 293 18.2 Analytical Solution 293 18.2.1 Strain Analysis 293 18.2.2 Stress Analysis 294 18.2.3 Boundary Conditions 297 18.3 I nner HDPE layer 297 18.3.1 Reinforcement Layers 298 18.3.2 Outer HDPE Layer 298 18.3.3 E quilibrium Equation 299 18.3.4 Solution Chart 299 18.4 Finite Element Analysis 300 18.4.1 I ntroduction 300 18.4.2 Material Properties 300 18.4.3 FE Model 301 18.4.4 Boundary Conditions 304 Contents xiii 18.5 Results and Discussion 304 18.5.1 Comparison of Methods 304 18.5.2 L oad Steps 305 18.5.3 Axial Tension Followed by Internal Pressure 306 18.5.3.1 Stress Response 306 18.5.3.2 Failure Behavior 306 18.5.4 I nternal Pressure Followed by Axial Tension 307 18.6 Conclusions 309 References 310 19 Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe Under Combined Internal Pressure and Bending 311 19.1 I ntroduction 311 19.2 Analytical Solution 312 19.3 FE Analysis 316 19.3.1 Finite Element Model 316 19.3.2 Boundary Conditions 316 19.3.3 Analysis Results 317 19.4 Summary 319 References 321 20 Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe Under Combined Bending and External Pressure 323 20.1 I ntroduction 323 20.2 E xperimental Tests 324 20.2.1 Test Procedure 324 20.2.2 Test Results and Discussions 325 20.3 FE Analysis 326 20.3.1 Finite Element Modeling 327 20.3.2 Comparison of Test and Analysis Results 327 20.4 Analysis Results and Discussions 329 20.5 Conclusions 330 References 331 21 Cross-Sectional Design and Case Study for Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe 333 21.1 I ntroduction 333 21.2 Mechanical Behaviors 334 21.3 Cross-Sectional Design 335 21.3.1 D esign Requirement 335 21.3.2 Strength Capacity 336 21.4 Case Study 338 21.4.1 General 338 21.4.2 D esign Analysis 339 21.4.2.1 Preliminary Analysis 339 21.4.2.2 FE Analysis 339 21.5 Conclusions 340 References 340 22 Damage Assessment for Steel Reinforced Flexible Pipe 343 22.1 I ntroduction 343 22.2 D amage Analysis of Outer Layer 344 22.2.1 General 344 22.2.2 FE Analysis 344 22.2.3 Material Parameters 345 22.2.4 Modeling of Damage Analysis 346 22.2.5 Analysis Results 347 22.3 I nfluence of Different Intervals 351 22.4 E ffects of Insufficient Strength in Steel Strip 352 References 354 Part IV Bonded Flexible Pipes 23 Bonded Flexible Rubber Pipes 357 23.1 I ntroduction 357 23.1.1 Constructions of Bonded Flexible Pipe 358 23.1.2 Types of Bonded Flexible Pipe 359 23.2 D esign and Applications 360 23.2.1 I ntroduction 360 23.2.2 D esign Criteria 361 23.2.3 Hose Design Activities 361 23.2.4 Bonded Flexible Hose Design 363 23.2.5 E nd Fittings 365 23.2.6 Materials 366 23.2.7 Applications 369 23.3 Failure Modes 371 23.3.1 E arly Failures 372 23.3.2 Random Failures 373 23.3.3 Wear-Down Failures 373 23.3.4 E xamples of Hose Failures 373 23.4 I ntegrity Management 374 23.4.1 Risk Analysis 374 23.4.2 Risk Evaluation Process 374 23.4.3 Actions Following Risk Assessment 375 References 376 24 Nonmetallic Bonded Flexible Pipe Under Internal Pressure 377 24.1 I ntroduction 377 24.1.1 N omenclature 378 24.2 E xperimental Tests 379 24.2.1 Material Properties 379 24.2.2 Burst Tests 380 24.3 Analytical Solution 381 24.3.1 I ntroduction 381 24.3.2 Assumptions 381 xiv Contents Contents xv 24.3.3 Coordinate Systems 382 24.3.4 I nner Layer and Outer Layer 383 24.3.5 Reinforced Layers 385 24.3.6 Boundary Conditions 387 24.3.7 Failure Criterion 388 24.3.8 Burst Pressure Calculation 388 24.4 Finite Element Analysis 389 24.5 Results and Comparison 391 References 392 25 Nonmetallic Bonded Flexible Pipe Under External Pressure 393 25.1 I ntroduction 393 25.2 Analytical Solution of Collapse 394 25.2.1 Kinematics 394 25.2.2 Materials of Each Layer 395 25.2.2.1 PE_395 25.2.2.2 Reinforced Layer 395 25.2.2.3 The Material Plasticity 396 25.2.3 Principle of Virtual Work 397 25.2.4 Amendment of Radius and Wall Thickness 398 25.2.5 Analytical Method 399 25.3 FE Analysis 400 25.3.1 I ntroduction 400 25.3.2 FE Modeling 401 25.4 E xample of Collapse Analysis 401 25.4.1 I ntroduction 401 25.4.2 I nput Data 401 25.4.3 Pressure-Ovality Curves 402 25.5 Sensitivity Analysis 403 25.5.1 E ffect of Initial Imperfections 404 25.5.2 E ffect of Shear Deformation 404 25.5.3 E ffect of Pre-Buckling Deformation 405 References 406 26 Nonmetallic Bonded Flexible Pipe Under Bending 407 26.1 I ntroduction 407 26.2 Analytical Solution 409 26.2.1 Assumptions 409 26.2.2 Kinematics 409 26.2.3 Models of Material 410 26.2.3.1 Mechanical Behaviors of HDPE_410 26.2.3.2 Mechanical Behaviors of Fiber Reinforced Layer 412 26.2.4 Constitutive Model for RTP 415 26.2.5 Principle of Virtual Work 415 26.3 FE Analysis 416 26.4 E xperiment Test 418 xvi Contents 26.5 Results and Discussion 419 26.6 Parametric Studies 421 26.6.1 Wall-Thickness 421 26.6.2 D iameter of Pipe 422 26.6.3 D /t Ratio 422 26.6.4 I nitial Ovality 423 26.7 Conclusions 424 References 424 Appendix 426 27 Nonmetallic Bonded Flexible Pipe Under Combined Tension and Internal Pressure 429 27.1 I ntroduction 429 27.2 N onlinear Analytical Solution 431 27.2.1 Fundamental Assumptions 431 27.2.2 Simplification of Reinforcement Layers 432 27.2.3 Kinematics of a Single Wire 433 27.2.4 D eformation of Cross Section 434 27.2.5 E quilibrium Equation 440 27.2.6 Constitutive Model 442 27.2.7 Solution Method 442 27.3 Finite Element Model 442 27.3.1 Model Design and Meshing 443 27.3.2 Materials 444 27.3.3 Constraints 444 27.3.4 Boundary Conditions and Loadings 445 27.4 Results and Discussion 445 27.4.1 Tension-Extension Relation 445 27.4.2 Stress in Kevlar Wires 446 27.4.3 Radial Deformation 446 27.4.4 D iscussion 446 27.5 Parametric Study 448 27.5.1 I nternal Pressure 449 27.5.2 L ay Angle 450 27.5.3 D /t Ratio 450 27.5.4 Amount of Kevlar Wires 451 27.6 Conclusions 452 References 453 28 Nonmetallic Bonded Flexible Pipe Under Combined External Pressure and Bending 455 28.1 General 455 28.2 I ntroduction 455 28.3 Analytical Solution 457 28.3.1 Kinematics 457 28.3.2 Material Simplification 458 28.3.3 Constitutive Model 462 Contents xvii 28.3.4 Principle of Virtual Work 462 28.3.5 Amendment of Radius and Wall Thickness 463 28.3.6 Solution Method 463 28.4 Finite Element Model 464 28.5 Results and Discussions 465 28.5.1 Collapse of RTP Under External Pressure 465 28.5.2 Collapse of RTP Under Pure Bending 468 28.5.3 Collapse of RTP Under Combined Bending and External Pressure 471 28.6 Conclusions 473 References 474 29 Fibre Glass Reinforced Flexible Pipes Under Internal Pressure 475 29.1 I ntroduction 475 29.2 Analytical Solution 476 29.2.1 Assumptions 476 29.2.2 Stress Analysis 476 29.2.3 Boundary Conditions 479 29.3 Finite Element Analysis 480 29.4 Results and Discussions 481 29.5 Winding Angle 483 29.6 Conclusions 484 References 485 30 Fibre Glass Reinforced Flexible Pipe Under External Pressure 487 30.1 I ntroduction 487 30.2 FE Analysis 488 30.2.1 I ntroduction 488 30.2.2 Geometrical Parameters and Material Properties 489 30.2.3 FE Modeling 490 30.3 Results and Discussions 491 30.3.1 I ntroduction 491 30.3.2 I nitial Imperfection 491 30.3.2.1 I nitial Ovality 491 30.3.2.2 I nitial Wall Eccentricity 492 30.3.3 Geometrical Configurations 494 30.3.3.1 D iameter Over Thickness Ratio D1/t1 of Outer PE Layer 494 30.3.3.2 N umber of Reinforced Layers 495 30.3.3.3 D iameter Over Thickness Ratio D2/t2 of Inner Layer 496 30.3.4 Material 496 30.5 Conclusions 497 References 498 xviii Contents 31 Steel Wire Bonded Flexible Pipe Under Internal Pressure 499 31.1 I ntroduction 499 31.2 Analytical Solution 501 31.2.1 General 501 31.2.2 Stress and Strain Analysis 501 31.2.3 Simplification of Reinforced Layers 503 31.3 Finite Element Analysis 504 31.3.1 General 504 31.3.2 ABAQUS Modeling 504 31.4 Analysis Results 506 31.4.1 Comparison of Strains 506 31.4.2 E ffect of Winding Angle 507 31.5 E xperimental Test 508 31.5.1 General 508 31.5.2 Test Results 508 31.6 E ngineering Burst Pressure Formula 509 References 510 32 Steel Wire Bonded Flexible Pipe Under External Pressure 513 32.1 I ntroduction 513 32.2 Analytical solution 514 32.2.1 Fundamental Assumptions 514 32.2.2 N onlinear Ring Theory 514 32.2.3 Constitutive Relation of Material 516 32.2.4 Principle of Virtual Work Equation 518 32.3 N umerical Simulations 520 32.4 E xperimental Test 523 32.5 Conclusions 525 References 525 33 Steel Wire Bonded Flexible Pipe Under Bending and Internal Pressure 527 33.1 I ntroduction 527 33.2 Analytical Solution 528 33.2.1 Principle of Virtual Work 529 33.2.2 Burst Pressure of PSP in Axial Direction 531 33.2.3 Burst Pressure of PSP in Circumferential Direction 531 33.2.4 Constitutive Model for Materials 532 33.3 N umerical Simulations 535 33.4 Pure Bending Experimental Test 535 33.4.1 Test 535 33.4.2 Results and Discussion 537 33.5 Combined Internal Pressure and Bending Experimental Test 538 33.5.1 Test Facilities 539 33.5.2 Test Procedure 539 33.5.3 Test Results 540 33.6 Comparison of Results 540 33.7 Conclusions 541 References 542 Contents xix 34 Cross-Sectional Design and Case Study for Steel Wire Bonded Flexible Pipe 543 34.1 I ntroduction 543 34.2 Cross-Sectional Design 544 34.2.1 D esign Procedure 544 34.2.2 D esign Parameters 544 34.2.3 Properties and Capacities 546 34.3 Case Study 550 34.4 V alidation by FE Model 551 34.5 Conclusions 555 References 555 35 Damage Assessment for Steel Wire Bonded Flexible Pipes 557 35.1 I ntroduction 557 35.2 Analytical Method 558 35.2.1 Basic Assumptions 558 35.2.2 Stress-Strain Relationship 558 35.3 Finite Element Analysis 564 35.4 Comparison between Analytical Method and FEM 565 35.4.1 E ffect of Steel Wire Winding Angle 567 35.4.2 E ffects of Steel Wire Diameter 568 35.4.3 E ffects of Missing Steel Wire 568 35.4.4 E ffect of Damaged Inner and Outer PE Layers 569 35.4.5 E ffects of Layer Interfacial Peeling 569 35.5 Summary 572 References 573 36 Third-Party Damage for Steel Wire Bonded Flexible Pipe 575 36.1 I ntroduction 575 36.2 Pipeline, Soil and Tamper Parameters 576 36.3 Finite Element Model 577 36.4 L oading and Boundary Conditions 578 36.5 Analysis Results 578 36.5.1 D ynamic Response 579 36.5.2 Tamping Velocity 581 36.5.3 Buried Depth 581 36.6 Summary 583 References 583 Index 585
Qiang Bai, PhD, has more than 20 years of experience in subsea and offshore engineering. He has taught at Kyushu University in Japan, UCLA in the USA, and he has worked at OPE, JP Kenny, and Technip. He is also the coauthor of three influential books on pipelines, which are standard in the industry. Yong Bai, PhD, is the president of Offshore Pipelines & Risers Inc. in Houston, and is a professor and the director of the Offshore Engineering Research Center at Zhejiang University. He has previously taught at Stavanger University in Norway where he was a professor of offshore structures and has also worked with ABS as manager of the Offshore Technology Department as the JIP project manager and has also worked for Shell International E & P, JP Kenny, and MCS, where he was vice president of engineering. He is the co-author of two books on pipelines and over 100 papers on the design and installation of subsea pipelines and risers. Weidong Ruan, PhD, is the author of numerous papers in the field of flexible pipelines and has co-authored chapters of books on pipelines and risers.
Written by one of the most well-respected teams of scientists in the area of pipelines, this revolutionary approach offers the engineer working in the energy industry the theory, analysis, and practical applications for applying new materials and modeling to the design and effective use of flexible pipes. Recent changes in the codes for building pipelines has led to a boom in the production of new materials that can be used in flexible pipes. With the use of polymers, steel, and other new materials and variations on existing materials, the construction and, therefore, the installation and operation of flexible pipes is changing and being improved upon all over the world. The authors of this work have written numerous books and papers on these subjects and are some of the most influential authors on flexible pipes in the world, contributing much of the literature on this subject to the industry. This new volume is a presentation of some of the most cutting-edge technological advances in technical publishing. This is the most comprehensive and in-depth book on this subject, covering not just the various materials and their aspects that make them different, but every process that goes into their installation, operation, and design. The thirty-six chapters, divided up into four different parts, have had not just the authors of this text but literally dozens of other engineers who are some of the world's leading scientists in this area contribute to the work. This is the future of pipelines, and it is an important breakthrough. A must-have for the veteran engineer and student alike, this volume is an important new advancement in the energy industry, a strong link in the chain of the world's energy production. Flexible Pipes: Introduces a new approach to the design, construction, and installation of flexible pipes Presents both the theory and practical applications of flexible pipes with a view toward its use in pipelines and other industrial settings Describes the new materials being used in flexible pipes and goes through them, considering their construction, chemical composition, strengths, and weaknesses in various industrial contexts Introduces engineering students to a profound theory for stronger and more efficient designs in pipelines and provides the veteran engineer a valuable references

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