Details

Flexible and Stretchable Medical Devices


Flexible and Stretchable Medical Devices


1. Aufl.

von: Kuniharu Takei

142,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 07.02.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9783527804849
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 350

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Beschreibungen

The book introduces flexible and stretchable wearable electronic systems and covers in detail the technologies and materials required for healthcare and medical applications. A team of excellent authors gives an overview of currently available flexible devices and thoroughly describes their physical mechanisms that enable sensing human conditions. In dedicated chapters, crucial components needed to realize flexible and wearable devices are discussed which include transistors and sensors and deal with memory, data handling and display. Additionally, suitable power sources based on photovoltaics, thermoelectric energy and supercapacitors are reviewed. A special chapter treats implantable flexible sensors for neural recording. The book editor concludes with a perspective on this rapidly developing field which is expected to have a great impact on healthcare in the 21st century.
Preface xiii 1 History of Flexible and Stretchable Devices 1Kuniharu Takei References 4 2 Carbon Nanotube Based Flexible and Stretchable Electronics 7Le Cai and ChuanWang 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Carbon Nanotube Networks for Applications in Flexible Electronics 10 2.2.1 Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) 10 2.2.2 Integrated Circuits 11 2.2.3 Active Matrix Backplanes for Flexible Display, E-Skin and Imager 16 2.3 Carbon Nanotube Networks for Applications in Stretchable Electronics 19 2.3.1 Stretchable Conductors 21 2.3.2 Stretchable Strain Sensor 23 2.3.3 Stretchable Thin-Film Transistors 27 2.4 Scalable Fabrication Process—Printing 35 2.4.1 Digital Printing—Inkjet and Aerosol Jet 36 2.4.2 Gravure Printing 41 2.4.3 Printed ComplementaryMetal–Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Devices 41 2.5 Conclusions and Outlook 44 References 45 3 Organic-Based Transistors and Sensors 53Aristide Gumyusenge, Tianbai Xu, XiaozhiWang, and Jianguo Mei 3.1 Introduction 53 3.2 Materials Consideration for Flexible Organic-Based Transistors 54 3.2.1 How Flexibility is Achieved 54 3.2.1.1 Flexible Substrates 54 3.2.1.2 Flexible Electrodes 55 3.2.2 Organic Dielectric Layer 56 3.2.3 Organic Functional Layer 57 3.3 State-of-the-Art Designs and Fabrication of Organic-Based Transistors 57 3.3.1 Organic Field-Effect Transistors 58 3.3.1.1 Structure 58 3.3.1.2 Performance and Characterization 59 3.3.2 Modifications of OFETs for Sensing Applications 60 3.3.2.1 Electrolyte-Gated and Ion-Sensitive Organic Field-Effect Transistors 60 3.3.2.2 Organic Electrochemical Transistors 62 3.3.2.3 Operating Mechanisms 63 3.4 Fabrication Techniques for Organic-Based Transistors and Sensors 63 3.5 Flexible Organic Transistor-Based Sensors 65 3.5.1 Flexible Organic Strain Sensors 65 3.5.2 Flexible Organic Pressure Sensors 67 3.5.3 Flexible Organic Temperature Sensors 69 3.5.4 Flexible Organic Biosensors 70 3.5.5 Flexible Organic Optical Sensors 73 3.6 Summary and Outlook 74 References 75 4 Printed Transistors and Sensors 83Kenjiro Fukuda 4.1 Introduction 83 4.2 Printing Technologies for Electronics 84 4.2.1 Inkjet Printing 85 4.2.2 Gravure Printing 86 4.2.3 Reverse-Offset Printing for High-Resolution Patterning 87 4.3 Printed Transistors 88 4.3.1 Fabrication of Fully Printed Transistors 88 4.3.2 Profile Control of Inkjet-Printed Electrodes 89 4.3.3 Mechanical Stability 91 4.3.3.1 Calculation of Strain in the Devices 91 4.3.3.2 Improvement of Adhesion 91 4.3.4 Printed Organic Transistors with Uniform Electrical Performance 93 4.3.5 Ultraflexible and Fully Printed Organic Circuits 94 4.4 Printed Biosensors 97 References 99 5 Flexible Photovoltaic Systems 105Lichen Zhao, Deying Luo, and Rui Zhu 5.1 Introduction 105 5.1.1 Introduction of Flexible Photovoltaics 105 5.1.2 Principles of Photovoltaics 106 5.1.3 The Flexible Substrates 109 5.1.3.1 Metals and the Alloys 109 5.1.3.2 Polymers 110 5.1.4 The Types of Flexible Photovoltaic Systems 110 5.2 Flexible Inorganic Photovoltaic Systems 110 5.2.1 Flexible Silicon Photovoltaics 110 5.2.2 Flexible Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Photovoltaics 113 5.3 Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Systems 115 5.3.1 Fundamental Properties of OPV Materials 115 5.3.2 Device Structure andWorking Mechanisms 116 5.3.3 Materials and Methods for OPV 118 5.3.4 Recent Advances in Flexible OPV 119 5.4 Flexible Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Photovoltaic Systems 122 5.4.1 Fundamental Properties of Perovskites 123 5.4.2 Device Structure andWorking Mechanisms 124 5.4.3 Materials and Methods for Flexible PerSCs 125 5.4.4 Recent Advances for Flexible PerSCs 128 5.5 Summary and Conclusion 132 References 133 6 Materials Design for Flexible Thermoelectric Power Generators 139Yoshiyuki Nonoguchi 6.1 Introduction 139 6.2 General Principles 140 6.2.1 The Basic Principles of Thermoelectricity 140 6.2.2 Density of State and the Seebeck Coefficient 141 6.2.3 Energy Conversion Efficiency and Dimensionless Thermoelectric Figure of Merit ZT 142 6.2.4 A Classical Requirement for Efficient Module Design 144 6.3 Thermoelectric Materials Design 145 6.3.1 Organic Solids and Conducting Polymers 145 6.3.2 Carbon Nanotubes and Related Matters 149 6.3.3 Useful Survey Methods for Discovering Efficient Thermoelectric Materials 154 6.3.4 Prototype Thermoelectric Generators and Applications 154 6.4 Outlook for Flexible Thermoelectric Generators 155 References 156 7 Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Two-Dimensional Materials 161Dianpeng Qi and Xiaodong Chen 7.1 Introduction 161 7.2 Flexible Supercapacitors Based on 2D Materials 162 7.2.1 2D Electrode Materials for Flexible EDLCs 163 7.2.2 2D Materials for Pseudocapacitive Supercapacitors 171 7.2.3 2D Electrode Materials for Hybrid Flexible Supercapacitors 176 7.3 Conclusions 179 References 181 8 Organometal Halide Perovskites for Next Generation Fully Printed and Flexible LEDs and Displays 199Thomas Geske, Sri Ganesh R. Bade, MattWorden, Xin Shan, Junqiang Li, and Zhibin Yu 8.1 Introduction 199 8.1.1 General Background for LEDs 200 8.1.2 Fundamentals of Halide Perovskites 201 8.1.3 Multilayer Perovskite LEDs 203 8.2 Single Layer Perovskite LEDs 206 8.3 Current Challenges 208 8.4 Conclusions and Outlook 211 Acknowledgments 211 References 211 9 Flexible Floating Gate Memory 215Ye Zhou, Su-Ting Han, and Arul Lenus Roy Vellaisamy 9.1 Introduction 215 9.2 Device Operation of Floating Gate Memory 216 9.3 Charge Injection Mechanism in Floating Gate Memory 217 9.3.1 The Hot-electron Injection Mechanism 217 9.3.2 Fowler–Nordheim (F-N) Tunneling Mechanism 218 9.3.3 Direct Tunneling Mechanism 219 9.4 Flexible Nanofloating Gate Memory 219 9.5 Characterization of Floating Gate Memory 221 9.6 Flexibility of Floating Gate Memory 223 9.7 Conclusion 225 References 225 10 Flexible and StretchableWireless Systems 229Aftab M. Hussain and Muhammad M. Hussain 10.1 Introduction 229 10.2 The Basics ofWireless Systems 230 10.2.1 Wireless Systems 230 10.2.2 Antennas 231 10.2.3 Antenna Parameters 233 10.3 Flexible, Stretchable Circuits 234 10.3.1 Flexible, Stretchable Silicon Circuits 234 10.3.2 Non-Silicon-Based Channels 236 10.4 Flexible Antennas 239 10.4.1 Micromachined Flexible Antennas 240 10.4.2 Inkjet-Printed Antennas 240 10.5 Stretchable Antennas 242 10.5.1 Material Stretchability 242 10.5.2 Design Stretchability 244 10.6 Future Outlook 246 References 247 11 Conductive Nanosheets for Ultra-Conformable Smart Electronics 253Kento Yamagishi, Silvia Taccola, Shinji Takeoka, Toshinori Fujie, Virgilio Mattoli, and Francesco Greco 11.1 Introduction 253 11.2 Fabrication of Conductive Nanosheets 255 11.2.1 Spin-Coating-Processed Conductive Nanosheets 255 11.2.2 Roll-to-Roll (R2R) Gravure-Printing-Processed Conductive Nanosheets 258 11.3 Characterization of Conductive Nanosheets 260 11.3.1 Electrical Properties of Conductive Nanosheets 260 11.3.2 Structural Properties of Conductive Nanosheets 262 11.3.3 Mechanical Properties of Conductive Nanosheets 263 11.3.4 Electrochemical Properties of Conductive Nanosheets 267 11.4 Applications of Conductive Nanosheets 269 11.4.1 Surface Electromyogram (EMG) Recording Using Conductive Nanosheets 269 11.4.2 Humidity Sensors 272 11.4.3 Microactuators 272 11.4.4 Tattoo Conductive Nanosheets for Skin-Contact Applications 274 11.5 Concluding Remarks 277 Acknowledgments 278 References 278 12 Flexible Health-Monitoring Devices/Sensors 287Minjeong Ha, Seongdong Lim, and Hyunhyub Ko 12.1 Introduction 287 12.2 Flexible Sensors for Health Monitoring 288 12.2.1 Detection Approaches for Physical Bio-Signals 289 12.2.1.1 Pressure and Strain Sensors for Health Monitoring 289 12.2.1.2 Temperature Sensors for Health Monitoring 293 12.2.2 Detection Approaches for Biochemical Signals 295 12.2.2.1 Flexible pH Sensors 297 12.2.2.2 Flexible Blood Sugar Sensors 299 12.2.2.3 Flexible Pulse Oximeters 299 12.2.2.4 Other Flexible Chemical Sensors to Detect Volatile Organic Compounds 302 12.2.3 Detection Approaches for Electrophysiological Signals 304 12.3 Multifunctional Flexible Sensors for Multiple Bio-Signals 306 12.4 Practical Applications of Flexible Health-Monitoring Devices 309 12.4.1 Sports and Fitness 309 12.4.2 Prosthetics and Rehabilitation 309 12.4.3 WoundTherapy 311 12.4.4 Telemedicine and Self-Diagnosis of Disease 311 12.5 Conclusions and Future Perspective 312 References 312 13 Stretchable Health Monitoring Devices/Sensors 323Xian Huang 13.1 Introduction 323 13.2 Materials for Stretchable Health Monitoring Devices 323 13.2.1 Physically Soft and Stretchable Materials 324 13.2.2 Unique Stretchable Structures 324 13.3 Health Monitoring Applications of Stretchable Devices 326 13.3.1 Skin Sensors 326 13.3.1.1 Skin Biophysical Signal Monitoring 329 13.3.1.2 Biomolecule Analysis 332 13.3.2 Implantable Devices 336 13.3.2.1 Brain and Neural Probes 336 13.3.2.2 Cardiovascular Monitoring 337 13.3.3 BodyWearable Devices 337 13.3.3.1 Rehabilitation 337 13.3.3.2 Daily Health Tracking 341 13.4 Future of Stretchable Electronic Devices 341 References 342 14 Flexible/Stretchable Devices for Medical Applications 351GwanJin Ko, JeongWoong Shin, and Suk-Won Hwang 14.1 Introduction 351 14.2 Materials, Synthesis and Composites for Flexible/Stretchable Systems 352 14.3 Electronic/Optoelectronic Devices, Sensors and Systems 355 14.4 Multifunctional Electronic Sensors and Power Scavenging Circuit for the Heart 358 14.5 Electrophysiology and Optogenetics for the Brain 362 14.6 Communication and Regulation for the Nervous System 364 14.7 Skin-Like Electronics/Optoelectronics 367 14.8 Transient, Bioresorbable Systems 370 14.9 Conclusion and Outlook 373 References 373 15 Implantable Flexible Sensors for Neural Recordings 381Shota Yamagiwa, Hirohito Sawahata, and Takeshi Kawano 15.1 Introduction 381 15.1.1 Neuronal Signal Recordings 383 15.1.1.1 EEG 383 15.1.1.2 ECoG 384 15.1.1.3 LFPs and Spikes 384 15.1.2 Electrode Materials 385 15.1.3 Electrode Impedance in Neural Recordings 385 15.2 Flexible Needle Electrodes 387 15.3 Flexible ECoG Electrodes 391 15.4 Functionalities of Flexible Substrates 395 15.4.1 Active Matrixes 395 15.4.2 Dissolvable Films 395 15.4.3 Stretchable Films 399 15.4.4 Other Functionalities 403 15.5 Flexible Devices for Chronic Applications 403 15.5.1 Tissue Damage 403 15.5.2 Packaging Technologies 405 15.5.2.1 Rivet-Like Electric and Mechanic Interconnections 405 15.5.2.2 Anisotropic Conductive Paste/Films 407 15.5.3 Wireless Technologies 407 15.6 Summary 407 References 408 16 Perspective in Flexible and Stretchable Electronics 411Kuniharu Takei Index 413
Kuniharu Takei is an Associate Professor at Osaka Prefecture University in Japan. His work focuses on the integration of multi-sensor networks and circuits on macro-scale flexible sheets for various technological applications. He has published over 90 scientific papers and has received several scientific awards, including the 35 Innovators Under 35 award (MIT Technology Review) in 2013, NISTEP Researcher 2015 (MEXT, Japan), and Netexplorateur of the Year Award in 2011. He serves as an editorial board member of 'Scientific Reports' and as an Associate Editor of 'Nanoscale Research Letters'.
The book introduces flexible and stretchable wearable electronic systems and covers in detail the technologies and materials required for healthcare and medical applications. A team of excellent authors gives an overview of currently available flexible devices and thoroughly describes their physical mechanisms that enable sensing human conditions. In dedicated chapters, crucial components needed to realize flexible and wearable devices are discussed which include transistors and sensors and deal with memory, data handling and display. Additionally, suitable power sources based on photovoltaics, thermoelectric energy and supercapacitors are reviewed. A special chapter treats implantable flexible sensors for neural recording. The book editor concludes with a perspective on this rapidly developing field which is expected to have a great impact on healthcare in the 21st century.

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