Europe's Uncertain Path 1814-1914State Formation and Civil Society
Blackwell History of Europe, Band 11 1. Aufl.
Europe’s Uncertain Path is an introduction to Europe’s turbulent history from 1814 to 1914. It presents a clear narrative of the major political events, set against the backdrop of social, economic, and cultural change. An introduction to Europe’s turbulent history from 1814 to 1914 Provides students with a solid grounding in the main political events and social changes of the period Explains the causes and outcomes of major events: the effect of the emergence of mass politics; the evolution of political ideologies; and the link between foreign and domestic policy Offers balanced coverage of Eastern, Western, and Central Europe Illustrations, maps, and figures enhance student understanding
List of Maps ix List of Figures x Preface xii Acknowledgements xix 1 A World Half Restored: The Vienna Settlement and the Restoration Regimes 1 The Nature of the Restored Regimes 7 Constitutional Monarchies 8 Despotism in Italy and Spain 12 The Eastern Autocracies 14 The Ottoman Empire 18 2 Political Contestation from the Vienna Settlement to the 1830 Revolutions, 1814–1832 21 Failed Revolutions 25 Conservative Consolidation 34 Erosion of the Conservative Order on the European Periphery 35 Reform and Revolution in the West 38 Resistance to Change in South, Central, and East Europe 44 3 Stability, Stasis or Decay?: Europe from 1830 to 1848 50 Structural Sources of Stability in Inter-State Relations 50 The Thin Veneer of Ideology 52 Utopian Socialism 56 Consolidation and the Constitutional Monarchies: Britain and France in the 1830s 57 Liberal Advance and Political Instability: Spain in the 1830s 63 The Volatile Complexity of Emergent Nationalism and Liberalism in Italy, Germany, and the Austrian Empire, 1830–1848 65 Toward Crisis? The Constitutional Monarchies in the 1840s 70 4 The Underpinnings of Politics: Economic, Social, and Cultural Developments up to Mid-Century 76 Population Growth and Agricultural Production 77 Rural Society: Peasants, Nobles, and Notables 79 Commerce, Industry, and the Emergent Urban Economy 82 Urban Society 88 State Formation and Social Control 94 Cultural Trends: Religious Revival and Romantic Revolt 98 5 Europe in Transition: The 1848 Revolutions and the Crimean War 104 Origins 105 The Initial Wave 105 The Springtime of the Peoples 108 The Crucible: Politics up to the June Days 110 Incomplete Conservative Recovery, July–December 1848 115 In the Balance: A Second Revolutionary Wave and Conservative Response, January–October 1849 118 Conservative Consolidation and the Spanish Exception 120 New Departures on the Left: Scientifi c Socialism and Anarchism 123 The Return of Great Power Rivalry 125 Taking Stock 128 6 Wars of National Unifi cation and Revolution in the European States System, 1850s–1871 129 Domestic Politics in the 1850s: Liberalism in the West 130 Autocratic Politics in the 1850s 134 The Quixotic Foreign Policy of Louis-Napoleon: Italian Unifi cation 136 Partial Unifi cation of Germany 139 The Early Stages of the Women's Movement 144 Domestic Politics in the 1860s: Reform in the Autocracies 146 Domestic Politics in the 1860s: Reform in Britain and France 150 Domestic Politics in the 1860s: Instability in Italy and Spain 153 Birth and Death: The Franco-Prussian War and Paris Commune 156 7 Europe from the Paris Commune to the Fall of Bismarck, 1871–1892 162 Arms, Alliances, and Inter-State Relations in the 1870s 162 The Coming of Male Democracy 165 Domestic Politics in the 1870s: Britain and France 167 Domestic Politics in the 1870s: Spain and Italy 170 Domestic Politics in the Eastern Autocracies in the 1870s 173 Inter-State Relations in the 1880s: The "New Imperialism" and the Demise of the Bismarckian Alliance System 179 West European Domestic Politics in the 1880s: Britain and France 184 Spain and Italy in the 1880s 188 The Eastern Empires during the 1880s 191 8 The Underpinnings of Politics: Economic, Social, and Cultural Developments from Mid-Century to 1914 199 Rising Population 200 Economic Expansion 202 Mid-Century Prosperity 203 Economic Slowdown 204 The Return of Rapid Growth 206 Social Change: Urbanization 208 Rural Society 209 Urban Society 212 State Response to Economic and Social Change: Increasing Intervention 216 Association "Mania" 220 Cultural Trends: Positivism and the Cult of Scientifi c Progress 223 Religious Response 226 Growing Doubt 228 Mass Culture 231 9 Toward Destruction?: From the 1890s to the mid-1900s 237 Inter-State Relations, 1890–1900: Shifting Alliances 238 Inter-State Relations, 1900–1905: Partial Clarifi cation and Continued Flexibility 241 Democracy, Mass Politics, and the Women's Movement 243 Adaptation to Mass Politics in Britain and France 244 Mixed Signs in Spain and Italy 250 Uncertainty in the Autocracies: Germany and Austria-Hungary 255 Revolution in Russia 261 10 Transition Re-routed: From the Mid-1900s to the Great War 267 Domestic Politics: The End or Beginning of an Era? 267 Evolution in Britain and Stalemate in France, 1906–14 271 Failure in Spain and Italy 276 Parliamentary Confl ict and the Limits to Opposition in Germany 280 Nationalist Divisions in the Dual Monarchy 283 Imperial Russia: One Step Back from the Brink of Revolution? 286 Toward the Abyss: Inter-State Relations, 1905–14 290 From the First Moroccan Crisis to the Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1904–9 290 Temporary Stabilization and the Return of Crisis, 1909–12 293 The Final Destruction of the European States System, 1911–14 294 The Causes of World War One 302 Culmination? 305 Conclusion 309 Notes 317 Bibliography 324 Index 338
“Still, this efficient and useful survey reminds scholars that we should indeed continue to re-evaluate how we tell the story of the modern European world and its making.” (European History Quarterly, 1 April 2015) "His book offers a good introductory survey for first-year undergraduates, with a clear, relatively comprehensive, political narrative. This will provide students with a platform for more advanced studies and/or reading.” (Journal of European Studies, 14 November 2012)
R. S. Alexander is a Professor in the Department of History at the University of Victoria, Canada. His books include Napoleon (2001) and Re-Writing the French Revolutionary Tradition (2003).
Europe’s Uncertain Path is an introduction to Europe’s turbulent history from 1814 to 1914. It presents a clear narrative of the major political events, set against the backdrop of social, economic, and cultural change. Alexander offers balanced coverage of Eastern, Western, and Central Europe. He explains the causes and outcomes of major events: the effect of the emergence of mass politics; the evolution of political ideologies; the link between foreign and domestic policy; and the breakdown of the states system. The emphasis throughout is on the relation between state formation and growth in civil society, and the differences and similarities of this experience across countries. Enhanced by illustrations, maps, and figures, Europe’s Uncertain Path provides a thorough background for anyone interested in modern European history.
'A fine achievement of synthesis, compression and clarity.' —Robert Tombs, St. John's College, University of Cambridge
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